Brian A. Wong ’13 B.A. Psychology Counseling minor Areas of interest: Bereavement and Autism Adult Development (PSY 312) K. Hinton – Tues. Dec. 4, ‘12http://Marshall.Academia.edu/BrianWong
Kathleen E. BurchedeanU.S. Army Band “Pershing’s Own” 1974-1998First female Sergeant Major to lead Army Strings Ensemble
Personal ExperienceGrand Canyon; August ‘02Died of melanoma at age 54 (10/1950 – 12/2004)
Practical Experience Sociology of Death and Dying (SOC 452) Spring ‘10 Death and Grief Counseling (COUN 456) Fall ‘11Huntington, WV – Fall 2010 for Clinical Placement in Counseling (COUN 370)Washington, DC
What is grief?“Normal and natural reaction toloss of any kind” and “theconflicting feelings caused by theend of or change in a familiarpattern of behavior”James, J.W. & Friedman, R. (2009). The grief recoveryhandbook: the action program for moving beyond death,divorce, and other losses. New York, NY: HarperCollins
Anticipatory GriefUsually in cases of terminal illness“grief over those losses that havealready occurred as a result of theillness and those that are occurring”Pomeroy, E.C. & Garcia, R.B. (2009). The grief assessmentand intervention workbook: a strengths perspective. Belmont,CA: Brooks/Cole
Disenfranchised GriefGrief from a loss that is not socially accepted as aloss to be grieved. “Although the individual grieves,others do not acknowledge that he or she has a rightto grieve.”Doka, K.J. (2008). Disenfranchised Grief in Historical and Cultural Perspective. In M.S.Stroebe, R.O. Hansson, H. Schut, and W. Stroebe. Handbook of bereavement research andpractice: advances in theory and intervention. (p. 224). Washington, DC: AmericanPsychological Association.Example:Alzheimer’s DiseaseBoss, P. (2010). The trauma and complicated grief of ambiguous loss. Pastoral Psychology59(2), 137-145. DOI: 10.1007/s11089-009-0264-0.
Tasks of Mourning 1. Accept reality of the loss 2. Process the pain of grief 3. Adjust to a world without the deceased 4. Find an enduring connection with the deceased in the midst of embarking on a new lifeWorden, J.W. (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy: a handbook for themental health practitioner. (Fourth edition). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Mediators of Mourning Who the person who died was (parent, sibling, etc.) Nature of the attachment (secure? Strong?) How the person Died (expected, unexpected, violent?) Previous losses Personality, coping style Social Support SystemWorden, J.W. (2009).
Stages of…… Denial and Isolation Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, M.D. 1926-2004 Psychiatrist Near-death studies Stage theory of dying
Background of theory 1969 On Death and Dying 200 patients interviewed Patients told by doctor of a terminal illnessKübler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York,NY: Macmillan Publishing(available at Drinko)
Yale Bereavement Study Examined the relative magnitudes and patterns of change over time post loss of 5 grief indicators for consistency with the stage theory of grief. Longitudinal cohort January 2000 – January 2003 233 grievers; ≥ 65 years of age Assessed disbelief, yearning, anger, depression, and acceptance of the death from 1 to 24 months post lossMaciejewski, P.K., Zhang B., Block, S.D, & Prigerson, H.G. (2007). Anempirical examination of the stage theory of grief. Journal of theAmerican Medical Association 297(7), 716-722
Yale Bereavement Study resultsDisbelief not dominant initial feelingAcceptance most frequently endorsed itemPersonally:If participants were in denial that their loved ones weredeceased, they would not have been in that study
Misunderstanding The stages “have been very misunderstood…They were never meant to help tuck messy emotions into neat packages. They are responses to loss that many people have but there is not a typical response to loss, as there is no typical loss”Kübler-Ross, E. & Kessler, D (2005). On grief and grieving: finding themeaning of grief through the five stages of loss. (p. 8) New York: Simon &Schuster. Retrieved from Google Books
Personal observationsFrom speaking with grievers, those who have lost a lovedone at least ten years prior and are still coming to termswith their grief, have all told me that were told about“stages of grief” and believed it
DamageWhen viewed as a stage, the griever is at a standstill.Implying that the emotion and feeling is a stage willmake the griever wait and they will still feel the same,waiting for time.“There are no stages of grief. But people will always try tofit themselves into a defined category if one is offered tothem. Sadly, this is particularly true if the offer comesfrom a powerful authority such as a therapist,clergyperson, or doctor”James, J.W. & Friedman, R. (2009).
Joseph R. Novello, MDAdult, Child/Adolescent, Forensic Psychiatrist(and my neighbor)3301 New Mexico Ave. NW, Suite 305Washington, DC 20016Tel (202) 362-0115www.NovelloMD.comStudied under Kübler-Ross“As I recall, Elisabeth viewed her work as a starting point. She was pleased that shehad shed light on what was the darkness of death but, humble as I recall her,trusted that others would follow her and expand our knowledge and sensitivity.”
Dignity Memorial Compassion Helpline Counseling resource available 24/7, 365 Staffed by licensed professionals specially trained in grief counseling. All hold doctorate or master degrees Maintains a network of therapists and support groups for face-to-face counseling (at your expense) if desired. 1-800-480-1234
Grief Recovery Institute www.GriefRecoveryMethod.com 1-800-334-7606 Provides resources and workshops to grieving people in major cities Training to anyone who wants to become one of their Grief Recovery Specialists Helpful articles on grief “Broken Hearts” blog on Psychology Today