The 1987 Philippine Constitution: Article II

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Lecture slides for an undergraduate class on Philippine Politics and Governance I taught between 2003 and 2005.

Outlined here is the declaration of state principles as reflected in Article II of of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.

These slides were prepared using Powerpoint XP.

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  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To become familiar with the content of Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution 2.) To understand the principles that underlie the policies of the Philippines state (as embodied in the 1987 Constitution) 3.) To understand key concepts in the study of politics as manifested in Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
  • Section 1 reaffirms the democratic nature of the Philippine government. - Bill of rights - Majority rule - Rule of law - Periodic elections - Separation of powers/checks and balances - Etc. Republicanism – set of arrangements whereby state policy is formulated for the people by their representatives. Sovereignty: The section clearly states that the basis of sovereignty is the people’s will, and thus the people have “the right to constitute their own government, to change it, and to define its jurisdiction and powers.” Section 1 is also the basis for the people’s right to revolt under extreme circumstances
  • Renunciation of War Consistent with the United Nations Charter Refers explicitly to military offensives, not defensive wars International law Binds the Philippines to honor, respect and enforce the generally accepted principles of international law Treaties, bilateral agreements, memoranda of understanding, etc. All these form part of the law of the land; however, in all cases the constitution will always take precedence Peace, equality, etc. - The Philippines is a nice country…  -
  • Section 3 expresses the underlying principles governing the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) AFP = Army, Air Force, Marines, Navy, etc. Civilian Authority > Military Authority Basic characteristic of a republican system; this principle is meant to safeguard the country against a military dictatorship (esp. because the military has the arms to force the population into submission) Finds its highest expression in the fact that the President of the Philippines (a civilian) is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines AFP as protector of the people and the state Section 3 clearly outlines the role of the AFP in the context of the Philippine government This is also the principle for the professionalism of the AFP (i.e. a non-partisan entity) “… to secure the sovereignty of the State…” This clause clearly outlines the objectives of the AFP in fulfilling its mandate as protector of the people and the state.
  • The 1987 Philippine Constitution: Article II

    1. 1. Declaration of Principles and State Policies
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What principles underlie state policy in the Philippines? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the content of Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution ? </li></ul><ul><li>How should Article II of the Constitution be understood ? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Article II <ul><li>Composed of 28 sections </li></ul><ul><li>Sections 1 through 6 discuss state principles </li></ul><ul><li>Sections 7 through 28 outline state policies </li></ul>
    4. 4. PRINCIPLES
    5. 5. State Principles <ul><li>Republican democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy = periodic elections, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicanism = rule through elected representatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overriding principle: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Sovereignty resides in the people .” </li></ul>
    6. 6. State Principles <ul><li>Renunciation of war and commitment to international law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines cannot declare war on another country (offensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The country can only declare an existing state of war (defensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International law forms part of the country’s own laws </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. State Principles <ul><li>Supremacy of civilian authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian authority takes precedence over military authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The President is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Armed Forces exist to protect the people and the state </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. State Principles <ul><li>The prime duty of government is to serve and protect the people </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Church and State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government cannot establish, endorse or favor any religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This separation shall be inviolable </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. POLICIES
    10. 10. State Policies <ul><li>Pursuit of an independent foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of local government autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access to public service </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee for human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Non-absolute ban on nuclear weapons in the national territory </li></ul>
    11. 11. State Policies <ul><li>Preference for private-sector led economic development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of subsidiarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding of labor rights </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development and agrarian reform </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to social justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Preferential option for the poor” </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. State Policies <ul><li>Respect for the sanctity of the family, protection of the unborn and support for youth development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition on divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition on abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding of the rights of indigenous communities </li></ul>
    13. 13. State Policies <ul><li>Dedication to maintaining the integrity of the public service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking measures against graft and corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full public disclosure of government transactions involving the public interest </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. State Policies <ul><li>Prohibition of political dynasties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure equal access to public service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As defined by law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage the development of civil society </li></ul>
    15. 15. - end -

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