Election Systems: Management, Testing   and Deployment in an Era of RisingExpectations for e-Government Solutions         ...
Disclaimer(s)• Employed by Kennesaw State University• Do not represent State of Georgia or the Officeof the Secretary of S...
Rising ExpectationsMandates for local and state governments: •Expand services •Improve services – quality and accessibilit...
Rising Expectations“…whether you voted for the very firsttime or waited in line for a very long time -- by the way, we hav...
Election Official as IT Manager• Attitude• Knowledge• SkillWhat are the core competencies of election officials?
Election Official as IT Manager• Attitudes  – IT is an investment  – IT goals must be congruent with organization goals  –...
Election Official as IT Manager• Knowledge   –   Must understand core technologies   –   Must understand system dependenci...
Innovation and Replacement• What are some of the features that states and  localities are looking for in a “next generatio...
Innovation and Replacement• How could the next generation of equipment  make voting – and election administration –  more ...
Election Systems vs. Voting SystemsA major difference…what and how we test.“People do what we inspect, not what we expect”...
Because we can…Right now, we inspect voting systems• Federal Testing: EAC VVSG 2005• State Certification Testing• Acceptan...
Emerging ChallengeIn the future, we may not be able to  separate the consequence of poorly  performing election systems fr...
Systems• A system is a collection of components  (including subsystems) that transform  inputs into outputs.• Systems util...
System Components•   Hardware•   Software•   Data•   People•   Procedures
Voting Systems• Vote Capture• Vote Tabulation
Election SystemsSystems used to collect, store, compute, analyze, report, a nd disseminate data related to the election pr...
Acceptance and Use of Technology• Four key aspects predict adoption and usage of  technologies:   – Performance expectancy...
eGovernment Systems„eGovernment - the utilization of IT, ICTs, and other web-based telecommunication technologies to impro...
eGovernment and eGovernance• Focus:   – The use of Information and communication     technologies, including the Internet,...
eGovernment Examples•Campground Reservations        •WIC Services Eligibility Checker•Citizen Alert System           •Busi...
Uniform Voting System• Uniformity of voting systems is multi-  dimensional. Within the jurisdiction there may  be uniformi...
Uniform Voting System• A voting system that consists of a defined set of  vote-capture and vote-tabulation  devices, consi...
Uniform Voting System• There are no single-vendor systems• Every voting system is a collection of  proprietary, COTS and i...
Uniform or Unified?Are jurisdictions moving toward uniformity or  unification of election systems?
Emerging Systems               •Online VR Systems               •Online VR Application               Systems   VoterRegist...
Emerging Systems              •Statewide rollup              •County/Township/   Election              Precinct level repo...
Emerging Systems•Vote-by-mail•UOCAVA BallotDelivery Systems    Distributed•Internet Voting      Voting                   T...
Emerging Systems•Ballot on Demand•Electronic Pollbooks•Voter ID initiatives•Accessibility Enhancements    Operations      ...
Mature Systems•VVSG standard exists•Testing protocols are established and vetted•Local focus with some State level control...
System Convergence   Voter        Election       Distributed                                               OperationsRegis...
Unified Election System   Voter        Election       Distributed                                               Operations...
Implications for testingEmerging election systems provide inputs to, and utilize outputs of the voting system – primarily ...
Challenges for Testing• Election systems lack standards for conformance testing.  Testing may be more qualitative than qua...
Product Review & Integrated Testing• As election systems merge, the relationship  between the voting system and deployed  ...
Questions?    Merle Kingmking@kennesaw.edu
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Merle King, Elections Administrators are IT Managers

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Presentation by Merle King that shows the convergence of different components of the election administration process.

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  • Reprise of presentation made at NASS in 2011.
  • Voting systems are not monolithic, harmonious collections of technology. They are systems of systems. They include technologies, data – both current and legacy, procedures for operations, software – application and systems, and people. Voting systems are designed against specifications and requirements that change before deployment and continue to change throughout the life span of the system.This presentation is a continuation of a series of presentations and round table discussions related to preparing for the 2012 election cycle. The 2012 election will be the most important election we have had…since the last election.
