World War II Total War IB HL History Y!Causes, Practices, Effects of Wars
Focus QuestionsIn what ways can WWII be considered a ‘totalwar’?Why did the Axis powers lose World War II?
Six Focus Areas1. The War in Europe2. Operation Barbarossa3. The Defeat of Nazi Germany4. War in the East5. How WWII was Fought6. WWII as a Total War
1. The War in EuropeBlitzkrieg ‘lightening war’-the invasion of Poland(Sept 1 1939)Hitler’s Panzer(tanks) supported by theLuftwaffe(air force), smashed over the borderinto Poland.The USSR invaded from the east, as agreedby the Nazi-Soviet Pact, and by Sept 29Poland we divided by the two countries.
Blitzkrieg“lightening War”“lightening War” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
The War In EuropeThe Phoney WarLittle happened for the 5 months after the invasion ofPoland.Even though Britain declared war on Germany, theycould not get troops into Poland, and thus were forcedto watch as Hitler and Stalin took over Eastern Europe
The War In EuropeThe Phoney WarThe USSR took over Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, andFinland, in the ‘Winter War’The French manned the ‘Maginot Line’ andwaited
The Maginot LineWhat does the Maginot Line say about the Western approach to WWII?
The War in EuropeInvasion of Denmark andNorway (April 1940)Chamberlain believed theMaginot line would ‘bringHitler to his knees’ and thatHitler had ‘missed the bus’Four days later Hitler invadedDenmark and Norway
The War in EuropeThe Invasion of Denmarkand NorwayThis was vital to Hitler’sarmaments industry as theareas contained iron oreThis brought the downfall ofChamberlain in BritainMay 10 Winston Churchillleads the lead of a coalitiongovernment
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgiumand France.May 10: Hitler invadesThe Maginot Line didnot continue along theFrench and Belgiumborder
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.Marshal Petain believedthe Ardennes forest wouldstop the Germans.This is where theGermans broke throughLink to B of B Bastogneep.6
The War In EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.Using Blitzkriegtactics, reached theEnglish Channel with6 days“Dunkirk Spirit’ savedthe men, but moralewas low.
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.‘Dunkirk Spirit’The evacuation ofBritish troops fromEurope was a seriousblow for the Allies.
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.Paris was captured onJune 14 and theFrench HOS, MarshalPetain, requested anarmistice
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.The ceasefireagreement was signedon June21, in thesame railway coach asthe 1918 armistice
The War in EuropeThe invasion ofHolland, Belgium andFrance.Southern Franceremained unoccupiedand sovereign, but inreality collaboratedwith the Germans.
The War in EuropeThe invasion of Holland, Belgium and France.By June 1940 Hitler had achieved more thanKaiser’s Germany did in the whole of WWI
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Britain now stood aloneagainst Germany‘The battle of France is over. Iexpect the Battle of Britain isabout to begin’-ChurchillHitler hoped for an alliancerather an invasion
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Churchill was totally opposed to any negotiation with Hitler, aWhy we fight link
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Operation Sealion:Hitler believed theLuftwaffe woulddestroy the Royal AirForceThis would leaveBritain exposed andwilling to negotiate
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Operation Sealion:1. Started bombing Britishairfields2. Bombed british cites
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Reasons OperationSealion Failed:1. German bomberswere vulnerable oncethe fighters had toturn back for fuel. (10-20min in Britain)2. Radar: could locateincoming aircraft from120 miles
The War in Europe The Battle of Britain (1940)Reasons OperationSealion Failed:3. Switch to bombingcites gave the RAFtime to recoverThis was the first time Hitler had been stopped
The Mediterranean and the Balkans(1940-41)Italy enters WWII in1940Italy moved into Egypt,Greece, and Crete butfailed as a result ofBritish resistanceResult: Brought Hitlerinto N.Africa and theBalkans
The Mediterranean and the Balkans(1940-41)Hitler in N.Africa and the BalkansGeneral Rommeldrives the Allies out ofEgypt, Libya,Yugoslavia, Greece,and Crete.British Evacuate May1941
The Mediterranean and the Balkans(1940-41)Significance ofcampaigns:1. They were severesetbacks for the Allies2. Weakened Britishpresence in N.Africa3. Hitler’s plan to invadethe USSR was delayed acrucial 6 weeks, Winterwould set in Moscow.
