Cross Cultural Communication and Management - Summit Brazil ESPM 01-2014 part01

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Cross Cultural Communication and Management - Summit Brazil ESPM 01-2014 part01

Cross Cultural Communication and Management - Summit Brazil ESPM 01-2014 part01

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  • 1. PROF. BRIAN DAVID BUTLER briandbutler@gmail.com Linkedin.com/in/briandbutler A global citizen, Brian was born in Canada, raised in Switzerland (where he attended international schools), educated in the U.S., started his career with a Japanese company, moved to New York to work as an analyst, married a Brazilian, and has traveled extensively in Latin America, Asia, Europe and North America.
  • 2. PROF. BRIAN DAVID BUTLER briandbutler@gmail.com Linkedin.com/in/briandbutler Before founding Summit Global Education, Brian worked for three years, and helped organize multiple study-abroad programs in Europe and South Africa as the "Director of Marketing and Admissions" with "Forum-Nexus", an academic program co-sponsored by the IQS School of Management of the Ramon Llull University in Barcelona (which is fully accredited by AACSB), and by the Catholic University of Milan (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, member of the ISEP Network). During this time, Brian taught the "International Finance" courses for five semesters, and the "Introduction to the European Union" course for two semesters.
  • 3. PROF. BRIAN DAVID BUTLER briandbutler@gmail.com Linkedin.com/in/briandbutler Brian previously worked as an analyst for the Columbia Institute of Tele-Information (of the Columbia University Business School). Brian earned an MBA with valedictorian distinction from the Thunderbird School of Global Management and he has lectured on Finance, Economics and Global Trade as course facilitator at Thunderbird’s Global MBA program in Miami. He did his undergraduate studies at Michigan State University, and worked at Honda of America Manufacturing in their "International Parts Supply" department doing new model strategy.
  • 4. Student Introductions: -- International experience? -- Experience working in cross cultural teams? -- Why are you taking a Cross-Cultural course?
  • 5. Expectations: -- What do you think this course is about? -- What do you hope to learn?
  • 6. SYLLABUS ONLINE: http://www.summitstudyabroad.com/cross-cultural-management--brazil.html
  • 7. Reading: -- Have you bought the book? -- EXPECTATION --- READ THE ENTIRE BOOK BY THE 18TH OF JANUARY!
  • 8. READINGS Required Readings: • “Cultural Intelligence: Living and Working Globally”, by David Thomas and Kerr Inkson, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009 Recommended • “Brazil - Culture Smart! The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture”, Sandra Branco and Rob Williams, Kuperard; Reprinted edition edition (September 5, 2006). Additional Readings: • "Brazil, Country Travel Guide", Lonely Planet • “The New Brazil”, Professor Riordan Roett, Paul H Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (Director of the Western Hemisphere Studies and Latin American Studies Programs). Brookings Institutional Press; 1st edition (August 2, 2010). • "Brazil on the Rise, The Story of a Country Transformed", Larry Rohter. Palgrave Macmillan (February 28, 2012).
  • 9. ASSIGNMENTS Daily Reading • Reading from “Cultural Intelligence” book (Thomas, Inkson) – approximately 20 pages reading per day Daily Journal • International students: Write a 1/2 page daily journal (due by midnight before each class) about cultural experiences in Brazil, specifically focusing on communication issues and challenges that you personally have while abroad… • ESPM students: focus on interactions with international students.
  • 10. Daily Journal: -- Submit: courses@summitglobaleducation.com -- Due: by midnight before each class -- Length: ½ page (2-3 paragraphs) minimum -- Writing Style: Informal, personal, journal
  • 11. GROUP PROJECT Working in teams, students will develop a training manual for business executives preparing for expatriate assignments in Brazil: The training manual will be based on cross-cultural concepts discussed in class in tailored to the communication environment of Brazil. The objective is that groups produce a manual that could find practical applications in the real world of business and communication. The project report should be between 5 and 7 pages in length, including a description of the proposed practical training sessions and
  • 12. Group Project: -- Who are the teams? Send me an email with your team members TODAY! -- courses@summitglobaleducation.com
  • 13. Group Project grades: PEER REVIEWS -- Team evaluations -- At end of project, all teammates must evaluate each other -- On a scale of 1-10, how helpful was each of your teammates? -- Individual grades will be adjusted based on peer reviews!
