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A Practioners Guide To Ecosystem Development Sep 3

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  • 1. A Practioners Guide to Ecosystem Development Mike Milinkovich Executive Director, Eclipse Foundation mike@eclipse.org Confidential | Date | Other Information, if necessary September 3, 2008 © 2002 IBM Corporation
  • 2. Agenda What is Eclipse? Evolving Our Thinking About Ecosystems Our Current Thinking Challenges and Conclusions Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 3. Agenda What is Eclipse? Evolving Our Thinking About Ecosystems Our Current Thinking Challenges and Conclusions Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 4. The Members of Eclipse 182 members 20 Strategic Members 923 committers, representing 50+ organizations Strategic Members Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 5. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 5
  • 6. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 7. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 7
  • 8. Eclipse Momentum Members Committers # of members and committers as of EclipseCon each year. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 8
  • 9. Agenda What is Eclipse? Evolving Our Thinking About Ecosystems Our Current Thinking Best Practices and Lessons Learned Challenges and Conclusions Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/idolenga/50866390/ Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 11. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 12. Ecosystem Thinking: Mark 0 Ecosystem IBM Eclipse Tools Platform Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 13. Ecosystem Thinking Mk 1 - Duality Ecosystem Eclipse Foundation Platform Creation: Open Source Projects Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 14. Eclipse’s “Virtuous Cycle” APIs and Frameworks Licensing Model Vendors Users Committers Exemplary Tools Projects Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 15. Open Source Development Platform Open Source development model encourages open innovation Openness, Transparency, Meritocracy Anyone can participate Open Source licensing allows competing vendors to collaborate on the infrastructure technology No requirement for royalties. No single control point of intellectual property Open Source business model encourages rapid adoption of technology It is free and easy to access Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 16. Win by letting go No control points Open governance Vendor neutral Code rules …attracts the broadest and deepest participation Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 17. Lessons Learned Ecosystems ultimately exist to drive value for participants The explicit coupling of an open source community and a commercial ecosystem is unique and interesting Open source principles help build trust Meritocracy Openness Transparency (especially transparency!) Open governance with no single vendor points of control encourages trust – which encourages involvement Diversity is key: and diversity of corporate involvement is powerful and unexplored Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 18. Ecosystem Thinking Mk 2 – The Participative Platform http://www.flickr.com/photos/sentience/261922677/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/ckindel/135426249/ “what really distinguishes open source is not just source, but an quot;architecture of participationquot; ….” Tim O’Reilly http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/wlg/3017?wlg=yes Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 19. Platform Leadership Scope of the firm Platform, wannabe, or complementor Platform technology Modularity, openness Complementor relationships Partners or prey? Internal Organization Culture, processes Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 20. The Eclipse Experience – Architecture of Participation Right Ease of Integration New Plug-ins and Extensibility are First Class Spurs Innovation Citizens – same footing Platform Plug-ins for everyone Run-time Open API and commercially friendly licensing Competition can take – Low barriers to place on implementations Entry – users decide winners Successful Ecosystems are built on this model! Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 21. Predictability as an Ecosystem Enabler 21 Projects 23 Projects 17 million LOC 18 million LOC 10 Projects WTP BIRT TPTP EMF TPTP VE CDT CDT Callisto Europa Ganymede Eclipse 3.0 Eclipse 3.1 June 28 2004 June 28 2005 June 30 2006 June 29, 2007 June 25, 2008 Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 22. Lessons Learned Without a platform, there can be no ecosystem Relentless devotion to the “platformness” of your platform is a key to success API fidelity Predictability Open source is a wonderful way to encourage the adoption of your new platform Platform evolution is incredibly hard Most business academics don’t understand FLOSS so they ignore it Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 23. Ecosystem Thinking – Mk 3 Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 24. Key Roles Users Committers Plug-In Developers Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 25. Example Niches Java Developers Report Developers Rich Client PHP Developers Modeling Embedded Developers Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 26. Roles in Niches Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 27. A Healthy Ecosystem Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 28. Measuring the Health of Ecosystems Productivity (of the Ecosystem) Means how much value is being created in the ecosystem Taking raw materials (time, skills, tools) and converting them into something more valuable (better tools, applications, innovations) Robustness Means how durable and able to adapt is the ecosystem to external events Niche Creation The ability to expand the ecosystem with meaningful diversity Ref: “Strategy as Ecology”, Marco Iansiti, Roy Levin, Harvard Business Review: R0403E Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 29. If there is a Forest Fire…. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 30. There will be some short term damage… Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 31. The Ecosystem Can Adapt… Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 32. And soon enough – Blueberries. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 33. Lessons Learned Complexity of the network defies management We believe in laissez faire Open source suffers from poor metrics Difficult to measure health other than heuristically The health of the ecosystem is more important than size and measured by productivity, niche creation and robustness The value of the ecosystem is its network value The more nodes (niches), the more links, the more value The role of the Foundation is to: Increase that network value by fostering linkages Recruitment for niche creation Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 34. Ecosystem Thinking Mk 4 – Innovation Networks Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as well as internal ideas…. The Open Innovation paradigm treats R&D as an open system. Open Innovation is sometimes conflated with open source methodologies for software development…While open source shares the focus on value creation throughout an industry value chain, its proponents usually deny or downplay the importance of value capture. Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 35. Open Innovation Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as well as internal ideas…. The Open Innovation paradigm treats R&D as an open system. Open Innovation is sometimes conflated with open source methodologies for software development…While open source shares the focus on value creation throughout an industry value chain, its proponents usually deny or downplay the importance of value capture. Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 36. Innovation Networks in Action: The Eclipse Web Tools Platform Project JBoss Studio NetWeaver Studio MyEclipse CodeGear JBuilder WebLogic Workshop Zend Studio Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 37. Creating an Innovation Network Requirements include: Licensing model for sharing co-evolved innovation Project model for coordinating investments and activities Governance model to ensure a level playing field for all participants Technical architecture for the platform Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 38. Creating an Innovation Network Requirements include: Licensing model for sharing co-evolved innovation Project model for coordinating investments and activities Governance model to ensure a level playing field for all participants Technical architecture for the platform Existing open source organizations provide these “out of the box” Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 39. Lessons Learned Eclipse has stumbled upon the best existing model we’ve seen for fostering corporate collaboration in innovation Innovation networks do, in fact, explain in significant ways the reasons why corporations support open source --- including direct competitors Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 40. TIME FOR A BREAK! Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 41. Agenda What is Eclipse? Evolving Our Thinking About Ecosystems Our Current Thinking Challenges and Conclusions Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 42. Definition “Business Ecosystems” are defined as intentional communities of economic actors whose individual business activities share in some large measure the fate of the whole community. Business Ecosystems and the View From the Firm James F. Moore, Antitrust Bulletin, Fall 2005 Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 43. A Form of Economic Organization Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 44. Hierarchies Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 45. Supply Chains Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 46. Markets – Competing Hierarchies Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 47. Three perspectives to address key problems Perspective Focus on Company using Best suited perspective finds it for Market Transactions of Difficult to align many Craft product road maps of production goods customers and other companies Hierarchy Control over Difficult to address breadth Mass activities that and importance of inter-firm production produce goods relationships Business Coordinate Easier to combine its offers Flexible ecosystem into marketable solutions, specialization innovation across a large accelerate customer Peer number of adoption, and create and production diverse appropriate value Continuous companies innovation Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 47
  • 48. Key Concepts Co-ordinate and co-evolve innovation Alignment of vision Degrees of openness in niches Complex, adaptive multi-contributor systems Requires standard interfaces and components Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 49. Ecosystems ~= Supply Chains Multiple players in each niche Underestimate cost/time to coordinate interdependences Reducing development time may not give company much Company depends on deployment of complementors’ offers, each of which can close window of opportunity Joint probability of partners being ready at same time is low, even when each individual probability is high Each of five suppliers has an 80% chance of being ready at T, how confident can they be of all five being ready at T? .8 x .8 x .8 x .8 x .8 = .33 Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 49
  • 50. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 51. Our Multi-Niche Ecosystem Niche Niche Niche Niche Multi-Niche Niche Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Application Frameworks Industry Frameworks Embedded & Mobile Embedded and Mobile Web Development Rich Client Platform Embedded & Mobile Embedded & Mobile Embedded & Mobile Enterprise Java Server Runtimes Tools Embedded & Mobile Modeling Tools Runtime SOASOA Modeling (RCP) Runtimes Equinox Runtime Platform Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 52. A Network of Niches Niche Niche Niche Niche Multi-Niche Niche Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Application Frameworks Industry Frameworks Embedded & Mobile Embedded and Mobile Web Development Rich Client Platform Embedded & Mobile Embedded & Mobile Embedded & Mobile Enterprise Java Server Runtimes Tools Embedded & Mobile Modeling Tools Runtime SOASOA Modeling (RCP) Runtimes Equinox Runtime Platform Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 53. That version was rejected by Marketing ☺ Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 54. Foundation platform is the Combined base of: Technologies Architectures, designs and assets used to build market offers Components, products and services Legal and licensing framework Processes which anchors economic community Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 54
  • 55. Foundation platform is the Combined base of: Technologies Architectures, designs and assets used to build market offers Components, products and services Legal and licensing framework Processes which anchors economic community Existing open source organizations provide these “out of the box” Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0 55
