A History of Gifted Education
1868	                  	   William	  Torrey	  Harris,	  superintendent	  of	  public	     schools	  for	  St.	  Louis,	   ...
                1869	                         	     Francis	  Galton’s	  seminal	    work,	  Hereditary	  Genius,	  is	   ...
1901Worster,	  MassachuseHs	  opened	  the	  first	    special	  school	  for	  gi>ed	  children.	  	                      ...
               1905	                        	  French	  researchers,	  Binet	  and	     Simon,	  develop	  a	  series	  of...
1908	                      	   Henry	  Goddard	  studies	  in	    France	  with	  Binet	  and	  is	    introduced	  to	  t...
1916	                     	  Lewis	  Terman,	  the	  “father”	    of	  the	  gi>ed	  educa;on	   movement,	  publishes	  t...
1917	                        	  The	  United	  States’	  entry	  into	  World	  War	  I	  necessitates	  the	   mobiliza;o...
1918	                   	  Lulu	  Stedman	  establishes	  an	     “opportunity	  room”	  for	    gi>ed	  students	  within...
1921	                      	   Lewis	  Terman	  begins	  what	    has	  remained	  the	  longest	  running	  longitudinal	...
1922	                         	     Leta	  S.	  Hollingworth	          begins	  the	  Special	  Opportunity	  Class	  at	 ...
1925	                                	    Lewis	  Terman	  publishes	  Gene.c	   Studies	  of	  Genius,	  concluding	  tha...
1926	                 	     Leta	  Hollingworth	   publishes	  Gi3ed	  Child:	      Their	  Nature	  and	      Nurture,	  ...
1936Hollingworth	  establishes	  P.	  S.	  500,	  the	  Speyer	  School,	  for	                     gi>ed	  children	  age...
1944G.I	  Bill	  of	  Rights	  making	  a	  college	  educa;on	  available	  to	   veterans	  from	  World	  War	  II	  wh...
1950            	                      	   J.	  P.	  Guilford	  gives	  the	  key	  note	  address	  at	  the	  annual	  A...
1950	                       	   Na;onal	  Science	  Founda;on	   Act	  provides	  federal	  support	  for	  research	  and...
1954	                      	  The	  Na.onal	  Associa.on	  of	   Gi3ed	  Children	  is	  founded	  under	  the	  leadershi...
1954	  Brown	  vs.	  The	  Board	  of	  Educa;on	  ends	  “separate	  but	  equal	  educa;on.”  	                         ...
1957  The	  Soviet	  Union	  launches	  Sputnik,	       sparking	  the	  United	  States	  to	     reexamine	  its	  human...
1958                   	                                   	    The	  Na;onal	  Defense	  Educa;on	  Act	  passes.	  This	...
1964	   The	  Civil	  Rights	  Act	  passes,	        emphasizing	  equal	  opportuni;es	  including	  those	             i...
              1974	                       	  The	  Office	  of	  the	  Gi>ed	  and	  Talented	  housed	  within	  the	   U.	...
1972	                         	  The	  Marland	  Report-­‐The	  first	    formal	  defini;on	  is	  issued	  encouraging	  s...
1975	                         	     Public	  Law	  94-­‐142	  The	            Educa;on	  for	  all	   Handicapped	  Childr...
1983	                      	      A	  Na;on	  at	  Risk	  reports	  scores	  of	  America’s	  brightest	   students	  and	...
1988	                         	   Congress	  passes	  the	  Jacob	    Javits	  Gi>ed	  and	  Talented	    Students	  Educa...
1990	                       	  Na;onal	  Research	  Centers	  on	   the	  Gi>ed	  and	  Talented	  are	  established	  at	...
1993                                 Na;onal	  Excellence:	  The	  Case	                                      for	  Develo...
1998	                                                            	                                     NAGC	  publishes	  ...
2002                  	                                    	   The	  No	  Child	  Le>	  Behind	  Act	  (NCLB)	  is	     pa...
2004	                      	     A	  Na;on	  Deceived:	  How	  Schools	  Hold	  Back	  America’s	  Brightest	  Students,	 ...
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History of Gifted Education

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A Brief History of Gifted Education
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http://brianhousand.com

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  • Timeline created by NAGC http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=607 Presentation created by Brian Housand, PhD East Carolina University http://brianhousand.com
  • Transcript of "History of Gifted Education"

    1. 1. A History of Gifted Education
    2. 2. 1868     William  Torrey  Harris,  superintendent  of  public   schools  for  St.  Louis,   ins;tutes  the  earliest   systema;c  efforts  in  public  schools  to  educate   gi>ed  students.  