  • 14. GRADING Midterm exam Final exam Team project Participation Introduction to Brazil 20% 30% 20% 10% 20%
  • 15. CLASS RULES • 10 minutes late = 50% attendance for day. • No phone / smartphone allowed. • Eating in class is not allowed • No laptops
  • 16. LET‘S START!
  • 17. QUESTION - What is ―Culture‖? -- How would YOU define culture?
  • 18. CULTURE
  • 19. CULTURE Questions: -- How is “culture” learned? -- Where do your VALUES come from? -- If you learned as a child, can you change? -- How is culture affected by history?
  • 20. ―Landscape shapes culture‖. – Terry Tempest Williams
  • 21. CULTURE Questions: -- How are other cultures different? GIVE EXAMPLES -- Is one culture “better” than another? (Really?) -- For you to be “right”… does someone else have to be “wrong”?
  • 22. ―Preservation of one‘s own culture does not require contempt or disrespect for other cultures.‖ – Cesar Chavez
  • 23. CULTURAL TOLERANCE "Your car is Japanese. Your pizza is Italian. Your potato is German. Your wine is Chilean. Your democracy is Greek. Your coffee is Colombian. Your tea is Tamil. Your watch is Swiss. Your shirt is Indian. Your shoes are Thai. Your electronics are Chinese. Your vodka... is.....Russian. And ...you complain that your neighbor is an immigrant? ‖ But is ―Tolerance‖ enough? … discuss…
  • 24. TOLERANCE? But, when it comes to actual differences in cultural views toward ―time‖ or ―hierarchy‖ … is it easy to celebrate cultural differences? What does it mean to ―celebrate cultural differences‖?
  • 25. Question: -- How is Cross Cultural COMMUNICATION different than Cross Cultural Management? -- Why study CC Management? (and not just communication?)
  • 26. WHY STUDY CULTURE? Why study "culture" for global business? The globalization of business and the multicultural make-up of workforces require today's managers to develop cultural competence. This involves understanding the culture-based work style and communication preferences of countries around the world. For those conducting business within a country, a general understanding of the country, culture, management styles and cultural orientations of the country is essential to bridge cultural differences.
  • 27. DIFFERENT APPROACHES: 1. Laundry – list approach Great way to prepare for ONE COUNTRY Difficult when introduce multiple countries & cultures 2. Framework approach • Be prepared for ANY foreign assignment • Be prepared for multi-cultural teams
  • 28. THE CULTURAL ORIENTATIONS INDICATOR® COI
  • 29. THE CULTURAL ORIENTATIONS INDICATOR® COI incorporates 10 dimensions of culture, which each meet three criteria: 1. Each dimension recognizes an important aspect of business and social life. 2. Each dimension represents components found in every sociocultural environment. It is a basic orientation and shared rationale for behavior. 3. Each dimension has practical value to anyone who needs to reconcile, integrate or transcend cultural difference in order to obtain a desired outcome.
  • 30. CULTURAL ORIENTATION INDICATOR 1. Environment 2. Time 3. Action 4. Communication 5. Space 6. Power 7. Individualism 8. Competitiveness 9. Structure 10. Thinking THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 31. COI • Helps to explore behavior, thoughts, feelings • Strongest preferences = the more profound the impact and potential for cultural gap and social distance when working with someone different THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 32. ASSIGNMENT Compare your own COI vs. Brazil
  • 33. GAP ANALYSIS • In which dimensions do you have the largest potential area for conflict? (with Brazil? With each other?) • What could you do to minimize these gaps?