Maximum area of Italian control in theMediterranean theatre in summer/fall 1942.
Operation Barbarossa (June 22 1941) (June 22 1941)Three Pronged attack:1. North towards Leningrad2. Centre towards Moscow3. South through theUkraineInvolved over 4.5 millionAxis troops
Operation Barbarossa (June 22 1941) (June 22 1941)OperationBarbarossa June1942 moved tosecure:1. Agriculture in theUkraine2. Soviet Slave Labour3. Oil, Oil, Oil in theCaucasus.
QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Operation Barbarossa February 1943Suffering from shortages ofammunition and food, andbeing outnumbers, theGermans in Stalingradsurrendered in February1943Hitler launched anothermajor attack (Battle of Kursk)in the summer but failed.
Operation Barbarossa 1944 1944By 1944:1. Leningrad was liberated2. Germans were pushed outof the Ukraine3. Soviets reached Polandand Romania4. Jan 1945, East Prussia
Operation Barbarossa 1945 1945Battle of Berlin 1945May 2,1945 theSoviets reached Berlin
Operation Barbarossa 1945 1945Why were the Soviets able todefeat the German Army?1. German were not prepared,lacked supplies and equipment toface the Russian winter2. 1941, Hitler takes over thearmy, was disastrous in theUSSR.3. Germans carried out brutalattacks against civilianpopulations which fed Russianresistance and motivation.
Operation Barbarossa 1945 1945Why were the Soviets able todefeat the German Army?4. German supply lines wereoverstretched5. Continued loss of aircraft andtanks what could not bereplaced.Began with 328 tanks/division,averaged 73/division by 1943,fell back on horses
Why were the Soviets able to defeat the German Army? 6. Installation of radios in tanks and aircrafts 7. Stalin withdrew from military command. 8. Removed political influence over the army 9. Increased patriotism: Save “Mother Russia”, not communism
Why were the Soviets able to defeat the German Army? 10. Russian Orthodox Church was reinstated 11. Still out-produced the Germans militarily 12. UK and US assistance, Lend- Lease agreements
Operation Barbarossa Review Questions Review QuestionsWhy were the Germans successful withBlitzkrieg in Europe?Why did the Blitzkrieg tactics fail in the USSR?Develop a mind map outlining the SovietVictory over the Nazi’s. Highlight the mainreasons.
3. The Defeat of Nazi GermanyWhile the Soviets fought in theGermans in the USSR, Britainand the US fought an air and seawar from Dec 1941Stalin was desperate for theAllies to open up a two front warNeither the US nor Britain hadthe resources needed to launchan invasion of mainland EuropeR.Overy
The Defeat of Nazi Germany El Alamein(1942) El Alamein(1942)Britain decided to fighton in N.AfricaDefeated Rommelsforces at El Alamein inNov 1942‘Operation Torch’secured with whole ofN.Africa by May 1943
The Defeat of Nazi Germany El Alamein(1942) El Alamein(1942)Operation Torch was significant:1. Prevented Egypt and theSuez from falling to Hitler2. Gave the Allies experience inlarge-scale seaborne offensives3. Provided a launching pad forthe next Allied target, Italy.
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Fall of Italy (1943-45) The Fall of Italy (1943-45)‘Fortress Europe’ began on July10, 1943Within 6 weeks Sicily was inAllied hands, which called the fallof MussoliniMarshal Pietro Badoglio, signedan armistice and brought Italy onto the Allied side
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Fall of Italy (1943-45) The Fall of Italy (1943-45)The Germans were determinedto hold onto Italy and divertedtroops to the peninsulaSlow progress meant Romewas not liberated until June1944 and Northern Italy had towait until April 1945
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Fall of Italy (1943-45) The Fall of Italy (1943-45)Consequences for the Allies:1. Fascism ended in Italy,Germany’s most important Ally2 Tied down German divisionsthat were needed in Russia3. Showed the Soviets the Allieswere willing to fight in Europe.
