Preservation & Sustainability - City of Redmond


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Brian Rich gave this presentation to officials from the City of Redmond, Washington on the 14th of May 2012. The presentation discusses the connection between sustainable communities and historic preservation.

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  • At the core of the Standards is the concept that we should, if possible, do no harm to the structure.
  • King Sturge, a Real Estate Consultant in the UK offers this statement on Corporate Social Responsibility.An Economic impact…An Environmental impact…A Social (and we might add, cultural) impact…DonnovanRypkema, noted author of Place Economics, has drawn some interesting connections between sustainable design and this statement of Corporate Social Responsibility.Remember this statement: we’ll come back to it.
  • In his speech given at the Sustain America Conference, Donovan Rypkema suggests that a sustainable community must be viable, livable, and equitable.He further offers one way that historic preservation relates to this sustainable community, drawing connections to the King Sturge Corporate Social Responsibility Statement.
  • Donovan Rypkema suggests that:1. An equitable community is one that is economically, socially, and culturally responsible, an extension of the King Sturge statement of Corporate Social Responsibility.2. A viable community is one that is economically and environmentally responsible.3. A livable community is one that is environmentally, socially, and culturally responsible.How does this translate into the world of historic preservation and sustainable design? Let’s look.
  • Preservation is Environmental Sustainability because….Reduces solid wasteReduces solid waste in landfills 1. Construction debris accounts for 1/3 of all waste generated in the US 2. Construction and demolition debris is 136 million tons annually 3. As of 2008, Only 20-30% of construction waste is recycled or reused110 train cars of solid waste go to eastern Oregon each day with waste from the Seattle area!With adaptive re-use, construction waste is reduced or never created in the first place.In other cases, buildings can be deconstructed. Deconstruction is being employed in the deconstruction of barns in the State Barn program. Large sized pieces of old growth wood can be recycled by being cut down to smaller sizes. Conserves natural resourcesPreservation of existing wood and stone materials reduces the need for new materials to be refined, manufactured, and fabricated.98% of the old growth timber that was on the continental US in 1642 is gone. Let’s conserve what we have! Improves air and water qualityPreservation reduces fossil fuel consumption used to dispose of old materials Typical mid-20th century building contains equivalent of 5-15 gallons of gas/sq. ft. Nakamura Courthouse would have 1.9 million gallons of embodied energy…. …which has been conserved through renovation of the building.Preservation reduces energy consumption used to create, fabricate, and deliver new materials Vinyl production is 40x more energy consuming than wood – and it never goes away!Aluminum fabrication is 125x more energy consuming than wood Preservation reduces energy consumption in operation of the building through Improved insulation and air infiltration of the building envelopeHigher efficiency HVAC and electrical equipmentThese features of preservation reduce human impact on the planet and increasing the quality of our air, water, and environment.Thus Preservation enhances & protects Earth’s ecosystems & biodiversity 
  • Preservation is Economic Sustainability because….Historic Buildings are already energy efficient by design.Pre-1920 buildings use 20% less energy than 1980s buildingsThis is because they incorporate more ways for people to control their environmenta. Operable windows for natural ventilation and control of the indoor environmentb. Large windows for daylightingc. High ceilings allow heat build-up (and future renovation of the space)High Thermal Mass of older masonry buildings resists the daily heating and cooling cyclesAnd best yet, the materials don’t off-gas hazardous fumes. Historic Buildings enhance property valuesHistoric buildings and districts have more stable property values Historic buildings and districts have a greater rate of property value appreciationIn 2006, the Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation completed their Economic Development Study. This study showed that Bellingham, WA, landmark district property values increased 500% to 600% over a 20 year period.Preservation increases employment and keeps money local New construction is 50% materials and 50% labor. Rehabilitation is 60-70% laborFor every $1 million in construction cost…General production plant produces 23.9 jobsNew construction produces 30.6 jobsRehabilitation produces 35.4 jobsThis is more jobs created than finance and insurance, new construction, wood product manufacturing, food manufacturing, and aerospace manufacturing for the same investment.Money paid into labor market gets spent in the same regions since labor is local.Less money is sent to far flung companies across the country – or the world, in our global economy – for new