  • 34. ASSIGNMENT Create your own COI map & compare vs. ―Brazil‖ and vs. Classmates
  • 35. Cultural Intelligence: - Overcoming Cultural Differences
  • 36. CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE - SKILLS Three parts: 1. Knowledge 2. Mindfulness 3. Behavioral skills What are these concepts? How are they related? (material from book)
  • 37. CULTURAL “CRUISE CONTROL” • What do you think we mean by ―cultural cruise control‖? • When could this be a problem?
  • 38. CULTURAL “CRUISE CONTROL” • Like driving a car (without thinking) • Running life on basis of inbuilt cultural assumptions • Problem – might ignore cultural signals (scripts) • NOTE – Scripts: Cultural rituals, Phrases, Prescribe patterns of behavior – for in-group and out-group differentiation
  • 39. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT Tuesday, Jan th, 2014 7
  • 40. Reading: -- Have you bought the book? -- EXPECTATION --- READ THE ENTIRE BOOK BY THE 18TH OF JANUARY! Required Readings: •“Cultural Intelligence: Living and Working Globally”, by David Thomas and Kerr Inkson, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009
  • 41. Daily Journal: -- Did you submit? -- Submit: courses@summitglobaleducation.com -- Due: by midnight before each class -- Length: ½ page (2-3 paragraphs) minimum -- Writing Style: Informal, personal, journal
  • 42. Cultural Intelligence: - Overcoming Cultural Differences
  • 43. CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE - SKILLS Three parts: 1. Knowledge 2. Mindfulness 3. Behavioral skills What are these concepts? How are they related? (material from book)
  • 44. MINDFULNESS • What do you think we mean by ―mindfulness‖? • What is the OPPOSITE of ―mindfulness‖?
  • 45. MIND-LESSNESS • Like driving a car in cruise control (arrive and ask “how did I get here?”) • CULTURAL “CRUISE CONTROL” • Question – “are there advantages to mindlessness?”
  • 46. MIND-LESSNESS – ADVANTAGES: • Makes it possible for us to do more than one thing at a time. • Allows us to ignore most of what’s around • Fit automatically into existing framework • Q. But, what are the PROBLEMS?
  • 47. MIND-LESSNESS – PROBLEMS: • Encourages us to rely on routine • Prevents us from being flexible • Might fail to recognize changes in culture • Question – have you ever seen the expat mindlessly assuming role of teaching locals about “how things work back home”?
  • 48. MINDFULNESS • How is this different?
  • 49. MINDFULNESS • If you want to develop cultural intelligence – you need to be able to SUSPEND CULTURAL CRUISE CONTROL, and develop an alternative sate of being called ‗mindfulness‘
  • 50. MINDFULNESS • Paying attention to context • Being aware – own assumptions, ideas, emotions • Seeking out new information • Using empathy – putting self in others position
  • 51. MINDFULNESS • IS NOT: • Abandoning who you are, but instead about paying attention to differences, and how people think differently.
  • 52. MINDFULNESS Learn to read cues How this person is perceived within his/her own culture It is a means of observing how the person interacts with others Establish some basis for long time learning Don’t answer / react / behave as “you would do at home” Learn how those who are successful behave in similar circumstances
  • 53. • Behavioral Skills:
  • 54. • Behavioral Skills: • Question – do you think Knowledge and Mindfulness are enough? • Why? Why not?