The Defeat of Nazi Germany Operation Overlord (June 1944) Operation Overlord (June 1944)Also known as D-Day326,000 British, Canadian, andAmerican troops landed on a 80km stretch of beaches inNormandySupported by 4000 ships and12000 aircraftsSubterfuge plans diverted attention to Calais
QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. D-Day
The Defeat of Nazi Germany Operation Overlord (June 1944) Operation Overlord (June 1944)Within a month 1,000,000 hadlanded on the beaches ofNormandyWithin weeks Northern France,Brussels, and Antwerp wereliberatedGermans did continue to succeedalong the Siegfried Line atArnhem and the Ardennes forrest
The Defeat of Nazi Germany Operation Overlord (June 1944) Operation Overlord (June 1944)The Germans could not replacetroopsThe first months of 1945 sawsteady disintegration of theWehrmachtThe Allies crossed the Rhine inMarch 1945 which brought a twofront war upon the Germans
The Defeat of Nazi Germany Operation Overlord (June 1944) Operation Overlord (June 1944)April 30,1945 Hitlerkilled himselfMay 7, the Germansurrenderedunconditionally
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Weakness of the Axis Powers The Weakness of the Axis PowersWhy did the Alliesdefeat Hitler?
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Weakness of the Axis Powers The Weakness of the Axis Powers1.Hitler allowed Britain to surviveTherefore keeping the wargoing in the west, Atlantic,and AfricaBritain acted as a launchingpad for Germany and‘Operation Overlord’
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Weakness of the Axis Powers The Weakness of the Axis Powers2. The invasion of the USSR was a huge mistakeUndid the gains of the Nazi-Soviet PactPushed Germany into a two frontwarRussia was 3x pop, 80x the land,and a much larger industrialoutput.
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Weakness of the Axis Powers The Weakness of the Axis Powers3. Declaring war on the USA,Sept 11, 1941, was also a majorerrorThis allowed Allies to: a.Invade Italy b. BombGermany c. Open upthe second front (1944)Hitler was unable to attack theUS directly and didn’t have thesame collaborative relationshipwith the Axis powers
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Weakness of the Axis Powers The Weakness of the Axis Powers4. Taking command of MilitaryoperationsSeen clearly in the USSR as theGermans were not prepared fora winter campaignRefused to retreat in Stalingrad,which lead to surrender in Jan1943Concentration on V-rockets
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Strength of the Allies The Strength of the Allies1. Economic SuperiorityUSSR easily transitioned into a‘wartime economy’ andoutproduced the Germans by1943American productionoutproduced the Germans whileturning out 70 000 tanks and 120000 aircrafts annually
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Strength of the Allies The Strength of the Allies2. Turning economic strengthinto affective fighting powerImproved quality and quantity ofmilitary forces and technologyEnsured excellent back-upservices. US 18:1 ratio in thePacific, Japanese 1:1
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Strength of the Allies The Strength of the Allies3. Established civilian support forthe AlliesMen with the best organizationskills helped plan on the civilianfront, rather than in combatAllowed for better integration ofintellectual, economic, andorganizational strengths towardsthe war effort
The Defeat of Nazi Germany The Strength of the Allies The Strength of the Allies4. Key Strategic DecisionsConcentrating the attack inGermany, 85% of US war effortwas towards Germany, only 15%towards JapanPouring funds into strategicbombing, forced Germany tofocus on anti-aircraft strategyWill to win, promoting the ‘justwar
4. War in the East An Overview An OverviewAfter Pearl Harbour, the USAand Britain declared war onJapan, as did their regional alliesDec 11 1941, Germany declareswar on the USThe conflict was now a ‘WorldWar’
QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.Pearl Harbor
War in the East An Overview An OverviewWithin hours of Pearl HarborJapan attacked Wake, Guam,the Philippines, Malaya, andHong KongAs well we the Prince of Walesand the Repulse, British navalships needed for defense in theregionThis left Singapore and Burmaundefended
