Timeline created by NAGC http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=607 Presentation created by Brian Housand, PhD East Carolina University http://brianhousand.com
History of Gifted Education
A History of Gifted Education
1868 William Torrey Harris, superintendent of public schools for St. Louis, ins;tutes the earliest systema;c eﬀorts in public schools to educate gi>ed students.
1869 Francis Galton’s seminal work, Hereditary Genius, is published indica;ng that intelligence was passed through successive genera;ons. His biographical study of over 400 Bri;sh men throughout history leads him to conclude through sta;s;cal methods that intelligence was derived from heredity and natural selec;on.
1901Worster, MassachuseHs opened the ﬁrst special school for gi>ed children.
1905 French researchers, Binet and Simon, develop a series of tests (Binet-‐Simon) to iden;fy children of inferior intelligence for the purpose of separa;ng them from normally func;oning children for placement in special classrooms. Their no;on of mental age revolu;onizes the science of psychological tes;ng by capturing intelligence in a single numerical outcome.
1908 Henry Goddard studies in France with Binet and is introduced to the Binet-‐Simon measurement scales. Subsequently, he ferries the test back to American in order to translate it into English and disseminate it to American educators and psychologists.
1916 Lewis Terman, the “father” of the gi>ed educa;on movement, publishes the Stanford-‐Binet, forever changing intelligence tes;ng and the face of American educa;on
1917 The United States’ entry into World War I necessitates the mobiliza;on of a large scale army. The Army Alpha and Beta were created and administered to over one million recruits, further legi;ma;zing intelligence tes;ng in both academia and with the general public.
1918 Lulu Stedman establishes an “opportunity room” for gi>ed students within the University Training School at the Southern Branch of the University of California.
1921 Lewis Terman begins what has remained the longest running longitudinal study of gi>ed children with an original sample of 1,500 gi>ed children.
1922 Leta S. Hollingworth begins the Special Opportunity Class at P. S. 165 in New York City for gi>ed students. This class would yield nearly forty research ar;cles, a textbook, and blueprints for Hollingworth’s work at P. S. 500, the Speyer School.
1925 Lewis Terman publishes Gene.c Studies of Genius, concluding that gi>ed students were: (a) qualita;vely diﬀerent in school, (b) slightly beHer physically and emo;onally in comparison to normal students, (c) superior in academic subjects in comparison to the average students, (d) emo;onally stable, (e) most successful when educa;on and family values were held in high regard by the family, and (f) inﬁnitely variable in combina;on with the number of traits exhibited by those in the study. This is the ﬁrst volume in a ﬁve-‐volume study spanning nearly 40 years.
1926 Leta Hollingworth publishes Gi3ed Child: Their Nature and Nurture, what is considered to be the ﬁrst textbook on gi>ed educa;on.
1936Hollingworth establishes P. S. 500, the Speyer School, for gi>ed children ages 7-‐9.
1944G.I Bill of Rights making a college educa;on available to veterans from World War II who would otherwise not have had the opportunity to pursue higher educa;on.
1950 J. P. Guilford gives the key note address at the annual APA conven;on, challenging an examina;on of intelligence as a mul;dimensional construct.
1950 Na;onal Science Founda;on Act provides federal support for research and educa;on in mathema;cs, physical sciences, and engineering.
1954 The Na.onal Associa.on of Gi3ed Children is founded under the leadership of Ann Isaacs.
1954 Brown vs. The Board of Educa;on ends “separate but equal educa;on.”
1957 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, sparking the United States to reexamine its human capital and quality of American schooling par;cularly in mathema;cs and science. As a result, substan;al amounts of money pour into iden;fying the brightest and talented students who would best proﬁt from advanced math, science, and technology programming.
1958 The Na;onal Defense Educa;on Act passes. This is the ﬁrst large-‐scale eﬀort by the federal government in gi>ed educa;on.
1964 The Civil Rights Act passes, emphasizing equal opportuni;es including those in educa;on.
1974 The Oﬃce of the Gi>ed and Talented housed within the U. S Oﬃce of Educa;on is given oﬃcial status.
1972 The Marland Report-‐The ﬁrst formal deﬁni;on is issued encouraging schools to deﬁne gi>edness broadly, along with academic and intellectual talent the deﬁni;on includes leadership ability, visual and performing arts, crea;ve or produc;ve thinking, and psychomotor ability. [Note: psychomotor ability is excluded from subsequent revisions of the federal deﬁni.on.]
1975 Public Law 94-‐142 The Educa;on for all Handicapped Children Act. This Act establishes a federal mandate to serve children with special educa;on needs, but does not include children with gi>s and talents.
1983 A Na;on at Risk reports scores of America’s brightest students and their failure to compete with interna;onal counterparts. The report includes policies and prac;ces in gi>ed educa;on, raising academic standards, and promo;ng appropriate curriculum for gi>ed learners.
1988 Congress passes the Jacob Javits Gi>ed and Talented Students Educa;on Act as part of the Reauthoriza;on of the Elementary and Secondary Educa;on Act.
1990 Na;onal Research Centers on the Gi>ed and Talented are established at the University of Connec;cut, University of Virginia, Yale University, and the University of Georgia.
1993 Na;onal Excellence: The Case for Developing Americas Talent issued by the United States Department of Educa;on outlining how America neglects its most talented youth. The report also makes a number of recommenda;ons inﬂuencing the last decade of research in the ﬁeld of gi>ed educa;on. http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/DevTalent/toc.html
1998 NAGC publishes Pre-‐K-‐Grade 12 Gi3ed Program Standards to provide guidance in seven key areas for programs serving gi>ed and talented students. http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=546&terms=program+standards
2002 The No Child Le> Behind Act (NCLB) is passed as the reauthoriza;on of the Elementary and Secondary Educa;on Act. The Javits program is included in NCLB, and expanded to oﬀer compe;;ve statewide grants. The deﬁni;on of gi>ed and talented students is modiﬁed again. Students, children, or youth who give evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as intellectual, crea.ve, ar.s.c, or leadership capacity, or in speciﬁc academic ﬁelds, and who need services and ac.vi.es not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabili.es.
2004 A Na;on Deceived: How Schools Hold Back America’s Brightest Students, a na;onal research-‐based report on accelera;on strategies for advanced learners is published by the Belin-‐Blank Center at the University of Iowa.