  • 55. TROUBLES IN BUSINESS: • Not technical, but often problems such as: • Communication failures • Misunderstandings in negotiations • Personality Conflicts • Poor Leadership style • Bad teamwork All examples of ways people interact
  • 56. BEHAVIORAL SKILLS - STYLE SWITCHING • Ability to use a broad and flexible behavioral repertoire in order to accomplish one‘s goals • Need to challenge and transcend comfort zones • Experimenting with new ways of behaving • Develop mindset to approach personal change and enrichment THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 57. STYLE SWITCHING – ASSIGNMENT (PREVIEW) • Select one strong COI orientation • Identify a situation where it is used with someone who is different • Describe the positive and negative consequence • Explore how this is a challenge • Identify how style switching could assist you THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 58. CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE - SKILLS Three parts: 1. Knowledge Knowing what culture is, how cultures vary, and how culture affects behavior What is your COI? 2. Mindfulness The ability to pay attention in a reflective and creative way to the cues in cross-cultural situations Aware that others COI might be different? 3. Behavioral skills Choosing appropriate behavior from welldeveloped repertoire of behaviors that are correct for different intercultural situations
  • 59. COMPONENTS OF CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE Knowledge Mindefulness CQ Behavioral Skills CQ = capability to interact effectively across cultures
  • 60. STEPS: Knowledge & Mindfulness: • Develop an ability to analyze the cultural content of a situation and required cultural due diligence Behavioral skills • Determine optimal adaptive strategy— style switching, cultural dialogue, and/or mentoring THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 61. THE CULTURAL ORIENTATIONS INDICATOR® COI
  • 62. COI – CULTURAL NAVIGATOR www.culturalnavigator.com
  • 63. CULTURAL ORIENTATION INDICATOR 1. Environment 2. Time 3. Action 4. Communication 5. Space 6. Power 7. Individualism 8. Competitiveness 9. Structure 10. Thinking THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 64. PURPOSE OF EXERCISE • GAP ANALYSIS: • In which dimensions do you have the largest potential area for conflict? (with Brazil? With each other?) • What could you do to minimize these gaps?
  • 65. NEXT STEPS: 1. Use Brazil as example to understand concepts 2. Create own COI 3. Gap analysis – identify areas of potential conflict 4. Suggest solutions (style switching, more)
  • 66. COI BRAZIL* *Disclaimer: The information reflected in the cultural profile of a country is general in nature and is intended only as an initial hypothesis about value orientations in a given country and to provide basic cultural awareness. The country profile is not meant to reflect either stereotypes nor the different cultural preferences of the individuals within a specific country. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 67. COI BRAZIL* COI - BRAZIL • Of course, the cultural profile of Brazilians varies not just by individual but also by region, with vast differences between North, South, and between cities and countryside. Where do YOU think Brazilians fit on the COI? • But… in General….
  • 68. OPTIONS COI BRAZIL* Environment – Control / Harmony / Constraint Harmony/Constraint (mix) Time – Single-Focus / Multi-Focus Multi-Focus Time – Fixed / Fluid Fluid Time – Past / Present / Future Present Action – Being / Doing Being Communication – High Context / Low Context High Context Communication – Direct / Indirect Indirect Communication – Expressive / Instrumental Expressive Communication – Formal / Informal Formal/Informal (mix) Space – Private / Public Private/Public (mix) Power – Hierarchy / Equality Hierarchy Individualism – Individualistic / Collectivistic Indiv/Collectivistic (mix) Individualism – Universalistic / Particularistic Particularistic Competitiveness – Competitive / Cooperative Comp/Cooperative (mix) Structure – Order / Flexibility Thinking – Deductive / Inductive Thinking – Linear / Systemic Flexiblity Deductive/Inductive (mix) Systemic
  • 69. Action – Being / Doing
  • 70. ACTION – “DOING” VS. “BEING” CULTURES Action: How individuals view actions and interactions. This dimension measures one’s penchant for “doing” versus “being.”
