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Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother
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Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Airlines - How to Make a Merger Smoother

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December, 2005 …

December, 2005

Final presentation for the "Organizations and Cognition" course for the Work and Organizational Psychology (WOP) program at Maastricht University (UM).

Our assignment was to imagine a merger between Okay Air and Singapore International Airline and figure out what kinds of interpersonal problems could arise using Hofstede's cultural dimensions.

Project partner: Vincent Barink

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  • Nǐ hǎo! Tā shì Vince, wǒ jiào Brian.
  • The categorization-elaboration model provides a theoretical summary of diversity’s influence on team performance. According to this model, elaboration is the key mediator of this relationship, and its four main components are: Information exchange between group members Processing exchanged information individually Feeding back individually processed information to the group Discussing and integrating this information into the group’s collective knowledge base <CLICK>
  • Here is the simplified CE model . <CLICK> As shown, diversity triggers elaboration , <CLICK> Unless evaluative reactions and task-related factors inhibit the effect. <CLICK>
  • Social categorization can inhibit elaboration when it causes inter-group bias among team members. This bias makes team members more likely to exchange information insufficiently and pay inadequate attention to information presented by members of an out-group. <CLICK> Also, team-related factors like task requirements and ambiguity can act as inhibitors on elaboration. <CLICK> Fortunately, specific task training and procedures are the same for pilots flying transport category jets internationally. This means that task-related factors are not a problem here, allowing us to focus on social categorization. <CLICK>
  • Since both airlines have mixed Asian-European flight crews, Okay Air will have to deal with cultural issues on two dimensions: Chinese vs. Singapore pilots Chinese vs. European pilots Here is a comparison between Chinese and Singapore cultures. Most Singaporeans speak at least one Chinese dialect. The most prevalent is Mandarin . The largest religion in both China and Singapore is Buddhism . In addition, Okay Air is already working with Singaporeans in the maintenance hangar. Okay hired Singapore Technologies Airspace to support all of its maintenance components for all 6 of its Boeing 737’s. According to Hofstede’s assessment however, Singaporeans are less rule-oriented than the Chinese. <CLICK>
  • Comparing Chinese and Europeans, we see that language should not be a problem , since English is the international language of aviation. However, most Europeans speak English more proficiently than Chinese. Both groups’ religions are quite different , and Europeans are much more individualistic than Chinese. <CLICK>
  • Based on these findings, we recommend that , if Okay Air decides to undertake a strategic alliance or merger with Singapore Airlines, they should: Draw from SIA experience : Singapore Airlines has employed mixed crew for decades Has valuable experience in overcoming cultural difficulties Train and fly with mixed teams Build common teamwork skills Common teamwork training for mixed teams Puts pilots into common situations, that they build their own in-group together
  • Thank you very much for your time! Any questions? Xie xie! Tzai jian!
  • Transcript

    • 1. Flight Crew Diversity: Okay and SIA Vincent Barink | Brian Pagán Maastricht University, 12 December 2005
    • 2. Outline <ul><li>Team Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Our Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 3. Team Cognition <ul><li>Categorization-Elaboration Model (CEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Link between diversity & team performance </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 4. CEM, simplified 12 December 2005 Okay and SIA Performance Elaboration Evaluative reactions Social categorization Diversity Task-related factors
    • 5. CEM, simplified 12 December 2005 Okay and SIA Performance Elaboration Evaluative reactions Social categorization Diversity Task-related factors Inter-group bias Common training and procedures
    • 6. Diversity Issues <ul><li>China-Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mandarin-speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Both Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>Already working together </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans less rule-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans less long-term oriented </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 7. Diversity Issues <ul><li>China-Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Both English-speaking </li></ul><ul><li>English proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity vs. Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans more individualistic </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 8. Okay Airlines: china <ul><li>In need for pilots! </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Alliance with SIA </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic routes </li></ul><ul><li>A possible opportunity for SIA to be active on the closed Chinese Domestic flight market! </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 9. Singapore Airlines <ul><li>The best airline in the world: profitable for as long as they exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Brand: Singapore Girl </li></ul><ul><li>Service culture within SIA is a source of sustained competitive advantage (Barney, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>A good partner for merging! </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA
    • 10. Recommendations <ul><li>Draw from SIA experience </li></ul><ul><li>Train and fly mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Build common teamwork skills </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA Elaboration Diversity Performance
    • 11. Questions? <ul><li>Beneigh, T. (2005). Communications Between Team Members of Different Cultures and Nationalities on International Flight Decks, International Symposium on Aviation Psychology . Oklahoma City, OK. </li></ul><ul><li>Central Intelligence Agency. (2005). The World Factbook . Retrieved 9 December, 2005, from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Chan, D. (2000). Beyond Singapore Girl: Brand and product/services differentiation strategies in the new millenium. Journal of Management Development, 19 (6), 515-542. </li></ul><ul><li>China Economic Review. (2005). Private airlines take off [Electronic Version]. China Economic Review . Retrieved 9 December 2005 from http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/subscriber/articledetail.php?id=837 . </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede, G. (2003). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved 10 December, 2005, from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd. (2005). China's First Private Airline Awards ST Aerospace Support Programme for its Complete Range of Components. Retrieved 9 December, 2005, from http://www.staero.aero/20050408.html </li></ul><ul><li>Uitdewilligen, S. (2005). Diversity and Performance (Presentation). Maastricht: Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University. </li></ul>12 December 2005 Okay and SIA

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