Focus QuestionTo what extent was Japan responsible for thePaciﬁc War?
Japan’s responsibility for war in the Pacific: Historical debate Japan as in Imperial Power: Some argue Japan planned for war from the early 1930’s. Negotiated peace was aimed at keeping the enemy off guard. Their goal was to conqueor Asia.
Japan’s responsibility for war in the Pacific: Historical debate Japan as a traditional European-style imperial power. Through the co- prosperity sphere/ diplomacy. Japan stumbled into war by taking too many risks.
Japan as a liberatingpower, form Westerndomination.Not dissimilar to theUSA’s dominance inSouth America.Thus, Japan fought adefensive war, triggeredby Americanembargoes.
Timeline of events prior to the Pacific War 1853-19411853: Commodore Perry visits 1931Japan 19321902 19331904 19341915 19361919 1937: 5 events1921 19391926 1940: 3 events
Timeline of events prior to the Pacific War 1853-19411941:March: Japan signs a non-aggression treaty withthe USSR.June: Hitler attacks the USSRJuly: Japan occupies southern Indochina. USAfreezes Japanese assets.December: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, and thesouth-western Asia/Paciﬁc region.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific Background: Japanese relations with the West. From the mid 17th century Japan had remained isolated. Sack Policy 1633-1853. Politically, economically, and socially Japan was a feudal state.
Background: Japaneserelations with the west1853, CommodeMatthew Perry arrivesto negotiate with theJapanese.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westCommodore MatthewPerry returns one yearlater with Americangun boats.Treaty of Kana-gawa1845, opened up Japanto the rest of the world.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westPower transferred fromthe ruling Shoguns tothe Emperor.Limited democracy andmodernization began.Along with rapidindustrialization andmilitarization.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westSino-Japanese War(1894-95)With a new modernarmy and navy Japanwaged war on China in1894 over control ofKorea.China was defeated andforced to sign the Treatyof Shimonoseki in 1895.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westResults:China had to recognizeKorea as an independentnation and ceded Taiwan.Emergence of Japan as akey Asian power.The further collapse ofChina.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westJapan became the ﬁrstnon-European power tobe considered by theWest as a world powerAnd Empire, occupyingKorea.Korean HistoryTimeline
Background: Japaneserelations with the westJapan’s second victorywas over Russia.Russia was competingwith Japanese interestsin Manchuria andKorea.1902, Anglo-RussianAlliance.
Background: Japaneserelations with the westFebruary 1904, Russianand Japanese forcesentered Korea.The Russians wereconvincingly defeatedat sea and on land.What were the resultsof this war?
Background: Japaneserelations with the westEncouraged JapaneseNationalism and expansion andtriggered a revolution in Russia.Treaty of Portsmouth:Recognized Japan’s paramountpolitical, economic, and militaryinterests in Korea.Russia refused to pay reparations.Japan responded by annexingKorea in 1910.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific What characteristics did the new state of Japan show by 1905?
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific Japan and WWI WWI gave Japan new opportunities to expand Demanded German possessions in China. When Germany refused, they declared war on Germany.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: WWI Issued China ‘Twenty- One Demands,’ Jan 1915 These demands would give Japan the most inﬂuential economic and political position in China. US-Japanese relations turned sour.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: WWI Lansing-Ishii agreement 1917, 1.Meant that gains made up to 1917 would be recognized by the Americans, and 2. Assurances were given that no further expansion would be pursued. China felt betrayed by the US.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: WWI Russia October 1917 Japanese supported the counter-revolutionary forces(White forces) USA, France, and Britain also sent forces. Japanese sent the most and stayed the longest.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: TOV Japan a victorious power sought to increase their gains. 1. Annexation of German Paciﬁc Territories. 2. Racial equality clause. Lack of competition in the region caused a economic boom in Japan.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: TOV Washington Conference 1921 Four Power Pact: ended the alliance b/n Japan and Britain Five Power Naval Treaty: Set restrictions on Naval capacities Nine Power Pact: Respected China’s sovereignty What impact did these agreements have on the US and Japanese?