  • 71. ACTION – “DOING” CULTURES Here are some very broad characteristics of doing cultures: • • • • • Status is earned (e.g. the work you do in your job). It is not merely a function of who you are (e.g. birth, age, seniority). Status is not automatic and can be forfeited if one stops achieving (e.g. you quit your job). Great emphasis is placed on deadlines, schedules etc. Tasks take precedence over personal relationships in most cases (e.g. your family may not like it but they understand if you have to miss a family birthday party because you have work to do). People are supposed to have a personal opinion, which they are expected to verbalize. read more from CulturallyTeaching.com
  • 72. ACTION – “BEING” CULTURES Here are some very broad characteristics of BEING cultures: • • • • • Status is built into who a person is. It‘s automatic and therefore difficult to lose. Titles are important and should always be used, in order to show appropriate respect for someone‘s status. Harmony should be maintained, and therefore direct confrontation or disagreement is to be avoided. Saving face is highly valued. Relationships often take precedence over tasks. Much time is spent on greeting and farewell rituals or getting to know someone before agreeing to do business with them read more from CulturallyTeaching.com
  • 73. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT Wednesday, Jan th, 2014 8
  • 74. Reading: -- Have you bought the book? -- EXPECTATION --- READ THE ENTIRE BOOK BY THE 18TH OF JANUARY! Required Readings: •“Cultural Intelligence: Living and Working Globally”, by David Thomas and Kerr Inkson, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009
  • 75. Daily Journal: -- Did you submit? -- Submit: courses@summitglobaleducation.com -- Due: by midnight before each class -- Length: ½ page (2-3 paragraphs) minimum -- Writing Style: Informal, personal, journal
  • 76. REVIEW • Yesterday – visas • Lessons learned? Cross cultural? • For those that missed yesterday... Slides will be available + READ BOOK!!!
  • 77. COMPONENTS OF CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE Knowledge Mindefulness CQ Behavioral Skills CQ = capability to interact effectively across cultures
  • 78. STEPS: Knowledge & Mindfulness: • Develop an ability to analyze the cultural content of a situation and required cultural due diligence Behavioral skills • Determine optimal adaptive strategy— style switching, cultural dialogue, and/or mentoring THUNDERBIRD, KAREN S. WALCH, PH.D.
  • 79. COI BRAZIL* *Disclaimer: The information reflected in the cultural profile of a country is general in nature and is intended only as an initial hypothesis about value orientations in a given country and to provide basic cultural awareness. The country profile is not meant to reflect either stereotypes nor the different cultural preferences of the individuals within a specific country. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 80. Action – Being / Doing
  • 81. ACTION – “DOING” VS. “BEING” CULTURES Action: How individuals view actions and interactions. This dimension measures one’s penchant for “doing” versus “being.”
  • 82. ACTION – “DOING” CULTURES Here are some very broad characteristics of doing cultures: • • • • • Status is earned (e.g. the work you do in your job). It is not merely a function of who you are (e.g. birth, age, seniority). Status is not automatic and can be forfeited if one stops achieving (e.g. you quit your job). Great emphasis is placed on deadlines, schedules etc. Tasks take precedence over personal relationships in most cases (e.g. your family may not like it but they understand if you have to miss a family birthday party because you have work to do). People are supposed to have a personal opinion, which they are expected to verbalize. read more from CulturallyTeaching.com
  • 83. ACTION – “BEING” CULTURES Here are some very broad characteristics of BEING cultures: • • • • • Status is built into who a person is. It‘s automatic and therefore difficult to lose. Titles are important and should always be used, in order to show appropriate respect for someone‘s status. Harmony should be maintained, and therefore direct confrontation or disagreement is to be avoided. Saving face is highly valued. Relationships often take precedence over tasks. Much time is spent on greeting and farewell rituals or getting to know someone before agreeing to do business with them read more from CulturallyTeaching.com
  • 84. ACTION – “DOING” VS. “BEING” CULTURES QUESITON – WHERE DO YOU SEE YOURSELF? Question – where do you see your culture vs. Brazilian culture?
  • 85. ACTION – “DOING” VS. “BEING” CULTURES Americans are very doingoriented, while many other cultures, especially in Latin America and the Middle East, are being-oriented.