War in the East An Overview An OverviewDec 25/26 Japan overtook HongKong and captured 12,000 prisonersJan 6 1942, the Dutch East Indieswere invadedBy the end of Jan ’42 British,Australian, and Indian forces hadretreated to the tip of the MalayPeninsula to SingaporeAn attack followed forcing 80,000troops to surrender and became oneof the worst defeats in British history
War in the East An Overview An OverviewBy mid 1942, The Japanese hadsuccessfully captured the DutchEast Indies, the Philippines, andBurmaThe ‘Greater Asia Co-ProsperitySphere’ was complete
War in the East The Battle of Midway(June 1942) The Battle of Midway(June 1942)The Japanese suffered twoserious setbacks 1.Port Moresby(SE New Guinea)would have brought Australiawith reach of their bombers 2.Midway (June ’42) hoped todraw out US aircraft carriersAmericans were able to breakJapanese codes and knew theattack was coming anddestroyed 4 Japanese aircraftcarriers
War in the East The Battle of Midway(June 1942) The Battle of Midway(June 1942)American success was acrucial turning point for thePacific WarJapan could not recover, theAmericans soon had a fleet withwhich the Japanese could notstand againstJapan was condemned to fight adefensive war (link to ‘The Pacific’ Guadalcanal)
War in the East Japanese Retreat Japanese RetreatAlthough catastrophic, the lossat midway did not cost theJapanese territoryHeaded by Gen.D.MacArthur(Head of the AlliedForces in SE Pacific), The Alliesslowly pushed back theJapanese through ‘islandhopping’ or ‘atoll hopping’,stepping stones towardsJapanAllies superiority in the air andsea made this possible
War in the East Japanese Retreat Japanese RetreatAdmiral C.Nimitz (US Pacific FleetCommander-in-Chief) In a twopronged assault, advanced throughthe central PacificVictories occupied the Philippinesand Japan’s sea route to oilsupplies in the East IndiesOct 1944, brought the largest navalbattle of all time, the battle of‘Leyte Gulf’
War in the East Japanese Retreat Japanese RetreatBattle of Leyte GulfFacing fanatical resistance the USnow had to clear the Japanese outof the Philippines, the islands ofIwo Jima, and Okinawa.Okinawa was the most brutal ofthese battles, 160,000 Japanesedied fighting and another 110,000died refusing to surrenderBy May 1945, Allied CommanderL.Mountbatten had cleared theJapanese out of Burma
QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Battle of Okinawa
War in the East The Atomic Bomb The Atomic BombWith Germany defeated in MAy1945, America could focus alltheir forces on JapanSoviets also promised to diverttroops to the EastJapan was clearly on the vergeof defeatAmerican forces were nearingJapan and their cites had beenconsistently bombed since Nov1944
War in the East The Atomic Bomb The Atomic BombPM Admiral Kangaroo Suzuki,tried to negotiate peace thatwould preserve the position ofthe EmperorThe Allies would accept nothingbut ‘unconditional surrender’US were concerns: 1.Soviet involvement would meanthe growth of Stalin in the region 2. Loss of UStroops
War in the East The Atomic Bomb The Atomic BombThe Americans had beendeveloping the A-bomb,through the ‘ManhattanProject’, to use againstGermany, but theysurrendered before it wasreadyPres. H.Truman gave theorder to drop ‘Little Boy’ overHiroshima on Aug 6, 1945and ‘Fat Man’ on Nagasakion Aug 9, 1945
QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. The Atomic Bomb
War in the East The Atomic Bomb The Atomic BombAfter the dropping ofthe Atomic Bomb,which killed over240,000 civiliansimmediately, theJapanese governmentsurrendered.The War was finallyover
War in the East Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan? Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan?Several Factors in common withdefeat over the Germans:1. The emphasis on back-upsupport for the military 2.Involvement of civilian in militaryplanning and logistics 3. As withGermany, Japan neglectedthese areasPost-war surveys indicatedneglect maintenance, logisticsupport, communications andcontrol for airfields or bases
War in the East Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan? Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan?Technologically, the US beganthe war at a disadvantageThe US adjusted and learnedfrom their mistakes to build upnaval and air superiority bybuilding new planes and aircraftcarriers