  • Voting systems are not monolithic, harmonious collections of technology. They are systems of systems. They include technologies, data – both current and legacy, procedures for operations, software – application and systems, and people. Voting systems are designed against specifications and requirements that change before deployment and continue to change throughout the life span of the system.This presentation is a continuation of a series of presentations and round table discussions related to preparing for the 2012 election cycle. The 2012 election will be the most important election we have had…since the last election.
  • Voting systems are not monolithic, harmonious collections of technology. They are systems of systems. They include technologies, data – both current and legacy, procedures for operations, software – application and systems, and people. Voting systems are designed against specifications and requirements that change before deployment and continue to change throughout the life span of the system.This presentation is a continuation of a series of presentations and round table discussions related to preparing for the 2012 election cycle. The 2012 election will be the most important election we have had…since the last election.
  • Merle King, Elections Administrators are IT Managers

    1. 1. Election Systems: Management, Testing and Deployment in an Era of RisingExpectations for e-Government Solutions Merle S. King January 8, 2012 Jacksonville, FL © 2011
    2. 2. Disclaimer(s)• Employed by Kennesaw State University• Do not represent State of Georgia or the Officeof the Secretary of State of Georgia• Do not represent the EAC• 100% of the funding for the Center for ElectionSystems is derived from a contract with GeorgiaSOS•Opinions expressed are my own
    3. 3. Rising ExpectationsMandates for local and state governments: •Expand services •Improve services – quality and accessibility •Reduce costs •Increase transparency and accountability …. do more, with less – a lot less.
    4. 4. Rising Expectations“…whether you voted for the very firsttime or waited in line for a very long time -- by the way, we have to fix that…”- President Barack Obama, Acceptance Speech, November 7, 2012.
    5. 5. Election Official as IT Manager• Attitude• Knowledge• SkillWhat are the core competencies of election officials?
    6. 6. Election Official as IT Manager• Attitudes – IT is an investment – IT goals must be congruent with organization goals – IT is pervasive and creates dependencies – IT is not a capital asset; it‟s “supplies” – Vendor partnerships necessary; vendor management mandatory – IT leadership is a meritocracy – Youth will be served
    7. 7. Election Official as IT Manager• Knowledge – Must understand core technologies – Must understand system dependencies – Must be able to plan IT – Must understand IT audit principles• Skills – Consider ROI of personal skills – Cultivate, delegate, sub contract
    8. 8. Innovation and Replacement• What are some of the features that states and localities are looking for in a “next generation” voting system? – backward/forward compatibility – true cost of ownership – horizontal & vertical integration – long service life – adaptive – multi-mode
    9. 9. Innovation and Replacement• How could the next generation of equipment make voting – and election administration – more efficient? – data collection and reporting – non-invasive security diagnostics – appropriate vendor roles – auditability
    10. 10. Election Systems vs. Voting SystemsA major difference…what and how we test.“People do what we inspect, not what we expect”, is a common rule of management. It also applies to systems.
    11. 11. Because we can…Right now, we inspect voting systems• Federal Testing: EAC VVSG 2005• State Certification Testing• Acceptance Testing• Logic and Accuracy Testing• Audits …. so why is this a potential problem?
    12. 12. Emerging ChallengeIn the future, we may not be able to separate the consequence of poorly performing election systems from well performing voting systems.
    13. 13. Systems• A system is a collection of components (including subsystems) that transform inputs into outputs.• Systems utilize feedback loops to monitor states and adjust performance• Systems maintain interfaces with other systems
    14. 14. System Components• Hardware• Software• Data• People• Procedures
    15. 15. Voting Systems• Vote Capture• Vote Tabulation
    16. 16. Election SystemsSystems used to collect, store, compute, analyze, report, a nd disseminate data related to the election process. Includes voter registration, digital pollbooks, ballot delivery and retrieval, election night reporting, voting systems, social media systems, etc.