  • 56. Business Drivers for Ecosystem Platform Evolution Define very precisely what your competitive differentiators are for your customers or you’re going out of business Focus all possible energies there, and acquire everything else from OSS, or help build it in OSS Value Build this in and with open source, even Platform if that means working with your direct competitors. Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 57. Or in other words… Value Pick your niche Co-evolve the platform in Platform collaboration with other actors in the ecosystem Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 58. Ecosystem Getting Involved: The Open Source Engagement Model Value Captured 5. Redefine 4. Collaborate Value co-creation 3. Champion Value capture Coupling 2. Contribute management 1. Use Time Business Driven Engineering Driven 0. Deny Single Multiple Scope Project Projects Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 59. Business Reasons to Engage with an OS project 1. Use 2. Contribute 3. Champion 4. Collaborate 5. Redefine Explore Fill gaps in Champion OS Gain positional Change value feature set of project advantage for proposition of company’s company’s offer delivered Reduce build product product in a to customers costs Steer new market functionality segment Improve and its Decrease time software evolution to market quality Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 60. Benefits Accrued by an OSS community 1. Use 2. Contribute 3. Champion 4. Collaborate 5. Redefine Number of More features Company pull Company New company users and and better for OS project commitment to driven awareness of quality health and resources to OS project advancement establish links Leadership increases of OS project with other OS structure and projects and governance new project New versions contributors of OSS Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 61. Key Concepts: Eclipse Scorecard Co-ordinate and co-evolve innovation Laissez faire but somehow highly predictable IBM still exercises much keystone-like platform control Alignment of vision Cat herding never ends Vision congruence depends on niche and maturity The sum of many visions? Degrees of openness in niches Extreme Complex, adaptive multi-contributor systems Extreme Requires standard interfaces and components Extreme Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 62. Unique Benefits The power of the ecosystem keystone being a non- profit is huge Vendor neutral Trusted agent Force multiplier Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 63. Lessons Learned Ecosystem thinging is the unifying theme for “platform leadership”, “keystones”, “innovation networks”, etc. Ecosystem participation is driven by incremental business needs The maturity model is real, and you don’t get to skip steps Sometimes, companies to go backwards in maturity The open source approach of allowing complementors to also participate in platform development is unique and important Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 64. Agenda What is Eclipse? Evolving Our Thinking About Ecosystems Our Current Thinking Challenges and Conclusions Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 65. But What About the Consumers? The business investments in open source have so far been primarily in software companies Ecosystem growth has historically been driven by large vendors (IBM, Sun, Microsoft, …) Also true of the open source ecosystems E.g. So far its been about producers, not consumers Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 66. What Do Software Consumers Want? Investment protection Control of their supply chain Agility and innovation Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 67. My Prediction Value Captured 5. Redefine 4. Collaborate Value co-creation 3. Champion Value capture Coupling 2. Contribute management 1. Use Time Business Driven Engineering Driven 0. Deny Single Multiple Scope Project Projects Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 68. Business Reasons to Interact with an OS project 1. Use 2. Contribute 3. Champion 4. Collaborate 5. Redefine Explore Fill gaps in Build an open Create an Redefine the feature set of source industry relationship company’s community platform for with your Reduce build product around an in- shared software costs house infrastructure supply chain development Improve Decrease time software to market quality Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 69. Challenges Great supply-side ecosystem, but not (yet?) a definable market (aka a brand-aware buy-side ecosystem) Platform evolution is scary hard Innovative new versions Broad ecosystem adoption of platform elements in new niches Developing and maintaining a multi-vendor keystone is a real challenge “Tragedy of the Commons” problems abound Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 70. DO’s Advice Work to grow ecosystems but NOT for the sake of Health Healthy ecosystems grow. But growth != long term success and health Just as natural ecosystems are about maximizing use and capture of energy, so too are business ecosystems SHOW ME THE MONEY Ecosystems built on ideals -> fail. Ecosystems built on solid value capture and business rationale -> success. The strength of a connection = sum of value created by the connection Ecosystems thrive on somewhat random events – ecosystem stewards need to “prepare to be lucky” Ability to indroduce and handle new species (technologies and players) Create lots of networking opportunities and activities because 1/10,000th turns into something amazing (EclipseCon, Members Meetings, etc) Stewards learn to recognize where extra connections are needed and work to enforce them (Run time summit, eg) Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 71. Ecosystem Development in Action Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 72. DON’T Advice Don’t force a connection Establish a connection and if there is value, it will grow. Forcing it won’t work and damages the ecosystem. Don’t try to predict winners Ecosystem stewards should cultivate an environment for winners to emerge, not pick the winner(s) and rig the game. Support all new partipants (technologies, organizations) when they arrive – great ideas often look goofy at first Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 73. Some Thoughts on the Current Literature Ecosystem literature mostly fails to contemplate a completely open platform They all assume for-profit “keystones” with varying secrecy scenarios All ecosystem literature assumes a strong central player which controls the platform and “orchestrates” the ecosystem Other than niche creation that typically doesn’t happen at Eclipse Most (all?) literature only pays lip service to the buy-side of the ecosystem Most (all?) current business authors fail to understand the open source model is the way rapidly grow an ecosystem based on continuous innovation Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 74. Conclusions The future of the IT industry will largely be driven by the evolutions of competing ecosystems Community-led open source ecosystems solve some very specific business requirements for both producers and consumers Managing the evolution of an ecosystem is incredibly complex and fun Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  • 75. Thank You! Questions? Copyright © 2008 Eclipse Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0