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In the eighteenth-century, it was finally becoming aware that slavery was a violation of the natural rights of every person due to the way the Enlightenment thinkers criticized it.
These arguments against slavery were becoming more accepted because it was known that slavery was not essential for economic progress.
The actions of the slaves themselves were what put a stop to slavery.
Many countries used various ways of thinking to close down the trade in slaves and then to ban slavery itself.
Brazil was the last country to abolish slavery in the 1888.
The lingering on of slavery and the most resistance to abolish was in the southern states of the United States.
However, abolishing slavery did not necessarily mean complete freedom.
In the United States the short period of “radical reconstruction” was followed by harsh segregation laws, denial of voting rights, a wave of lynching and a lot of racism that lasted far into the twentieth century.
After the French Revolution a feminist movement began.
This movement was not expected, the subordination of women to men? It was unheard of.
This movement was especially present in Europe and North America.
Women had always been seen as inferior.
The French Revolution got these ideas of re-creating human societies rolling through the minds of women.
The first organized feminist act was in 1848 at the women’s right conference in Seneca Falls. Elizabeth Cady Stanton paraphrased the Declaration of Independence to state that both men and women are created equal.
The major concerns of these women were that they had access to schools, universities, and the professions that men had.
The 1870s feminist movement was focused on suffrage and the movement was growing.
It was a successful movement and provided more jobs, eliminated suffrage, and gained more access to schools.
It was a period of time with much technological advances. These advances increased output of goods and services.
Some inventions that came about during this time were the spinning jenny, power loom, steam engine, and cotton gin.
In the eighteenth-century many of the inventions worked to transform cotton textile production.
The greatest breakthrough was the steam engine. It provide a limitless source of power beyond that of wind, water, or muscle and worked to drive many machines.
The Industrial Revolution moved from textiles to iron and steel production, railroads and steamships, food processing, construction, chemicals, electricity, the telegraph and telephone, rubber, pottery, printing and many more.
After the Industrial Revolution spread through Britain, it continued to Western Europe and then to the United States, Russia, and Japan.
The revolution became global when Asian and Latin American countries developed major industrial sectors such as oil, natural gas, and nuclear reactions.
After Latin America finally gained their independence, the political life was unstable.
The people favored centralized authority and wanted to maintain the social status quo.
Latin America’s opponents were liberals who attacked the Church and sought at least modest social reforms.
Conflicts between these groups achieved power for them as defenders of order and property.
While some aspects of Latin America changed after independence, social life did not.
The military provides opportunities for skilled and ambitious men.
Mixed-race people found middle class jobs as teachers, shopkeepers, or artisans, although the majority of them stayed impoverished and worked poor jobs such as small subsistence farms or laboring in the mines or plantations.
Chapter 19 The Effects of the Industrial Revolution in Europe
The Industrial Revolution changed patterns of economic and social life.
Europe then needed to sell its own products. Unfortunately, they produced more manufactured goods than their people could buy.
Also, Europe’s products were harmed because the European investors found their money more profitable by investing their money in other countries.
Although the revolution hurt some, others found social benefits to foreign markets.
While there were problems after the revolution, imperialism promised to solve these conflicts.
Imperialism created the growth of mass nationalism. It appealed on economic and social grounds to wealthy or ambitious and was emotionally satisfying to almost everyone.
If the industrial era made overseas expansion more possible they could have achieved their trade goals.
For example, they used steam-driven ships, moving through the new Suez Canal, which helped Europeans to reach Asian and African ports quicker.
In 1750 the Ottoman Empire was the central political fixture of the Islamic world and ruled over much of the Arab world.
By the end of the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire was no longer able to deal with Europe from a position of equality.
Because it lost its position of equality and superiority it was known as “the sick man of Europe.”
In the Muslim world the Ottoman Empire was viewed differently, as “the strong sword of Islam,” because it was unable to prevent regions from falling under Christian control.
The Ottoman Empire continued to have independence because of Europe’s inability to agree on how to divide the land.