    3. 3.   1869     Francis  Galton’s  seminal   work,  Hereditary  Genius,  is   published  indica;ng  that   intelligence  was  passed   through  successive   genera;ons.  His  biographical  study  of  over  400  Bri;sh  men  throughout  history  leads  him   to  conclude  through   sta;s;cal  methods  that  intelligence  was  derived  from   heredity  and  natural   selec;on.      
    4. 4. 1901Worster,  MassachuseHs  opened  the  first   special  school  for  gi>ed  children.        
    5. 5.   1905    French  researchers,  Binet  and   Simon,  develop  a  series  of   tests  (Binet-­‐Simon)  to   iden;fy  children  of  inferior   intelligence  for  the  purpose   of  separa;ng  them  from  normally  func;oning  children   for  placement  in  special   classrooms.  Their  no;on  of  mental  age  revolu;onizes  the   science  of  psychological   tes;ng  by  capturing   intelligence  in  a  single   numerical  outcome.        
    6. 6. 1908     Henry  Goddard  studies  in   France  with  Binet  and  is   introduced  to  the  Binet-­‐Simon  measurement  scales.  Subsequently,  he  ferries  the   test  back  to  American  in   order  to  translate  it  into  English  and  disseminate  it  to   American  educators  and   psychologists.        
    7. 7. 1916    Lewis  Terman,  the  “father”   of  the  gi>ed  educa;on   movement,  publishes  the   Stanford-­‐Binet,  forever  changing  intelligence  tes;ng   and  the  face  of  American   educa;on  
    8. 8. 1917    The  United  States’  entry  into  World  War  I  necessitates  the   mobiliza;on  of  a  large  scale   army.  The  Army  Alpha  and   Beta  were  created  and   administered  to  over  one   million  recruits,  further   legi;ma;zing  intelligence  tes;ng  in  both  academia  and   with  the  general  public.      
    9. 9. 1918    Lulu  Stedman  establishes  an   “opportunity  room”  for   gi>ed  students  within  the  University  Training  School  at   the  Southern  Branch  of  the   University  of  California.    
    10. 10. 1921     Lewis  Terman  begins  what   has  remained  the  longest  running  longitudinal  study  of   gi>ed  children  with  an   original  sample  of  1,500   gi>ed  children.  
    11. 11. 1922     Leta  S.  Hollingworth   begins  the  Special  Opportunity  Class  at  P.  S.   165  in  New  York  City  for  gi>ed  students.  This  class   would  yield  nearly  forty   research  ar;cles,  a  textbook,  and  blueprints   for  Hollingworth’s  work   at  P.  S.  500,  the  Speyer   School.  
    12. 12. 1925     Lewis  Terman  publishes  Gene.c   Studies  of  Genius,  concluding  that   gi>ed  students  were:  (a)  qualita;vely  different  in  school,  (b)   slightly  beHer  physically  and   emo;onally  in  comparison  to   normal  students,  (c)  superior  in  academic  subjects  in  comparison  to   the  average  students,  (d)   emo;onally  stable,  (e)  most   successful  when  educa;on  and   family  values  were  held  in  high   regard  by  the  family,  and  (f)   infinitely  variable  in  combina;on  with  the  number  of  traits  exhibited   by  those  in  the  study.  This  is  the  first  volume  in  a  five-­‐volume  study   spanning  nearly  40  years.  
    13. 13. 1926     Leta  Hollingworth   publishes  Gi3ed  Child:   Their  Nature  and   Nurture,  what  is  considered  to  be  the  first   textbook  on  gi>ed   educa;on.  
    14. 14. 1936Hollingworth  establishes  P.  S.  500,  the  Speyer  School,  for   gi>ed  children  ages  7-­‐9.  
    15. 15. 1944G.I  Bill  of  Rights  making  a  college  educa;on  available  to   veterans  from  World  War  II  who  would  otherwise  not   have  had  the  opportunity  to  pursue  higher  educa;on.          
    16. 16. 1950     J.  P.  Guilford  gives  the  key  note  address  at  the  annual  APA  conven;on,   challenging  an   examina;on  of   intelligence  as  a   mul;dimensional   construct.          
    17. 17. 1950     Na;onal  Science  Founda;on   Act  provides  federal  support  for  research  and  educa;on  in   mathema;cs,  physical   sciences,  and  engineering.        
