Exposed Concrete Floors

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Brian gave this presentation to Bassetti Architects to assist in their understanding of exposed concrete floors and the tips and tricks used to design good concrete floors.

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Exposed Concrete Floors

  1. 1. EXPOSED CONCRETE FLOORS The Nature of Concrete And Case Studies SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT WWW.RICHAVEN.COM 206.909.9866
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. Objectives: • Learn the different components of concrete floor systems • Understand objectives and concerns for floors in our buildings • Learn the pros and cons of exposed concrete floors as opposed to other flooring systems Outline: • Factors in Concrete Floor Design • Survey Results on Concrete Floors • Bassetti Projects with Concrete Floors • Conclusions Objectives and Outline Stay on target…
  4. 4. Factors in Concrete Floor Design I was walking down the street one day….
  5. 5. • Hard • Insta-floor! • Inexpensive • Durable • Beautiful • Low maintenance • Healthy • Sustainable • Can be covered later! Benefits of Concrete Floors Acid stained and sealed concrete floor
  6. 6. Challenges of Concrete Floors • Slab curl • FF/FL Tolerances • Smoothness • SOMD sag • Rain damage • Contractor damage • Cracking (structural and shrinkage) • Rock pockets and voids • Form & floor protection stains • Items cast into concrete (drains, electrical boxes, etc.) Rain damaged concrete floor
  7. 7. • Acoustics • Building Reuse • Cleanability • Disaster Resistance • Durability • Energy Performance • Heat Island Reduction (reflects heat?) • IndoorAir Quality • Life Cycle Balance • Lighting Efficiency • Locally Produced • Minimize Site Disruption (on-site storage) • Recyclable Material • Recycled Content • Resource Efficient • Site Remediation (Contaminent Solidification/Stabilization) • Stewardship of Environment • Stormwater Management (Pervious Concrete and stormwater catchment/piping) • Thermal Mass Source: http://www.concretethinker.com/ (Portland Cement Association) Sustainability & Concrete Floors Textured Green Concrete
  8. 8. Leslie Struble and Jonathan Godfrey: HOW SUSTAINABLE IS CONCRETE? • Based on calculations usingATHENA, “…concrete has less environmental impact than steel when compared in structures designed for the same engineering function…” • Impact Concrete Steel • Resource use (kg) 48.85 18.69 • Warming potential 9.97 8.95 (kg equivalent CO2) • Water pollution index 0.34 0.98 • Air pollution index 2.01 2.46 • Solid waste (kg) 1.87 1.80 • Energy (MJ) 140.18 229.69 International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology, Beijing, China, May 20–21, 2004 Sustainability & Concrete Floors St. Patrick’s Day? No – Green Concrete!
  9. 9. Costs of Concrete Floors - SOMD Slab on Metal Deck (SOMD) High cost system Unit Cost Units Low cost system Unit Cost Units Girder Size: W21x62 @ 29' o.c. $ 3,000.00 ton W16x31 w/ 1" camber @ 30' o.c. $3,000.00 ton Beam Size/Spacing/camber: W16x26 w/ 1" camber @ 9'-8" o.c. $ 3,000.00 ton W14x22 w/ 1" camber @ 10' o.c. $3,000.00 ton Metal Deck thickness/gauge: 3" x 18 GA $ 3.85 SF 2" x ? GA $ 3.00 SF Concrete thickness/strength: 6" total thk @ 4000 PSI $ 3.25 SF 4" total thk @ 3000 PSI $ 2.75 SF Reinforcing: Fiber Mesh @ 1.5 lbs/CY + 6x6 W1.4xW1.4 mesh $ 0.75 SF 6x6 W1.4xW1.4 mesh $ 0.45 SF Coloring: Integral Color (Liquid) $ 1.25 SF No color $ - SF Lamp Black $ 1.25 SF Acid Stain $ 1.50 SF Water Based Stain $ 1.00 SF Finish Steel Troweled $ 0.75 SF Broom Finish $ 0.20 SF Stamped-no color $ 1.75 SF Retroplate-no color $ 2.50 SF SOMD TOTAL COST (including structural steel) High cost $ 24.00 SF Low Cost $ 18.00 SF
  10. 10. Costs of Concrete Floors - SOG Slab on Grade (SOG) High cost system Unit Cost Units Low cost system Unit Cost Units Subgrade: 4" gravel over compacted subgrade $ 16.00 CY 4" gravel over compacted subgrade $ 16.00 CY Slab thickness: 4: thk $ 255.00 CY 4: thk $ 255.00 CY Configuration (thickened edge or flat slab Thickened slab edge $ 150.00 LF Thickened slab edge $ 150.00 LF Control Joint/Expansion Joint spacing: 15' o.c. max $ 0.60 LF 15' o.c. max $ 0.60 LF Reinforcing: Fiber Mesh @ 1.5 lbs/CY + 6x6 W1.4xW1.4 mesh $ 0.85 sf 6x6 W1.4xW1.4 mesh $ 0.45 sf Coloring: Integral Color (Liquid) $ 1.25 SF No color $ - SF Lamp Black $ 1.25 SF Acid Stain $ 1.50 SF Water Based Stain $ 1.00 SF Finish: Steel Troweled $ 0.75 SF Broom Finish $ 0.20 SF Stamped-no color $ 1.75 SF Retroplate-no color $ 2.50 SF 4" SOG TOTAL COST High cost $ 5.00 SF Low Cost $ 4.50 SF
  11. 11. • Quarry/ceramic/porcelain tile ($4.75 to $6/sf) • Stone (varies widely) • Slate flooring ($7/sf – material) • Epoxy (thin) terrazzo ($13/sf) • Fritztile ($7 to $9/sf) • Linoleum ($4.75/sf) • Rat slab/finish slab ($6 to $7/sf) • Rubber (recycled/tile/sheet) ($6 to $8/sf) • Cork ($6.75/sf) • Hardwood ($6.75/sf for maple) • Carpet ($3 to $3.50/sf) •VCT ($1.25/sf) •Vinyl sheet ($3.75/sf) • Epoxy ($10 to $12/sf) • Cementitious Overlay (Ardex) • Deco pour ($11 to $14/sf) Alternatives to Concrete Floors Confetti terrazzo
  12. 12. Concrete Survey – What do you think? What did the fish say when he hit a concrete wall? "Dam".
