On Philippine Elections and Political Parties


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Lecture slide deck on Philippine Elections and Political Parties.

This is from a class on Philippine Politics and Governance that I taught from 2003-2005.

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  • Limited capacity
    Only men could vote
    Only those of 23 years of age could vote
  • On Philippine Elections and Political Parties

    1. 1. On Philippine Elections and Political Parties
    2. 2. Overview What are the historical underpinnings of elections in the Philippines? How did the Philippine party system develop and perform? What are some of the pressing issues surrounding the Philippine electoral and party systems?
    3. 3. The Electoral System Periodic election of officials by single-ballot plurality vote Executive and senators elected at large Existence of legislative districts and local government units Electorate: duly registered citizens 18 years of age and above
    4. 4. Pre-Colonial Philippines No elections for ruling authorities Government was based more on intangibles – Kinship – Customs/Traditions – Favors – Unwritten laws
    5. 5. Colonial Government In colonizing the Philippines, Spain effectively formalized and modernized government rule To be able to administer the colony effectively, the colonial government created pockets of local authority across the country
    6. 6. American Colonial Rule American colonial rule set the foundation for elections in the Philippines Government institutions and the electoral system were patterned after the American system Filipinos could run for public office in a limited capacity
    7. 7. Commonwealth Introduced a more accommodating electoral system Over time, Philippine elections were dominated by a single-party Creation of the COMELEC to oversee the conduct of elections
    8. 8. 1973 Constitution Consolidation of power under Martial Rule Less electoral safeguards – Weakening of the powers of the COMELEC – Lack of checks and balances within the electoral system
    9. 9. The Filipino Party System American Colonial Rule – Initial dominance of the Federal Party Party advocating Philippine statehood within the United States – Rise and subsequent preponderance of the Nacionalista Party Coalition of different groups advocating Philippine independence
    10. 10. The Filipino Party System Post-War Period – Split of the Liberal Party from the Nacionalista Party Encouraged by the Americans to avoid single-party hegemony Over time, the distinction between the two became blurred Growing importance of personalities
    11. 11. The Filipino Party System Martial Law – Clampdown on political institutions – Rise of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) as the dominant political party – Eventual emergence of regional political parties
    12. 12. The Filipino Party System Post-EDSA (1986) – Development of a multi-party system
    13. 13. Lessons Effective checks and balances are needed over the electoral system Elections are used to lend legitimacy to a regime There are very few distinguishing characteristics between political parties in the Philippines
    14. 14. More Lessons Parties have generally been ineffective as political institutions that lend predictability to politics in the Philippines Personalities overpower parties as political entities
    15. 15. Some Contemporary Issues Party-list Absentee Voting Election Fraud Political Dynasties Nuisance Candidates Etc.