  • 86. ACTION: BRAZIL - BEING Brazil‘s being-oriented culture is relationshipcentered and places greater value on personal trust as opposed to action, documentation or a common vision. For example: Nepotism and relationships of long-standing duration supply the trust and shared history that underlie most strong and on-going relationships in business. Brazilians prefer to place their confidence in people and companies with whom they have had successful dealings in the past. Cycles of economic and political uncertainty cause business professionals to take even fewer risks with unknown parties. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 87. CLUSTERS (COMMONLY GO TOGETHER): Have you noticed, for instance, that some characteristics of monochronic cultures fit very nicely with ideas highly valued in individualistic societies? Which also tend to be small power distance? In cross-cultural theory literature, the monochronic/individualist/small power distance cultures are considered doing cultures. At the other end of the spectrum, polychronic/collectivistic/large power distance cultures are called being cultures. read more from CulturallyTeaching.com
  • 88. COMMUNICATION Communication: How individuals express themselves. This dimension measures communication styles and predilections across four indicators: 1. context, which refers to how much the context of a situation drives the conversation (Americans typically say what they mean, which is low context; in a high context culture, such as Japan, you are supposed to surmise things from what’s not being said); 2. direct versus indirect communication styles (Americans are typically direct; Japanese are indirect); 3. expressive styles, which means using facial and hand gestures as part of communicating versus an instrumental style, in which a person is far less demonstrative when communicating; 4. and how much formality is required to communicate in a given culture.
  • 89. Communication – High / Low Context
  • 90. COMMUNICATION: BRAZIL - HIGH CONTEXT Brazilians communicate using implicit means to send their messages and expecting that the recipients of that communication will understand the underlying history or implications of it. "saving face" (preserving the dignity and integrity of another) is accomplished through diplomacy and tact. For example: Managers delegate and accomplish work by paying attention to relationships and group dynamics. Personnel policies may not explicitly state all the criteria and methods for recruitment, selection, compensation or dismissal; rather, this information is embedded in the context of the organization‘s history and culture. Performance appraisals include subjective and objective components. Face-to-face communication is preferred; frequent, intense conversation is part of all activities Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 91. Communication – Direct / Indirect
  • 92. DIRECT VS. INDIRECT COMMUNICATION In the context of education, it‘s interesting to think of how these two communication styles shape interactions in the classroom. Students in direct communication cultures may: • Feel free to offer differing opinions frankly. • Feel comfortable directly contradicting someone else‘s idea (in some cases, including the teacher‘s). • Tend to make many brief comments, emphasizing the self: ―I said‖, ―my opinion‖, etc. • Sometimes jump from idea to another idea, as they believe a comment is worthwhile only if it is different from what was already said. Direct students might find expanding on somebody else‘s thoughts, or build on somebody else‘s idea not worthwhile. • Try to keep ideas flowing, and avoid ―dead air‖ when no one is talking.
  • 93. DIRECT VS. INDIRECT COMMUNICATION Students in indirect communication cultures may: • • • • Speak fewer times in a conversation, but when they do, they usually connect things together. Don‘t find ―dead air‖ uncomfortable; silence is valued as a time to think through what is being said and make connections between ideas. Phrase their own ideas as building on someone else‘s idea. Quick turn-taking is unusual in an indirect classroom.