    18. 18. 1954    The  Na.onal  Associa.on  of   Gi3ed  Children  is  founded  under  the  leadership  of  Ann   Isaacs.        
    19. 19. 1954  Brown  vs.  The  Board  of  Educa;on  ends  “separate  but  equal  educa;on.”     
    20. 20. 1957 The  Soviet  Union  launches  Sputnik,   sparking  the  United  States  to   reexamine  its  human  capital  and   quality  of  American  schooling   par;cularly  in  mathema;cs  and   science.  As  a  result,  substan;al  amounts  of  money  pour  into  iden;fying   the  brightest  and  talented  students   who  would  best  profit  from  advanced   math,  science,  and  technology   programming.  
    21. 21. 1958     The  Na;onal  Defense  Educa;on  Act  passes.  This  is  the  first  large-­‐scale  effort   by  the  federal  government  in  gi>ed   educa;on.                
    22. 22. 1964   The  Civil  Rights  Act  passes,   emphasizing  equal  opportuni;es  including  those   in  educa;on.                
    23. 23.   1974    The  Office  of  the  Gi>ed  and  Talented  housed  within  the   U.  S  Office  of  Educa;on  is   given  official  status.              
    24. 24. 1972    The  Marland  Report-­‐The  first   formal  defini;on  is  issued  encouraging  schools  to  define   gi>edness  broadly,  along   with  academic  and   intellectual  talent  the  defini;on  includes  leadership  ability,  visual  and  performing   arts,  crea;ve  or  produc;ve   thinking,  and  psychomotor   ability.  [Note:    psychomotor   ability  is  excluded  from   subsequent  revisions  of  the   federal  defini.on.]    
    25. 25. 1975     Public  Law  94-­‐142  The   Educa;on  for  all   Handicapped  Children  Act.  This  Act  establishes  a  federal   mandate  to  serve  children  with  special  educa;on  needs,  but  does  not  include  children   with  gi>s  and  talents.    
    26. 26. 1983     A  Na;on  at  Risk  reports  scores  of  America’s  brightest   students  and  their  failure  to   compete  with  interna;onal   counterparts.  The  report   includes  policies  and  prac;ces  in  gi>ed  educa;on,   raising  academic  standards,   and  promo;ng  appropriate  curriculum  for  gi>ed  learners.  
    27. 27. 1988     Congress  passes  the  Jacob   Javits  Gi>ed  and  Talented   Students  Educa;on  Act  as  part  of  the  Reauthoriza;on  of   the  Elementary  and   Secondary  Educa;on  Act.      
    28. 28. 1990    Na;onal  Research  Centers  on   the  Gi>ed  and  Talented  are  established  at  the  University  of  Connec;cut,  University  of  Virginia,  Yale  University,  and   the  University  of  Georgia.              
    29. 29. 1993 Na;onal  Excellence:  The  Case   for  Developing  Americas   Talent  issued  by  the  United   States  Department  of   Educa;on  outlining  how   America  neglects  its  most   talented  youth.  The  report   also  makes  a  number  of   recommenda;ons  influencing   the  last  decade  of  research  in   the  field  of  gi>ed  educa;on.  http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/DevTalent/toc.html
    30. 30. 1998     NAGC  publishes  Pre-­‐K-­‐Grade   12  Gi3ed  Program  Standards   to  provide  guidance  in  seven   key  areas  for  programs   serving  gi>ed  and  talented   students.          http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=546&terms=program+standards
    31. 31. 2002     The  No  Child  Le>  Behind  Act  (NCLB)  is   passed  as  the  reauthoriza;on  of  the   Elementary  and  Secondary  Educa;on   Act.    The  Javits  program  is  included  in   NCLB,  and  expanded  to  offer   compe;;ve  statewide  grants.    The   defini;on  of  gi>ed  and  talented   students  is  modified  again.     Students,  children,  or  youth  who  give  evidence  of  high  achievement  capability   in  areas  such  as  intellectual,  crea.ve,   ar.s.c,  or  leadership  capacity,  or  in   specific  academic  fields,  and  who  need   services  and  ac.vi.es  not  ordinarily   provided  by  the  school  in  order  to  fully   develop  those  capabili.es.  
    32. 32. 2004     A  Na;on  Deceived:  How  Schools  Hold  Back  America’s  Brightest  Students,  a  na;onal   research-­‐based  report  on   accelera;on  strategies  for   advanced  learners  is  published  by  the  Belin-­‐Blank   Center  at  the  University  of   Iowa.            

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