    17. 17. Acceptance and Use of Technology• Four key aspects predict adoption and usage of technologies: – Performance expectancy – Effort expectancy – Social influence – Facilitating conditions• Mediators include: – Gender, age, experience, and voluntariness Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology - Venkatesh
    18. 18. eGovernment Systems„eGovernment - the utilization of IT, ICTs, and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector. (Jeong, 2007)
    19. 19. eGovernment and eGovernance• Focus: – The use of Information and communication technologies, including the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government. – The use of information and communication technologies in all facets of the operations of a government organization. – The continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media. *• eGovernance is the use of ICTs to achieve better governance – including elections * Koh
    20. 20. eGovernment Examples•Campground Reservations •WIC Services Eligibility Checker•Citizen Alert System •Business/Professional Services•Dog Licenses •Professional License Renewals•Driver‟s License Renewal•Find Elected Officials •Public Criminal Record Search•Hunting and Fishing Licenses •Title and Registration Records•Local Government Information Search•Sex Offender Registry Search •Aircraft Registration renewal•Voter Information Look up •UOCAVA Ballot Request•Services payment •Fine payments•Mapping and GIS •Judicial Courts Mediator Search•Water Test Kit Ordering
    21. 21. Uniform Voting System• Uniformity of voting systems is multi- dimensional. Within the jurisdiction there may be uniformity in – Technologies – Vendor (single-vendor) – Procedures – Administrative organization• Uniformity enhances standards; standards are the metrics of quality enhancement
    22. 22. Uniform Voting System• A voting system that consists of a defined set of vote-capture and vote-tabulation devices, consistent procedures applied across all jurisdictions, defined roles for participants in the administration of elections and standard and consistent formats for election data and the management of that data• Uniformity is already imposed by statute or rule on many aspects of voting and election systems• Uniformity is a matter of degree
    23. 23. Uniform Voting System• There are no single-vendor systems• Every voting system is a collection of proprietary, COTS and integrated sub systems which have multiple vendors (consider the supply chain for consumables)• At best, a “single vendor” is an integrator• Vendor dependency: the vendor is a portal to the jurisdiction‟s voting and election systems
    24. 24. Uniform or Unified?Are jurisdictions moving toward uniformity or unification of election systems?
    25. 25. Emerging Systems •Online VR Systems •Online VR Application Systems VoterRegistration •VR Reporting Systems Systems •Integration with GIS
    26. 26. Emerging Systems •Statewide rollup •County/Township/ Election Precinct level reporting Reporting •Post election analysis Systems •Data harvesting potential •Integration with GIS
    27. 27. Emerging Systems•Vote-by-mail•UOCAVA BallotDelivery Systems Distributed•Internet Voting Voting Technologies•Social Media
    28. 28. Emerging Systems•Ballot on Demand•Electronic Pollbooks•Voter ID initiatives•Accessibility Enhancements Operations Enhancement•Security Enhancements•Training & Outreach
    29. 29. Mature Systems•VVSG standard exists•Testing protocols are established and vetted•Local focus with some State level control•Legacy issues•Oldest technologies; mature market Voting System Vote Capture/Vote Tabulation
    30. 30. System Convergence Voter Election Distributed OperationsRegistration Reporting Voting Enhancement Systems Systems Technologies Voting System Vote Capture/Vote Tabulation
    31. 31. Unified Election System Voter Election Distributed OperationsRegistration Reporting Voting Enhancement Systems Systems Technologies Voting System Vote Capture/Vote Tabulation
    32. 32. Implications for testingEmerging election systems provide inputs to, and utilize outputs of the voting system – primarily through human interfaceThe performance of these systems impact the operational accuracy and reliability of the voting system – and vice versaOur testing strategies lack symmetry – we may be over-testing voting systems and under-testing election systems
    33. 33. Challenges for Testing• Election systems lack standards for conformance testing. Testing may be more qualitative than quantitative• Systems are frequently licensed, not sold to jurisdictions. Vendor involved in testing, deployment and use.• Systems are not mature – frequent upgrades/updates.• Implications of use (and misuse) not well understood by user community or public• Functional testing done by vendor
    34. 34. Product Review & Integrated Testing• As election systems merge, the relationship between the voting system and deployed election systems must be understood, documented and evaluated• Dependencies should be included into voting system testing and into the testing of the election system• In addition to functional tests – a product review
    35. 35. Questions? Merle Kingmking@kennesaw.edu
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