War in the East Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan? Why were the Allies successful in defeating Japan?A critical factor lay in 1.Isolating Japan from its empire bydestroying its merchant marine,navy, and naval air power 2. Japan overstretcheditself and was a small island withlimited supplies3. The Japanese economycouldn’t match the US capacity forrapid expansionBy 1945 Japanese industry andinfrastructure were destroyed
5. How WWII Was Fought The War on Land The War on LandThe Germans learnt from WWIand the Ludendorff offensive withStormtroopers,Concentrated attacks with tacticalair cover was critical and theydeveloped Blitzkrieg with this inmindInstead of fighting a defensivewar, a offensive war thatconsisted of surprise, speed andmovement using Panzers,armored vehicles, and aircraft
5. How WWII Was Fought The War on Land The War on Land1. An air strike took out theopposing air force andcommunication centers 2.Parachutists were droppedbehind enemy lines 3.Swift tanks and motorizedinfantry-supported by air power-would split the enemy lines 4. Allowed forpenetration into unprotectedterritories 5. Encircled theenemy 6. Thus rapid,decisive victory was achieved
How WWII Was Fought The War on Land The War on LandBlitzkrieg allowed Hitler toachieve quick and decisivevictories that were not toodemanding in terms ofcasualties and resourcesThe speed and surprise ofBlitzkrieg prevented countriesfrom mobilizing fully for total warand had a devastating impact onmorale
How WWII Was Fought Blitzkrieg BlitzkriegSuccess:The deficiencies in equipmentwas made up for with superiortactics, speed, and organizationThe element of surprise wascrucial to German success
How WWII Was Fought Blitzkrieg BlitzkriegFailures: 1.Despite quick advances, Germanywas not equipped to fight a longwar 2. Blitzkrieg waseffective in short confined areas-this did not exist in the USSR 3.USSR was able to withstandinitial losses, reorganize theireconomy and military and fightbackBy 1943 Germany had lost theelement of surprise, by 1944 theAllies dominated the skies
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)British naval power was criticalfor maintaining vital trade routesthe British was dependent onThis allowed Britain to defendits empire adn was essential toarmy operations outside ofhome watersThus, until 1944, Britain foughtmainly a naval war
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)The German navy sufferd majorblows with the scuttling of the‘Graf spee’ (1939) and thesinking of the ‘Bismarck’ (1941)German capital warships wereremoved from the Atlantic as aresultThere was no Battle of Jutland,as in WWI
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)Sea warfare became aboutcontrolling supply lines1939-43 Germany and Britishfought control over the AtlanticGermany predominatly findingsuccess using U-BoatsBy 1943 the Germans had sunkover 3000 British Ships, whichseriously threatened the Alliedsupplies
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)To combat the U-boats, theAllies had to both attack andavoid themBy mid 1943 a few culminatingfactors helped eliminate the U-boat as a decisive threat:1. Cracked Enigma codes: alsochanged the Royal Navy codesafter discovering the Germanshad been deciphering them.Thus gaining an intelligenceadvantage
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)2. High-Frequency DirectionFinder(HF/DF or ‘Huff Duff’):provided an accurate bearingtowards any submarine thatused radio 3. Air Power:Long-range B-24 Liberatoraircraft with short-wave radaradn searchlights could pickout U-boats on the surface atnight
QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.B-24 Liberator Bomber in action
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic) (the Battle for the Atlantic)By 1943, 149/237 Germanvessels sunk were victims ofaircraft and the Allies had wonthe war for the AtlanticR.Overy points notes theimportance of British and US toundertake a revolution ofmaritime strategy, which theGermans were reluctant to doAfter 1943 the Allies producedmore ships than they lost
How WWII Was Fought The War at Sea Naval war in the PacificAircraft used in seaNaval was used the Pacific warfare war invery effectively in the Pacificwar in the Pacific Naval war withJapanJapan used air power very effectivelyin attacks against the Allies in hopes ofpreventing reinforcements fromreaching the PacificThe US access to radar, Japanesecodes, and superior shipbuildingefficiency tipped the balance1943-44 US shipyards out producedaircraft carriers 7/90
The War at SeaWhat was thesignificance of theNaval war and theoutcome of WWII?
