Hepatitis Abc....
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Hepatitis Abc....

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Hepatitis Abc.... Hepatitis Abc.... Presentation Transcript

  • HEPATITIS Prepared by: Brian Kieth C. Gonzales BSN – 2C 1
  • What is Hepatitis?  Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver –  In Latin hepa means liver, itis means inflammation  Hepatitis can be caused by a virus that gets into your body and attacks the liver 2
  • How big is the liver? The liver is the LARGEST internal organ!!!  In young children: about the size of a grapefruit  In adults: about the size of a football 3
  • Healthy Liver vs. Sick Liver This is a healthy liver This is a sick, scarred liver (cirrhosis) 4
  • Viral Hepatitis •Hepatitis viruses: A, B, C •Scientists call hepatitis disease by the name of the virus Virus Disease Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Hepatitis A Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Hepatitis B Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Hepatitis C 5
  • Viral Hepatitis Disease  Acute hepatitis: newly infected  Chronic (life-long) hepatitis: long- lasting infection 6
  • Hepatitis A Virus •First identified in 1973 •Scientifically classified as Picornavirus •Contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) Single-stranded RNA Electron micrograph/picture of hepatitis A virus 7
  • Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis A is an acute liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), lasting from a few weeks to several months. It does not lead to chronic infection. It is found in the stool (poop) of persons with hepatitis A Mode of Transmission : fecal–oral route Person to person contact  living with someone who has hepatitis A  having sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis A Average incubation period : is 4 weeks with a range of 15-50 days. 8
  • Symptoms You might have :  Tiredness  Loss of appetite  Fever  Stomach-ache  Diarrhea  Dark urine  Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes ,icterus) 9
  • Hepatitis A Vaccine  Hepatitis A vaccine is usually given as two shots over a 6-18 month period (hepatitis A vaccine is approved for persons 1 year of age and older)  Hepatitis A vaccines are safe and effective  protection will probably last for at least 20 years 10
  • Other Ways to Prevent HAV Infection  Wash your hands after using the toilet or changing a diaper and before preparing or eating food  Wear gloves if you have to clean surfaces contaminated with stool (e.g., diaper changing tables) 11
  • Other Ways to Prevent Hepatitis A  Boiling or cooking food and beverage items for at least 1 minute to 185°F (85°C) inactivates the virus (makes the virus NOT infectious)  When traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common  Do not drink beverages (with or without ice) of unknown purity  Do not eat uncooked shellfish  Do not eat uncooked fruits and vegetables that are not peeled or prepared by you personally 12
  • Treatment  There is no specific medical treatment for hepatitis A. Your doctor can advise you on what you should do or what you should not do  Once fully recovered:  You cannot get hepatitis A again  You are no longer infected and cannot give the infection to others 13
  • Hepatitis B Virus •First recognized in 1960s •Scientifically classified as Hepadnavirus •Contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) DNA Double-Stranded Polymerase DNA Electron micrograph/picture of hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis B Virus  is a serious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Infection with this virus can cause scarring of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and even death.  The highest rate of infection occurs among those 20 to 49 years old. 15
  • Hepatitis B Virus HBV is found in the blood and body fluids (e.g., semen, vaginal fluids) of an infected person . Average incubation period :is about 16 weeks 16
  • Modes of Transmission  Sexual contact with an infected person without using a condom  Injection drug use  Sharing needles, syringes or “works” (e.g., water, cookers, cotton, spoons) when “shooting” drugs  Tattoos and body piercing  Tattoo or body piercing done with tools that might have someone else’s blood on them  From an infected mother to her child at birth  Sharing personal care items, such as toothbrushes or razors with an infected person  Human bite from an infected person 17
  • Symptoms You might have :  Tiredness  Loss of appetite  Fever  Diarrhea  Dark urine  Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) . 18
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine  Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given as three shots over a 4-6 month period  There is also a 2-shot schedule for 11-15 year olds  Hepatitis vaccines are safe and effective  protection will last for at least 15 years  Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for:  all infants  all children and adolescents  adults at increased risk 19
  • Other Ways to Prevent  Practice safer sex Hepatitis B  Abstain from sex or use condoms (spermicides) consistently and correctly  Wear gloves if you have to touch anyone’s blood  Do not shoot drugs; if you shoot drugs, stop and get into a treatment program; if you can’t stop, never reuse or share drugs, needles, syringes or “works” (e.g., water, cookers, cotton, spoons); use an unused sterile syringe for each injection; use sterile water, or at least clean water, from a reliable source to prepare drugs  Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal care articles that might have blood on them 20
  • Other Ways to Prevent Hepatitis B  If you are pregnant, you should get a blood test for hepatitis B, so steps can be taken to protect your baby if you are infected  Treatment:  There is no treatment for acute (new infection) hepatitis B  Liver transplant  Hepatitis B: acute HB will go away by itself and recover completely; Chronic HB will stay forever, Uncurable 21
  •  Interferon. The immune system-boosting medicine interferon alpha is injected for at least 6 months. This drug does not cure the disease, but improves liver inflammation. Long-acting interferon (peginterferon) has also been shown to be useful. Interferon does have some undesirable side effects, including: malaise, depression, and loss of appetite, and it can lower the number of white blood cells.  Epivir. This drug is taken orally once a day. Usually, the drug is well tolerated. Viral mutations often arise after prolonged use.  Hepsera. This drug works well in people whose disease doesn't respond to Epivir but, in high doses it can cause kidney problems.  Baraclude. This is the newest drug for hepatitis B 22
  • Hepatitis C Virus Single-stranded RNA • First identified in 1989 • Scientifically classified as Flavivirus • Contains ribonucleic acid (RNA) Schematic view of hepatitis C virus 23
  • Hepatitis C Virus HCV is found in the blood and body fluids (e.g., semen, vaginal fluids) of an infected person Average incubation period : is 7 to 9 weeks 24
  • Modes of Transmission  Injection drug use  Sharing needles, syringes or "works" (e.g., water, cookers, cotton, spoons) when "shooting" drugs  Sex with an HCV-infected person  Sharing items (e.g., razors or toothbrushes) that might have blood on them  Tattoos and body piercing  Tattoo or body piercing done with tools that might have someone else’s blood on them  From an HCV-infected mother to her child at birth 25
  • Symptoms You might have :  Tiredness  Loss of appetite  Fever  Stomach-ache  Diarrhea  Dark urine  Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) .
  • Hepatitis C: Prevention  Practice safer sex  Abstain from sex or use condoms consistently and correctly  Wear gloves if you have to touch anyone’s blood  Do not shoot drugs; if you shoot drugs, stop and get into a treatment program; if you can’t stop, never reuse or share drugs, needles, syringes or “works” (e.g., water, cookers, cotton, spoons); use an unused sterile syringe for each injection; use sterile water, or at least clean water, from a reliable source to prepare drugs  Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal care articles that might have blood on them 27
  • Hepatitis C: Prevention  If you are thinking about getting a tattoo or body piercing, consider the risks. You might get infected if tools have someone else’s blood on them or if the artist or piercer does not follow good health practices, such as washing hands, using sterile equipment and using disposable gloves 28
  • Treatment  There is no treatment for acute (new infection) hepatitis C  For chronic (life-long) hepatitis C antiviral medicines are available  Treatment might take as long as a year  Liver transplant 29