materials.Preservation provides places for business incubators.New businesses are frequently found in older parts of cities because of the lower overhead costsLastly, the DAHP study also shows that Heritage Tourism generates nearly 32 jobs for every $1 million invested. Optimizes Life-cycle performanceThe life span is 80+ years for many local historic buildings30% of new windows in buildings are replaced within 10 years – windows fabricated from old growth timber last longer.Historic buildings have a high degree of flexibility in use if an appropriate use is selectedThink about the life cycle of new buildings30-40 years lifespan is what we design and budget for these days, typicallyAn historic building can work for a century or more and then gain new life through adaptive re-use or renovation!Reduces need for additional infrastructureThe existing infrastructure is in place for our existing buildings and is generally designed to handle the current demands, such as water or sewer. The exception seems to be an ever increasing demand for power and low voltage data systems.Maintaining the same building size and usage levels eliminates the need to increase the size of services to a region when it is improved to it’s “highest and best use”
  • Preservation is Social and Cultural Responsibility because….Enhances occupant comfort and health.Preservation…Eliminates toxic assemblies, e.g. vinyl windowsProvides individual controllability of ventilation Provides psychologically healthy environments for living, working and playingThe damage to our psyches when we are removed from our known environment is large – and largely immeasurable.However, we do know that our stress levels increase in times of upheaval and change.Maintaining our current environment in a stable form helps to keep us stable.Usually the pace of change in our built environment is slow enough for us to adapt, but when an icon of our community is demolished, we know it! We FEEL it!Supports cultural and social sustainabilityCultural Sustainability is based on memory – you can’t sustain a culture without the long term memory of what it is and our built environment provides the concrete evidence of that culture.Specialist trades (plasterers, woodworkers and carpenters, terra cotta and stone masons, etc.) must be continued to preserve their techniques, conventions, and wisdom.Any man made item is an inherent example of the culture in which it is created.From a broader view, we are in the midst of a mass movement towards economic globalization. HP prevents being overwhelmed by change toward a mono-culture that comes with economic globalization by preserving local cultures and traditions.Preservation…Retains the memory of place and special abilities involved in making themEmphasizes importance of social capital in buildings and neighborhoodsEncourages social interaction and civic engagementContinues local culture and traditionsSocial sustainability and equality – Many economic sustainability indicators are also social equality indicatorsJobs creation in the area of heritage tourism, rehabilitation, and related industries bring jobs to all levels of our communities as shown in the DAHP study.Affordable housing is easy – just quit tearing down existing buildings. They’re less expensive to renovate than to build new, result in lower costs for tenants, and have longer life cycles!Business incubator – We’ve all heard the statistics that new jobs are created in small businesses. Some 80 to 85% of new jobs are in small businesses. Businesses thrive because of low overhead in older parts of cities.Supports economically viable communitiesHeritage tourists spent an estimated 8.7 million visitor days in Washington State in 2004, withaverage expenditures per day of $72.40. This resulted in total annual spending statewide of about $633 million.More affordable housing is available because renovation or adaptive re-use of an existing structure is less expensive on a per square foot basis than new construction.And we have already discussed the potential of the business incubator effects and labor versus material costs
  • Going back to the diagram I showed earlier. Historic Preservation is an integral part of a sustainable community.It supports economically, socially, and culturally responsible communities – equitable communities.It supports economically and environmentally responsible communities – viable communities.It supports socially, culturally, and economically responsible communities – livable communities.When I think of the historic districts I know, they are vibrant, vital and cherished by their communities.Sustainability does begin with preservation.
  • New Richmond Laundry BuildingThe laundry facility, designed by architect Max Umbrecht, was built in 1917 and known as Metropolitan Laundry.  The solid brick building served the laundry industry until 1999 when it was vacated and designated a historic landmark. Located in South Lake Union, the building is now known as Alley 24. It was purchased by Vulcan Real Estate. They opted for adaptive re-use of the building in their multi-family/commercial adaptive re-use of the property. As you’ll see from the photos, the new apartment building envelopes the old brick laundry building (which itself was used for townhomes).