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: The Liberal 1920’s: a peaceful Japan? 1918 economic recession 1920s Japan openly embraced western culture Prime minister Hara lead Japan in the League of Nations
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: 1920s Hara is assassinated 1921, by a right wing extremist Left wing extremists emerge Kato passes: Peace Preservation Law 1925: Those with left wing agendas could be imprisoned.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific: WWI General Tanaka Giichi takes over rule. More aggressive policy with China is adopted. Conﬂict over conﬂict proved the military could act without government approval, democracy was in decline.
Japan and the long-term causes of WWII in the Pacific:1920s Yamaguchi becams PM in 1929 Unable protect Japan against the Great Depression Assassinated 1930
Review QuestionsWhat impact did thefollowing have ondevelopments inJapan?Economic downturnsFear of communismStrength of theJapanese Army
Japan and the short term causes of the Pacific War: ‘the dark valley’ The liberal ear of the 1920s was short lived, as the army reasserted itself in the 1930s. The attack on Manchuria 1931 resulted from a Kwantung Army plot, not the Japanese government. Unilateral action by the military alarmed the West, particularly the USA.
Japan and the short term causes of the Pacific War: ‘the dark valley’ This was popular within Japan Creation of Manchukuo, a puppet Mongolian state, was not a gov’t policy but was accepted. Japan continued to expand.
Japan and the short term causes of the Pacific War: ‘the dark valley’ Japan and Western relations deteriorated: 1. The West was alarmed by the bombing of Shanghai in 1932 2. 1933, Japan left the League of Nations after the council accepted the Lytton Report: an investigation in the Manchurian Crisis 3. 1934, Japan pulled out of the Washington Naval Treaty and refused to attend another conference
Japan and the short term causesof the Pacific War: Sino-Japanese war No-retreat Marco Polo Incident: Chinese soldiers ﬁred upon Japanese soldiers The spark that lit the fuse in the Sino-Japanese war With nationalism running high, negotiating was not an option
Japan and the short term causesof the Pacific War: Sino-Japanese war The war in China was to lead directly to the the Paciﬁc War The Japanese entered with no plan how to get out As a result, Japan drew in the USA through competitions for resources
Japan and the short term causesof the Pacific War: Sino-Japanese war With tension increasing in Europe, Britain and France did not want to become enmeshed in a conﬂict in Asia in 1937 US only verbally condemned Japan Japan sank the USS Panay, an apology sufﬁced. 1938, US sends aid to China 1939, cancel the Commerce and Navigation Treaty with Japan
Japan and the short term causesof the Pacific War: Sino-Japanese war PM Prince Konoe Fumimaro, announced Japan was going to create a ‘New World Order’ in East Asia Called for cooperation b/n China, Manchukuo, and Japan Great East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere One state, leading the group
Japan and the short term causesof the Pacific War: Sino-Japanese war At a Japanese Military conference in 1940 it was agreed that Japan should ‘establish herself’ in Indochina, Thailand, Burma, Malaya, and the Dutch East Indies.
Review QuestionsTo what extent wasJapan pursuingnationalist andimperialist goals?How far was militarismthe driving force inJapan’s foreign policyby 1940?
The immediate cause of warThe Japanese closedthe ‘Burma Road,’ animportant supply routefor ChinaAmerica bans export ofscrap iron to JapanJapan signs theTripartite Pact or ThreePower Pact withGermany and Italy
The immediate cause of warThe Pact agreed to establish a‘New World Order’ and topromote mutual prosperity forthe next 10 yearsAmericans gave Nationalistleader Jiang Geisha, a massiveloanWithin Japan, the ImperialistRule Assistance Associationreplaced political parties in 19401941 PM Konoe was replaced byGeneral Hideki Tojo
The immediate cause of warWhen Germanyinvaded Russia in July1941, Japan decided toattack south, occupyingsouthern IndochinaThe USA, Britain andNetherlands imposed atotal trades embargoJapan would run out ofoil
The immediate cause of warDecember 7 1941,Japan attacks PearlHarbor, thePhilippines, Guam,Midway Island, HongKong, and the MalayPeninsula,simultaneously.The US declared waron Japan the followingday.
Review questionsWhat was the impact of Japan’s relationshipwith Germany?What was the impact of Japan’s relationshipwith the USSR?To what extent was the USA responsible forthe war in the Paciﬁc?