  13. 13. Survey Says! Types of projects Educational 41% Institutional 26% Corporate/Office 14% Retail 10% Industrial 9% Who are the survey responders? Architect 53% Contractor 10% Designer 3% Owner 17% Engineer 17% Do you use exposed concrete floors? Often 40% Sometimes 50% Seldom 7% Never 3%
  14. 14. Survey Says!
  15. 15. Survey Says!
  16. 16. SteelTroweled HandTroweledHardener/Densifier HonedorGrinded Retroplate Carpet Stamped/Textured ScoredorEngraved Best Acceptable Neutral Not So Good Not acceptable 7.70% 11.50% 3.70% 7.10% 3.70% 39.30% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% 50.00% Best finishes for concrete floors Best Acceptable Neutral Not So Good Not acceptable Survey Says!
  17. 17. Hardener/Densifier Honed/GrindedRetroplate SteeltroweledHandtroweled Carpet TileLinoleum $$$$$ $$ 8.30% 4.20%5.30% 4.20% 4 5.8 0 % 8 .3 0 % 3 9 .10 % 4 1.70 % 3 3 .3 0 % 3 6 .8 0 % 0 .0 0 % 5.0 0 % 10 .0 0 % 15.0 0 % 2 0 .0 0 % 2 5.0 0 % 3 0 .0 0 % 3 5.0 0 % 4 0 .0 0 % 4 5.0 0 % 50 .0 0 % Relative costs of concrete finishes $$$$$ $$$$ $$$ $$ $ Survey Says!
  18. 18. LiquidPigment PowderPigmentLampBlack Dyes Acid-basedStain Water-based... Minerals Handbroadcast ReleaseAgentTintedSealer Other Best Neut ral Not Accept able 4.80%4.80% 5.30% 6 3 .2 0 % 6 3 .6 0 % 2 8 .6 0 % 2 8 .6 0 % 0 .0 0 % 10 .0 0 % 2 0 .0 0 % 3 0 .0 0 % 4 0 .0 0 % 50 .0 0 % 6 0 .0 0 % 70 .0 0 % Best methods of coloring concrete Best Acceptable Neutral Not So Good Not Acceptable Survey Says!
  19. 19. Cost Constructability FinishesColor Durability Relatedconstruction EaseofInstallation Speedofconstruction Acoustics Maintenance(Repair) Maintenance(Cleaning) BuildingLifespanSafety Most Important Important Neutral Less Important Not a factor 52.20% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% Most important factors in selecting a flooring system Most Important Important Neutral Less Important Not a factor Survey Says!
  20. 20. Selected Projects Q. How can you drop a raw egg onto a concrete floor without cracking it? A. Concrete floors are very hard to crack!
  21. 21. Slab on Grade (SOG) for polished concrete • Subgrade: compacted on site soils or imported soil • Slab thickness: 5” • Configuration: varies – grade beams, flat slab and thickened edge • Control/Expansion Jts: approx. 12 feet by 12 feet • Reinforcing: Some 12 x 12 number 4 rebar, mostly fiber mesh • Coloring: natural and shades of lamp black • Finish: polished concrete Slab on Grade (SOG) for exposed concrete • Subgrade: compacted on site soils or imported soil • Slab thickness: 4 inches • Configuration: varies – grade beams, flat slab and thickened edge • Control/Exp Jts: CJ varies 8 to 12 feet • Reinforcing: fiber mesh • Coloring: natural • Finish: steel trowel Lynnwood High School Lynnwood Agora - slab on grade
  22. 22. SOMD for polished concrete • Structural Bay: varies from 6 to 10 feet • Girder Size: varies • Beam Size/Spacing/camber: beam sizes vary; camber varies from 0 to 1-1/4 inch • Metal Deck thickness/gauge: 3” @ 20 ga • Concrete thickness/strength: 6” @ 4,000 psi • Topping Slab: not applicable • Reinforcing: WWF 6x6 W4XW4 plus fiber mesh • Control/Exp Jts: none • Coloring: none • Finish: polished concrete SOMD for exposed concrete • Structural Bay: 10 feet x ? • Girder Size:W24 x 62 with c=1-1/4” • Beam Size/Spacing/camber: W12x22 with c=5/8” • Metal Deck thickness/gauge: 3” @ 20 ga • Concrete thickness/strength: 6” total @ 4,000 psi • Topping Slab: not applicable • Reinforcing: WWF 6x6 W4XW4 plus fiber mesh • Control/Exp Jts: none • Coloring: none • Finish steel troweled Lynnwood High School Lynnwood SOMD pour in progress!