  • Location: 1521 10th Avenue on Capitol Hill in SeattleThe building dates from 1918—and was the original Ford truck service center for Seattle. 
  • Location: 1521 10th Avenue on Capitol Hill in SeattleThe building dates from 1918—and was the original Ford truck service center for Seattle. 
  • The Olson Mansion property is a 42 acre venue in Maple Valley, WA. It was previously known as The Links at Olson Mansion, a 9-hole golf course, and was a farm before that. It is now owned by the New Community Church.There is a 10,500 square foot mansion that includes a huge parlour room and wrap around deck. The mansion will be used as dining and gathering spaces, offices, and other church related functions. A rustic barn is being rehabilitated into a gathering space and formal stage area, celebrating the fantastic architecture of the barn.Other compatible structures will be added in the future for church use. Many features of the golf course will be removed, such as the man made berms, returning it to the appearance of the farm it once was.
  • From Graham Baba’s description of the project:This 20,000 SF building is an example of adaptive reuse of a classic auto row structure in the dense Capitol Hill neighborhood into a modern, urban market. The ultimate goals are: historic preservation; utilization of sustainable, repurposed materials; returning transparency of the original building to bring in natural light as well as engage and interact with the streetscape and pedestrian traffic. To accomplish this: auto row style was embraced and reinforced by maintaining building’s exterior design while combining exposed brick, wood, and steel for interior; materials recycled from original and off-site structures were employed; small tenant stalls were designed to make efficient use of space; original transparency recreated via large exterior windows to bring in light, activate streetscape from within and without; pedestrians engaged by designing building’s interior corridor to move through market as a natural continuation of exterior sidewalk flow. At the intersection of Capitol Hill and Downtown, the renovation of the buildings brings new services that are much needed in the neighborhood. The market offers a butcher shop, a flower and produce stall, a cheese vendor, a sustainable sandwich shop, a unique restaurant and wine shop and bar. The project also features a record store, a bar, a clothing boutique, and two future restaurants.To enliven the streetscape, planters march along the facade and sidewalk adding greenery to the formerly tough industrial sidewalk. Working with a bike-friendly city program, a large on-street bike rack encourages alternative transportation methods. Sidewalk cafes provide additional seating for the market and restaurants while increasing the local neighborhood on-street activity. Future roof top dining at the point of the triangle adds yet another unique way to experience the existing neighborhood fabric.
  • Name: Stephen and Katie Sloan (plus Peter, Anna, and Evi) Location: Bainbridge Island, WAProperty Type: Converted Dairy Barn Size: 2400 square feet (3 bedrooms, 2 bath)Resting on half an acre of pastoral countryside on Bainbridge Island is a distinctively charming home that was once a dairy barn. Originally constructed in 1905 and converted in 1980, this home beautifully integrates original rustic elements with comfortable modern touches.
  • Some longtime members of St. Alexis Catholic Church in McCandless are known as "coopers." Parish historian Bob Eicher said the name refers to those who 60 years ago attended weekday masses in a converted chicken coop.The parish was created in May 1961 on the site of a former farm. The farm property had 11 existing buildings, but a builder in the congregation advised the priest that only one structure -- a chicken coop with a concrete floor -- offered possibilities."The next night 50 men appeared at the rectory and began the task of building a chapel out of a section of the chicken coop," the newspaper story said. "And while one crew built, another hauled in church furnishings they had begged from neighboring parishes."
  • Wallingford Center was a pioneering effort of the City of Seattle and the Seattle School District to adaptively re-use the original Interlake Public School.  A Seattle Historic Landmark, it is also listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Interlake Elementary School was built in 1904 in the Wallingford neighborhood. In the 70's with changing demographics, the school was closed, and sat vacant for many years.A local developer, Lorig Associates, which leases the building from the Seattle School district, took on the project of renovating the old school building. The architects given the assignment to convert Interlake Elementary school into a mixed use facility were Tonkin HoyneLokin Architects. The three-story, wood-framed structure in the heart of the Wallingford commercial district is a private development converting the 53,000 square foot former elementary school into a mixed-use complex. The end result is a building with 24 studio apartments on the top floor, and two floors of retail, services and restaurants. 