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic bombingFocused on destroyingmilitary and industrialinfrastructureBy focusing on thehome front, strategicbombing blurred thelines betweencombatant and non-combatant
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic Bombing in EuropeEarly in the War the RAF wasforbidden form indiscriminatebombingThis changed when the Luftwaffecrew bombed East LondonChurchill bombed Berlin inretaliationHitler responded with a full scaleair assault on Britain (the Blitz)
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in EuropeThe Allies switch toindiscriminate bombingfollowedSir Arthur ‘Bomber” Harris wasthe Commander-in-Chief ofBomber command in 1942Initially operated at a high costto RAF air crafts and did notlead to destruction of Germanmorale and industry
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in EuropeThe introduction of the P-51BMustang in 1944 changed the tideP-51B had auxiliary fuel tanks soit could accompany bombers allthe way to their targets and takeon the LuftwaffeThe Germans lost 900 fighters inFebruary and March of 1944By June 1944, the Allies had totalair superiority
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in EuropeWith the Lufwaffe defeated,Bomber Command was able tobomb in daylight and carry outprecision attacks on industrialtargets, such as the steel industryin the RuhrAnglo-American bombing of Dresdenin Feb 1945 killed 50,00 civiliansGermans responded with V-1 andV-2 missiles, which wereunsuccessful
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in Europe Strategic Bombing in EuropeV-1 and V-2 ballistic missileswere targeted at London anddid produce significantcasualtiesHowever, they could not bemass produced and wereunreliable and inaccurateThey also came into the wartoo late and diverted resourcesaway from development on aircrafts
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic bombing in the Pacific Strategic bombing in the Pacific Strategic bombing in the PacificFrom Nov 1944, the USAAF,launching from Saipan andGuam, relentlessly beganbombing the Japanese mainlandThe bombing of Tokyo onMarch 9, 1945 destroyed 1million homes and killed morethen 80,000 civiliansApril-Aug 1945, most cities weredevastated by BomberCommand
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air Strategic bombing in the Pacific Strategic bombing in the Pacific Strategic bombing in the PacificJapanese fled to the villagescausing 50% absenteeism infactoriesBombing combined with seablockades devastated theeconomyClimaxed with the dropping oftwo atomic bombs on Hiroshimaand Nagasaki, after which JapansurrenderedAir power caused the collapse
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air The debate about strategic bombing The debate about strategic bombing The debate about strategic bombingTwo major criticisms againststrategic bombing: 1.Morally wrong. The Britishclaimed: a. theGermans started it, b. itwas the only way they couldrespond, c. and itended the war more quickly
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air The debate about strategic bombing The debate about strategic bombing The debate about strategic bombing2. Ineffective: Some argue thedrop of production was due tothe attrition of war, not bombingMany critics and historiansmaintin that the devastatingeffects on civilian populationsmade strategic bombingimmoral
How WWII Was Fought The War in the air The War in the airDocument Analysis:“Photocopy”
6. WWII as a “Total War”‘Total War’ meand that acountry uses all its human,economic, and militaryresources to fight the war. Inpractical terms : 1.Creating a fighting force usingconscription 2. Usingcivilians in the war effort 3. Using all weaponsavailable and developing newones
WWII as a “Total War”4. Government control of keyaspects of the economy 5.Government control over themedia 6. Thetargeting of civilians as well ascombatants in warOutline in what ways were WWIand WWII total wars?What war is considered to bemore of a ‘Total war’?
WWII as a “Total War” The aims of the belligerents The aims of the belligerentsHitler’s goals were clear; totaldomination and the takeoverof the USSR to provide livingspace for the Germanpeoples.This involved elimination ofraces - Jewish people inparticular
WWII as a “Total War” The aims of the belligerents The aims of the belligerentsThe Allies could afford nocompromise and saw themselvesas fighting for the freedom ofEuropeThe same was true in the Pacific,where the Japanese Co-prosperity sphere, with its aims ofpolitical, economic, and racialdomination, were consideredunacceptableThe racial aspect of fightingincreased the will to fight until theend for the Allies
WWII as a “Total War” The use of weaponry The use of weaponryOutline the use ofweaponry throughoutWWII and how theAllies and Axis powersevolved throughoutthe war
WWII as a “Total War” The role of civilians The role of civiliansIn WWI civilian casualtiesaccounted for roughly 1/10,whereas in WWII they made upcloser to 2/3 of deathsWhat caused this dramaticshift?