  • 94. COMMUNICATION: BRAZIL - INDIRECT The indirect Brazilian communication orientation causes professionals to present ideas and plans in a way that maintains relationships, depends on past interactions and avoids conflict. For example: While top management may be direct in its critique of subordinates, Brazilians value leaders who are sensitive to saving face and thus communicate with subtlety and grace. Constructive feedback and performance appraisals are often delivered indirectly through suggestion and implication rather than explicit explanations. It is common for Brazilians to confront problems in this same indirect fashion, preferring to approach situations on a subjective basis and allowing feelings to impose solutions (in combination with the expressive orientation). Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 95. Communication – Expressive / Instrumental
  • 96. COMMUNICATION: BRAZIL - EXPRESSIVE Brazilians are expressive communicators and are unabashed about demonstrating strong emotions such as love, hate, anger and pain. For example: Leaders who are valued can cultivate "chemistry" between people can and build relationships that forge connections, characteristics important to a being-oriented culture. Their greetings are also influenced by this expressive orientation toward communication. Initial handshakes will progress to an embrace and kisses on the cheek among those who are better acquainted. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 97. Communication – Formal / Informal
  • 98. COMMUNICATION: BRAZIL - FORMAL/INFORMAL Brazilian culture exhibits both an informal and a formal orientation to communication. The informal communication style refers to easy interactions between family and friends, while business interactions display greater concern for proper etiquette and protocol. For example: In social situations or among peers, people address each other using the informal voc (you). In more formal circumstances, or when employees talk to superiors, a title and the formal "you" (a senhora, for women, and o senhor, for men) is used unless the superior indicates that the subordinate can dispense with this formality Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 99. COMMUNICATION: BRAZIL - FORMAL/INFORMAL People who have a ―Informal‖ orientation for Communication, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 100. COMMUNICATION: FORMAL/INFORMAL People who have a ―Informal‖ orientation for Communication, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 101. CLUSTERS: 1. Americans are typically low context, direct, expressive, and informal in their conversational approach; 2. on the other end of the spectrum, Japanese are high context, indirect, instrumental, and very formal in business communications. How is YOUR culture? How do you think the typical Brazilian culture?
  • 102. CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATIONS & MANAGEMENT Friday, Jan th, 2014 10
  • 103. Reading: -- Have you bought the book? -- EXPECTATION --- READ THE ENTIRE BOOK BY THE 18TH OF JANUARY! Required Readings: •“Cultural Intelligence: Living and Working Globally”, by David Thomas and Kerr Inkson, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009
  • 104. Daily Journal: -- Did you submit? -- Submit: courses@summitglobaleducation.com -- Due: by midnight before each class -- Length: ½ page (2-3 paragraphs) minimum -- Writing Style: Informal, personal, journal
  • 105. CONSIDER: • How do you think History affects culture? • Stories? Legends? Myths? • What if you grew up with different stories, legends. Myths? See & discuss • http://www.ted.com/talks/devdutt_pattanaik.html
  • 106. COI BRAZIL* *Disclaimer: The information reflected in the cultural profile of a country is general in nature and is intended only as an initial hypothesis about value orientations in a given country and to provide basic cultural awareness. The country profile is not meant to reflect either stereotypes nor the different cultural preferences of the individuals within a specific country. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 107. Space – Private / Public
  • 108. SPACE: BRAZIL - PRIVATE/PUBLIC (MIX) In their personal lives, particularly with their families, Brazilians value their privacy. In the work environment, Brazilians prefer public space, tending toward more relationship-centered organizational approaches and less structured communication. For example: Though outwardly warm and hospitable to all, Brazilians allow entry into their inner circles only to those with whom they have built trust. Their homes are surrounded by high fences and walls, which offer the additional advantage of security in high-crime areas. Guests usually will visit only the living and dining rooms, with the rest of the house implicitly off-limits. Physical proximity in the work environment facilitates the building of trust and the flow of information. Because managers are frequently in close proximity to their employees, the group‘s goals, plans and controls can be communicated informally Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 109. Power – Hierarchy / Equality
  • 110. POWER DISTANCE Power: How individuals view different power relationships. Western cultures typically value equality between people, especially in the US. In many other cultures, especially in Asia, age and status associated with it and position are venerated, and hierarchy is paramount. How is YOUR culture? How do you think the typical Brazilian culture?