  • Preservation & Sustainability - City of Redmond

    1. 1. Adaptive Reuse andHistoric Preservation City of Redmond May 17, 2012
    2. 2. “Sometimes the biggestchallenge in reusing a historicbuilding is not adapting itsirreplaceable features,but convincing those who willultimately use the building Wilton Candy Kitchen, Wilton, Iowathat youre not crazy.” – Building circa 1860John Greer, Jason ClementAdaptive reuse is the act of finding a new use for abuilding – a “process by which structurally soundolder buildings are developed for economically viablenew uses.” – Richard L. Austin
    3. 3. Thank you for joining us,Tonight’s presenters are...
    4. 4. Redmond HistorianChair of Redmond’s Landmark CommissionSpecial Redmond Member ofKing County’s Regional Landmarks CommissionTHOMAS HITZROTH
    5. 5. Principal at BDR ArchitectsVice Chair of King County’s Regional Landmarks CommissionChair of King County’s Design Review CommitteeWA Heritage Barn Advisory CommitteeBRIAN D. RICHAIA, NCARB, LEED AP, CDT
    6. 6. Principal Architect at Piper Cole ArchitectsChair of Redmond’s Innovative Housing Review PanelMember of Redmond’s Landmark CommissionPrincipal Architect at Meade Design Group, LLCChair of Redmond’s Design Review BoardDAVID SCOTT MEADEAIA, NCARB
    7. 7. King County Historic Preservation OfficerJULIE KOLER
    8. 8. Senior Planner, Neighborhoods and Historic PreservationKIMBERLY DIETZ
    9. 9. Population• From 47 in 1880• To 54,144 in 2011• From a business district of appx. 5 blocks• To two urban centers today
    10. 10. Redmond In 203078,000 Downtownresidents119,000 jobs18 hour placeArt, history,gateways,and gatheringMobilityNearly 3/4th of Redmond’s housing growth and 2/3rds ofcommercial development expected in Downtown and Overlake
    11. 11. DowntownParking2 hour, 9am-5pm, limited Disabled & motorcycles unlimited parkingFuture - some paid facilitiesfor more than 2 daytimehoursAdditional information:Gloria Newby425-556-2442
    12. 12. Redmond’s16 Landmarks
    13. 13. How did it begin? A brief history of Redmond
    14. 14. Pioneering1871• Pioneering families • Perrigo • McRedmond1880• 47 people resided here• 6 families1883• Place known as a settlement • Not yet village or a town
    15. 15. Business - IndustryLogging industryRailroad connection in1889Circa 1900 development • Hotel Redmond • Depot • Meat Market • Sikes Valley Hotel • Walther Hotel
    16. 16. Redmond - IncorporationIncorporation – 1912 6 weeks after Earnest Adams birth November 24.• Water system• Taxation of alcohol• Commercial expansion • Saloon – Bill Brown • Redmond State Bank • Redmond Trading Company • first brick building
    17. 17. LEED and SustainableBenefits Of Preservation and Adaptive Reuse
    18. 18. Tour Discussion - Review• Compatibility • Uses appropriate to a building (Architect’s office at Judge White House) (Standard 1) • Aesthetic (ramp at the Judge White House, Windows at Brown Building) (Standard 9) • Technical properties (mortar at brick infill, wood shakes) (Standard 5)
    19. 19. Tour Discussion - Review• False Historicism (Standard 3)• Replace in kind or repair vs new (Standard 6)• Removing an alteration (Metal Siding at Walther Hotel) (Standard 10)• Period of Significance (Metal roof and sign alterations at Ashleigh’s Attic) (Standard 2 & 4)
    20. 20. Tour Discussion - Review• Standards we didn’t talk about:• Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means "First, do no harm" Hippocratic Oath (Standard 7)• Archaeology – Document and respect the underground data (Standard 8)
    21. 21. Tour Discussion - Review• Code requirements for re-use • Change of Use triggers code upgrades • Flexibility in the Building Code (Chapter 34, Section 3412 and IEBC, and Building Official)
    22. 22. Preservation & Sustainability
    23. 23. One Statement of Responsibility… King Sturge: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Statement: “As a business we are clearly focused on achieving commercial success, but we realise that the way in which we run our business has an economic, social and environmental impact. We have a CSR framework to ensure that we maintain the focus on achieving commercial success by incorporating ethical values, respect for people, communities and the natural environment into our business activities, culture and strategy.”