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe ideological and racialaspect meant that certainsections of civilian populationswere targeted with the intentthat they should be deported oreliminated entirelyHitler believed Jews inparticular were subhuman
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe space that was necessary forthe Greater German Reich alsomeant that the existingpopulations in Poland and theUSSR had to be destroyed ordisplacedThe Reich estimated ‘theunwanted population would beclose to 50-57 million’15% Poles, 25 % Ruthanians,35% Ukrainians who would beneeded as laborers or deported toSiberia
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe Russian populations wouldwither away through the use ofcontraception, abortion, andsterilizationThe Jewish population would beexterminatedSpecial SS squads called‘Einsatzgruppen accompanied theGerman army during the invasion ofPoland and the USSR, and had thededicated job of killing all Jews,communists, and resisters
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideBy July 1941, theEinsatzgruppen had murderedaround 63,000 men women andchildren, 90% of whom wereJewishOthers such as Gypsies andmental patients were also atrisk
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe method of murdering suchlarge numbers of people wasvery time consuming and costlyThe ‘Final Solution’ was a newmethod the designed to answerthe ‘Jewish question’ Sign used during the anti-Jewish boycott: "Help liberate Germany from Jewish capital. Dont buy in Jewish stores." Germany, 1933. — Stadtarchiv Nürnberg
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThis involved transportingJewish people across Europeto concentration camps andextermination campsAuschwitz-Burkenau was is oneof the most gruesome as10,000 Jewish people a daycould be murdered
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe Soviet Government alsodeported Germans andTartars. Estonians,Lithuanians, and Poles werealso dispersed to SiberiaDeath tolls in E.Europe and theUSSR were at least 20 million,more than half of which werecivilianPoland suffered the most withmore than 6 million deaths outof their 30 mill population
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocide3,000,000 of these were Jewishpeople and only 150,000represent deaths in military actionOverall an estimated 1,000,000gypsies and 6,000,000 Jewishpeople were killed by the Nazis
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideThe Japanese also hadambitions linked to racialsuperiorityGen. Sakai yRu wrote ‘TheChinese people are bacteriainfesting world civilization’The Rape of Nanking andSingapore Massacre areexamples of the implementationof the Japanese genocidalideology
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideOverall, 10,000,000 Chinese diedat the hands of the JapaneseFilipinos, Indonesians, and Malayswere also used as slave workers,resulting thousands of deathsPOW’s also suffered from physicaloverwork, malnutrition, and abuse
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideRape of East Germany: As the Sovietspushed through to Berlin they tookrevenge on the German population‘Chief among victims were adult malesand women of any age’-Trudy JudtDoctors and clinics reported that 87,000women had been raped by Sovietsoldiers following the Red Army arrival inViennaThis number was much larger in Berlinand does not reflect those rapes thatwent unreported
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocideInternmentGerman and Japanese civiliansliving in America foundthemselves rounded up and re-located to interment camp by thethousandsIn America more than 100,000Japanese had to leave theirhomes and property behindIn Britain Germans and Austriancivilians were interned
WWII as a “Total War” Deportation and genocide Deportation and genocide
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortThe Major combatants mobilizedbetween 1/2 and 2/3 of theirindustrial workforce, anddevoted up to 3/4 of theirnational product to waging warThis meant restrictions andrations for civilian populations
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortBritainMilitary conscription wasintroduced by with caution tokeep key workers in importantindustriesIndustrial conscription wasintroduced for women
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortGermanyInitially there was little change tothe economyAlbert Speer, Minister ofArmaments and War Productionattempted to re-organize humanresources from 1942 onwards,but found little supportHaving women in the workplacewas against Hitlers 3 K’s, Kinder,Kirche, Kuche. ( Children, Church,Kitchen)
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortUSSRThe centralized nature of theUSSR allowed civilians to beeasily mobilized towards thewar effortCoercion play roleSlacking or absenteeism couldbe punished by labour camps ordeath
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortUSSRWomen made up most of theworkforceWomen also volunteered forthe Red Army, latter havingthree regiments (two bomberand one fighter)R.Overy calls the civilians ofRussia the ‘real heros’ of theUSSR’s economic revival afterthe Nazi invasion
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortAmerica:Women also played a key rolein war industriesAn estimated 350,000 womenalso joined uniformed groups,such as the Women’s ArmyAuxiliary Corps, the MarineCorps Women’s Reserve, adnthe Navy Nurse Corps
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortJapan:The government was reluctant touse women in the workforcePreferring to conscript students towomen
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortResistance fighters:In all countries occupied by theNazis, there were civilians whojoined resistance groups, calledPartisansThey gathered intelligence, usedsabotage and murder, helpedrescue shot down pilots, and tookJewish people into safety.
