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Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
Corruption in the Philippines
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Corruption in the Philippines

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Slide deck with thoughts on Corruption in the Philippines. Slides are from an undergraduate course on Philippine Politics and Governance I taught between 2003-2005.

Slide deck with thoughts on Corruption in the Philippines. Slides are from an undergraduate course on Philippine Politics and Governance I taught between 2003-2005.

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  • Note: The key bases for graft and corruption under the law are Article XI of the Constitution (on public accountability), the Penal Code, and Republic Act 3019 (the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act of 1960)
  • From Alatas, Corruption and the Destiny of Asia
  • Finland: 9.7 Bangladesh: 1.2 United States: 16 th , 7.7
  • Metastatic: Having spread to vital centers of government administration with powerful public influence.
  • Nuances: “Being one of the boys” Rationalizing the system of corruption Encouraging further corrupt behavior lest government services are not discharged  the shift in perception from government service as a duty to something that one does subject to certain conditions Accepting bribes, etc. by subordinates and giving their superiors a portion of the cut
  • Transcript

    • 1. CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES
    • 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>What are graft and corruption? </li></ul><ul><li>How are graft and corruption manifested in the Philippines? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the causes of graft and corruption? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their costs? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we fight it? </li></ul>
    • 3. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertains to the use of public office for private gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the questionable acquisition of wealth by a person in office </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Corruption always involves more than one person. </li></ul><ul><li>On the whole, it involves secrecy. </li></ul><ul><li>Entails mutual obligation and benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt practices are usually given some legal justification </li></ul>
    • 5. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>It involves deception. </li></ul><ul><li>In any form, it is a betrayal of the public trust. </li></ul><ul><li>It rests on a contradictory dual function. </li></ul><ul><li>It violates the duty and responsibility within the civic order. </li></ul>
    • 6. <ul><li>Transparency International’s Corruption 2002 Perception Index (CPI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale: 1 = Most Corrupt; 10 = Least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst: </li></ul></ul>CONTEXT <ul><li>Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (CPI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale: 1 = Most Corrupt; 10 = Least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines: 78 out of 102 (2.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst: Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. THE PHIL . SETTING <ul><li>Corruption in the Philippines is endemic and metastatic </li></ul><ul><li>Income side: Use of government power to extort money </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure side: malversation of public funds </li></ul>
    • 8. SOME DYNAMICS <ul><li>It encourages corrupt high ranking officials to remain corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>At the lower level, it frustrates younger officials </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is so entrenched that it creates a vicious cycle with various nuances </li></ul>
    • 9. GENERAL CAUSES <ul><li>Absence/weakness of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness of religious influence </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of education </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of punitive measures </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of government </li></ul>
    • 10. CAUSES IN THE PHILS . <ul><li>Historical Philippine political development </li></ul><ul><li>Patron-client political culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalistic character of our politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political relationships as systems of exchange </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. <ul><li>Corruption’s costs are not limited to the direct costs involved in the corrupt transaction </li></ul><ul><li>More often than not, the costs are intangible and indirect, but no less destructive </li></ul>COSTS TO THE PUBLIC
    • 12. <ul><li>Rent-seeking behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Wasted resources </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness in government </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished government revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Legal ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of criminality </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>COSTS TO THE PUBLIC
    • 13. FIGHTING CORRUPTION <ul><li>Political Culture / Discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is imperative to clearly define what corruption consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A much more level economic playing field should reduce corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corruption Campaigns </li></ul>
    • 14. -end-

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