    24. 24. A Sustainable Community is… To be sustainable, a community must be: • Viable • Livable • Equitable
    25. 25. Preservation - Integral to a Sustainable Community“Sustainability begins with preservation.” - Whole Building Design Guide
    26. 26. Preservation is Environmental Sustainability Preservation…. • Reduces solid waste • Conserves natural resources • Improves air and water quality • Enhances & protects ecosystems & biodiversity“Any new building represents a new impact on the environment.” - Richard Moe, 2007
    27. 27. Preservation is Economic Sustainability Preservation… • Reduces energy consumption by design • Enhances property values • Increases employment and keeps money local • Optimizes Life-cycle performance • Reduces need for additional infrastructure “Considering embodied energy, a new energy-efficient office building doesn’t start saving energy for about 40 years. And if it replaces an older building that was knocked down and hauled away, thebreakeven period stretches to some 65 years . – Mike Jackson, 2008
    28. 28. Preservation is Social and Cultural Sustainability Preservation… • Enhances occupant comfort and health • Supports cultural and social sustainability • Supports economically viable communities “I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land; but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that comeafter us.” – Theodore Roosevelt, 1910
    29. 29. Preservation - Integral to a Sustainable Community“Sustainability begins with preservation.” - Whole Building Design Guide
    30. 30. What works well – Examplesfrom the Region
    31. 31. Richmond Laundry Building - Seattle, WACommercial Laundry Facility to Multi-Family Residential/Commercial Building
    32. 32. Elliot Bay Bookstore - Seattle, WACommercial Truck Service Center to Retail Store
    33. 33. Elliot Bay Bookstore - Seattle, WACommercial Truck Service Center to Retail Store
    34. 34. Olson Farm/Community Church - Maple Valley, WAFarm to Golf Course to Community Church
    35. 35. Melrose Market - Seattle, WAAuto Row Service Building to Commercial/Retail stores
    36. 36. Dairy Barn Conversion – Bainbridge Island, WABarn to Residential Use
    37. 37. Chicken House Conversions – near Pittsburg, PAChicken House to Residential Use
    38. 38. Wallingford Center - Seattle, WASchool to Multi-Family Residential/Commercial
    39. 39. Evolving Structures• Comparing construction techniques • The intended life of structures • What withstands time • And what does not
    40. 40. Blending Modern and Historic• Design elements that support blending• Design standards that support keeping historic (smaller scale) and accommodating modern (larger scale)
    41. 41. Different Uses and theirNeeds of Structure• How do businesses of today differ from that of yesteryear? • Restaurants – HVAC, commercial kitchens • Ingress, egress • Offices – equipment, temperature and humidity controls, furniture • Manufacturing – fire and safety standards
    42. 42. Redmond• Considering Downtown’s vision, helping Old Town fit in• Suggestions for City and businesses to remain strong as change occurs
    43. 43. Incentives• You own a landmark (or candidate), now what?
    44. 44. Certificate of Appropriateness
    45. 45. Local, Regional, State,National Programs
    46. 46. Activation and Partnerships Public and Private
    47. 47. Walk & Talk
    48. 48. Kimberly Dietz, Senior Planner, Historic Preservation425-556-2415 or kdietz@redmond.govFOR ADDITIONALINFORMATION