  23. 23. Concrete topping over existing slabs Polish, hone, and ??? Fire Station 17 FS 17 Concrete topping over existing
  24. 24. Slab on Grade (SOG) • Subgrade: crushed rock • Thickness: 4” @ 4000 psi • Configuration: flat slab doweled @ edges • Control/Exp Jts: approx 12’-0” o.c. each way • Reinforcing: Fiber mesh • Coloring:Water based dye • Finish: Polished Slab On Metal Deck SOMD • Structural Bay: varies - approx. 35’-0” x 35’-0” • Girders:W18x40 @ 33’-5” max • Beam:W16x31 w/ ¾” camber @ 7’-0” typ. • Metal Deck: 2” @ 20 ga • Thickness/strength: 4 ½” or 5 ½” total @ 4000 psi • Topping Slab: none • Reinforcing: 6x6W1.4xW1.4 mesh • Control/Exp Jts: none • Coloring:Water based dye • Finish: Polished St.Thomas (Kristian) Polished Concrete at Donor Wall
  25. 25. Slab on Grade (SOG) • Subgrade: 6” crushed rock • Thickness: 4” @ 4000 psi • Configuration: Flat slab • Control/Exp Jts: • Reinforcing: 6x6 W1.4xW1.4 mesh • Coloring: • Finish:Topping slab Slab On Metal Deck SOMD • Structural Bay: 24’-7” x 30’-4” max • Girders:W21x50 w/ 0” camber @ 27’-4” • Beam:W14x30 w/ ½” camber @ 8’3” o.c. max • Metal Deck: 2” x 20 ga • Thickness/strength: 4 ½” total @ 4000 psi • Topping Slab: • Reinforcing: 6x6W1.4xW1.4 mesh • Control/Exp Jts: • Coloring: • Finish: Polished/Retroplate First United FUMC SOMD at Narthex
  26. 26. Slab on Grade (SOG) • Subgrade: 4” crushed rock • Thickness: 4” • Configuration: Thickened Slab Edge • Control/Exp Jts: 15’ o.c. max • Reinforcing: Fiber Mesh @ 1.5 lbs/CY + 6x6W1.4xW1.4 mesh • Coloring: Integral Liquid Pigment (BASF) • Finish: Steel troweled/exposed Slab On Metal Deck SOMD • Structural Bay: 29’x29’ • Girders: W21x62 @ 29' o.c. • Beam: W16x26 w/ 1" camber @ 9'-8" o.c. • Metal Deck: 3” x 18 ga • Thickness/strength: 6” total @ 4000 PSI • Topping Slab: None • Reinforcing: Fiber Mesh @ 1.5 lbs/CY + 6x6W1.4xW1.4 mesh + comp. slab rebar • Control/Exp Jts: None allowed • Coloring: Integral Liquid Pigment (BASF) • Finish: Steel troweled/exposed Lakota Middle School Lakota - concrete slab prior to pour
  27. 27. Slab on Grade (SOG) • Subgrade: 4” crushed rock • Thickness: 4” • Configuration: Thickened slab edge • Control/Exp Jts: 400 SF max • Reinforcing: 6x6W1.4xW1.4 • Coloring: None • Finish: Steel troweled (carpet) Slab On Metal Deck SOMD • Structural Bay: 30’x30’ • Girders: W16x31 w/ 1" camber @ 30' o.c. • Beam: W14x22 w/ 1" camber @ 10' o.c. • Metal Deck: 2” x ?? ga • Thickness/strength: 4” total @ 3000 psi • Topping Slab: None • Reinforcing: 6x6W1.4xW1.4 • Control/Exp Jts: ? • Coloring: None • Finish: Steel troweled (carpet) Renton Park Elementary SOG pour in action
  28. 28. For Further Reading Q: What do have when a lawyer is buried up to his neck in wet cement? A: Not enough cement.
  29. 29. • Bob Harris’ Guide to Concrete Overlays and Toppings • ACI Manual (See David) • Master Spec Coordination Documents • http://concreteconstruction.net/ • http://www.concretenetwork.com • http://www.cement.org/ • http://www.aci-int.org/ • http://www.pci.org • http://www.archprecast.org • http://www.ntma.com • http://www.csinet.org • Bassetti Master Specifications For Further Reading Photo Caption Text
  30. 30. Q: What do you get if you cross a chicken with a cement mixer? A: A brick layer! THANKS! SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT WWW.RICHAVEN.COM 206.909.9866

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