  • 111. POWER: BRAZIL - HIERARCHY Brazilians have a hierarchy orientation toward power whereby authority and responsibility are centralized, and organizational structure is tightly controlled and vertical. For example: Deference to position and age is both mandatory and crucial for managing and controlling company operations. There tends to be an emphasis on planning by highly placed individuals, rather than by groups, and on political or relationship-based decision making. Employees prefer close supervision and feel comfortable with authoritarian superiors. They rarely openly disagree with or challenge their managers Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 112. Individualism – Individualistic / Collectivistic
  • 113. INDIVIDUALISM: BRAZIL - INDIVIDUALISTIC/COLLECTIVISTIC (MIX) Brazilian culture evidences both collectivistic and individualistic orientations. In the corporate world, the increasing importance of individualism is demonstrated by expanding opportunities for individual recognition, accountability and achievement. Brazilians are collectivistic in terms of their personal relationships with and dependence on family and close friends. For example: Although self-reliance and initiative are relatively new corporate behaviors, employees make sure their work environment is not overly resistant to their taking certain risks. As the environment becomes more individualistic, these bolder steps may result in promotions and raises. Brazilian collectivism is demonstrated by the influence of the family network in personal identity, social connections and even nepotism within an organization Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 114. Individualism – Universalistic / Particularistic
  • 115. INDIVIDUALISM: BRAZIL - PARTICULARISTIC Brazilians believe that rules can be bent to accommodate family members and well-connected individuals who, in effect, lobby for their special needs and circumstances. For example: A Brazilian sales manager worked for an electronics company whose policy on bereavement leave was three days off with pay. However, her father had passed away in his small town in a remote area of the country. It would have taken her at least a day and a half just to get to this town, so her supervisor arranged for her to be granted a week‘s leave. This woman‘s supervisor was able to appreciate the difficult situation she was in, and helped her find a solution that would allow her to pay her respects to her family. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 116. Competitiveness – Competitive / Cooperative
  • 117. COMPETITIVENESS : BRAZIL - COMPETITIVE/COOPERATIVE (MIX) Brazilian culture values both competition and cooperation. Managers encourage external competition against other companies. Internally, they value cooperation and harmonious relationships over competitiveness. For example: The Brazilian market has grown more competitive in response to globalization due to Brazilian advances and the adoption of U.S. and European business practices. Although employees desire personal recognition, overt ambition on behalf of the individual may be frowned upon. Managers seek to facilitate team building and motivate their employees through group membership, security, a positive work environment and schedules that allow for the integration of their professional and personal lives. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 118. COMPETITIVENESS : BRAZIL - COMPETITIVE/COOPERATIVE (MIX) People who have a ―competitive‖ orientation, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 119. COMPETITIVENESS : BRAZIL - COMPETITIVE/COOPERATIVE (MIX) People who have a ―competitive‖ orientation, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 120. Structure – Order / Flexibility
  • 121. STRUCTURE: BRAZIL - FLEXIBILITY Brazilian professionals easily tolerate change and ambiguity in everyday business matters, such as creating agendas and contracts and conducting business meetings with a free hand. For example: Managers practice leadership styles that shift with the conditions and circumstances of the issues and are willing to take small risks and make spontaneous changes if they view these modifications as beneficial. The concept of jeitinho, going outside the system to solve problems, affords individuals a flexible approach to seemingly intractable situations Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 122. Thinking – Deductive / Inductive
  • 123. THINKING: BRAZIL - DEDUCTIVE/INDUCTIVE (MIX) Brazilians value both the deductive and inductive modes of thinking. 1. Brazilians value education and the derivation of organizational principles from established theories, a deductive thinking style. 2. In their everyday work, they prize the practical experiences of an inductive thinking style. Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 124. THINKING: BRAZIL - DEDUCTIVE/INDUCTIVE (MIX) For example: Individuals who think deductively and demonstrate the ability for conceptual and logical argument and persuasive debate are often hired over those who do not. Plans are often put together based on data gathered in the recent past, then transformed into more comprehensive guidelines. Planning decisions are unlikely to be made unless supporting data is available. **Empirical observation and experimentation and the ongoing measurement of data are given priority Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 125. THINKING: BRAZIL - DEDUCTIVE/INDUCTIVE (MIX) People who have a ―deductive‖ thinking orientation, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 126. THINKING: DEDUCTIVE/INDUCTIVE (MIX) People who have a ―deductive‖ thinking orientation, might conflict with Brazilians as follows: Source: The Cultural Orientations Indicat
  • 127. EXAMS EXAMS