WWII as a “Total War” Civilians as part of the War effort Civilians as part of the War effortResistance Fighters:Research one resistancegroup from one of thefollow occupied countries:Denmark, France, Belgium,Norway, Holland.Find out how it wasorganized, its activities, andto what extent it had animpact on the final defeat ofthe Germans.
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power Britain Britain BritainThe government extended itpowers to organize its human andeconomic resourcesChurchill exercised supremepolitical and military powerErnest Bevin, Minister of Labourand National Service was able tocomplete the task virtuallyunrestricted
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power Britain Britain Britain Mines, shipping, andrailways came under statecontrolRationing and conscription forboth men and women wereintroducedBevin improved the health andwelfare of the nation, improvinghealthcare, nurseries, and workingconditions
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power Germany Germany GermanyThe single party already existed,yet, planning remained confusedand decentralized1942, Albert Speer was put incharge of the Central PlanningBoard1944, Joseph Goebbels, thePropaganda Minister, wasappointed Commissioner for TotalMobilization of Resources for War
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power Germany Germany GermanyAccording to R.Overy, neitherappointment overcame theproblems of a system that was‘poorly co-ordinated,uncooperative, andobstructive’(Overy, Why the AlliesWon, 2006)Until 1943 production focused onquality and sophistication ratherthen mass production of standardweapons
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power USSR USSR USSRThe centralized all-powerful statealready existedSoviet survival after 1941 was dueto careful planning and massproduction, as well as the efforts ofthe peopleStalin turned the USSR into a‘single war camp’ through a singlenational war plan (1943) thatliberated restrictions previouslylimiting workers from completingobjectives
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power USA USA USAUS government also assumed controlof industrial productionThe War Production Board (1942)changed production priorities to theneeds of the military. Eg. Carfactories now produced tanks andplanes.The War Commission recruitedworkersRelied on expertise of big business inmass production and technologicalinnovation
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power USA USA USAThus without changing the free-market nature of the Americaneconomy, the USA was able toexpand its manufacturingcapacity immensely, ending thewar as the most powerfuleconomy in the world
WWII as a “Total War” The growth of government power Japan Japan JapanThe military government strengthenpower through ‘voluntary’ dissolutionof main political parties and thecreation of the Imperial RuleAssistance AssociationTrade unions were replaced by theGreat Japan Patriotic IndustrialAssociation to oversee employersand workersTight control was not productive dueto the power of the ‘Zaibatsu’ and theArmy and Navy rivalry
WWII as a “Total War” Propaganda PropagandaPropaganda remained a keyweaponGoebbels stoked the Germanfear of communismStalin promoted the ‘GreatPatriotic War’ and defense ofthe ‘Motherland’
WWII as a “Total War” Propaganda PropagandaChange in public in the opinion inthe west came as a result of theactions of the Axis powers ratherthen through intense propagandaPropaganda did still remainimportant to the war effort for thewestChurchill, established the PoliticalWarfare ExecutiveIn America, the Office of WarInformation was established
WWII as a “Total War” Propaganda PropagandaPropaganda and censorship wereused to help maintain morale,encourage civilian thriftiness,involve women, and stress theevil nature of the enemyBBC broadcast daily reports tomaintain morale and informresistance movements
WWII as a “Total War” Propaganda PropagandaAmerican propaganda against theGermans differed greatly to thepropaganda used against theJapanesePropaganda against Germanystressed the Nazis evil natureWhereas Propaganda againstJapan was of an openly racialnature aimed at all Japanese, notjust the leaders
WWII as a “Total War” Propaganda PropagandaAmerican propagandaportrayed the Japanese asprimitive, uncivilized, inferior,and were treacherous andbarbaricThe British Daily Mailrefereed to a Japan that is“dominated by a fanatical belief int hesuperiority of the Japanese race and itsmission to spread the paternal rule of thedivine Emperor....the natural outcome oftribalism which has peristed beneath theveneer of different cultures borrowed fromother countries” 18 Feb 1942