The Ottoman Empire in China had weakened due to its inability to raise necessary revenue.
In 1882 the Ottoman Empire failed to pay the interest on their loans foreign control now ruled their revenue-generating system.
The Ottoman Empire had then fallen to a state of dependency on Europe.
Chapter 20 The Transformation of Colonial Subjects
The new ways of working came from the demands of the colonial state.
Some of the most obvious were required and the labor was unpaid. Some of the jobs were building railroads, constructing government buildings, and transporting goods.
The British officers were rude to the residents and were constantly forcing the residents to work for them.
Although the British officers were harsh, the worst brutality was in the Congo Free State. Villagers were forced to collect rubber and if they did not collect enough they had their ears cut off, were shot, and even killed.
These outrageous beatings were widely publicized in Europe and Leopold’s reign was ended and taken over by the Belgian government.
During these times, the peasants were required to cultivate 20 percent or more of their land in cash crops to meet their tax obligation to the state.
Because of this tax obligation many peasants became indebted to their moneylenders when they could not pay.
In 1905 these conditions resulted in a huge rebellion and persuaded the Germans to end the forced growing of cotton.
Colonial rule created conditions that increased cash-crop production to the advantage of local farmers in some places.
For example, British authorities in Burma acted to encourage rice production by ending an earlier prohibition on rice exports, which provided irrigation and transportation facilities, and enacted land tenure laws.
Resulting from the prohibition the population of migrants boomed and rice exports soared.
This also benefited the farmers because they were then able to own their own land, build nice houses, and buy imported goods.
With the increase in population and rice exports, the standard of living improved.
However, life was not as good for peasants who were forced to grow crops that interfered with their food production.
Profitable cash-crop farming also developed in the southern Gold Coast with the African farmers taking initiative to develop export agriculture by planting cacao trees in huge quantities.
Although the cacao trees were a big success a shortage of labor encouraged former slaves to be dependent workers.
It also caused tension between the ethnic and classes because the labor shortage brought a lot of migrants from drier interior parts of West Africa.
Western education was important and generated a new identity for a minority of the people during the colonial era.
For previously illiterate people, the knowledge of reading and writing was seem as am almost magical power.
This gained power enabled them to escape from obligations like forced labor.
Another positive aspect was access to better-paying jobs in government bureaucracies, mission organizations, or business firms.
All in all education offered social mobility and elite status within their communities. It also allowed individuals to have a greater opportunity to achieve and have so-called equality with whites in racially defined societies.
Many people during the colonial era embraced European culture.
The Western-educated elite saw themselves as leading the regeneration of their societies.
In the nineteenth century the Western-educated people in India organized many reform societies that were inspired with the classic texts of Hinduism.
During the Great Depression Mother’s Day was named a new holiday, established to encourage childbearing and hopefully replace the millions lost in the war.
Radios and movies now became more popular.
The industrial capitalism resulted in the most economic growth in world history and raised the standard of living.
Soon after, the economic system started to unravel on October 24, 1929,the American stock market crashed.
The crash caused a major uproar as people lost their life savings and their jobs.
More than 30 percent were unemployed.
The United States had reached agricultural capasity in the 1920s when farms and factories were producing more goods than can be sold because people could not afford to buy the products the factories were producing.
The countries that only exported one or two products were hit hard with the depression.
The government thought that the economy would regulate itself through the market but when it didn’t many people points their eyes toward the Soviet Union because they had substantial growth and no unemployment.
Roosevelt made efforts to help the economy and the relationship between the government and citizens.
Unfortunately, none of the New Deal’s programs helped the Great Depresion and the only thing that helped were the unsought out efforts of Nazi Germany and militaristic Japan.
The Nazi Party took shape under European fascism with their leader being Adolf Hitler.
The party used violence as a political tool. The party was a dictatorship that despised parliamentary democracy and viewed war as a positive and ennobling experience.
After World War I, Hilter and his party begun to gain public support.
They expressed a message of intense German nationalism with racial superiority, hating the Jews, wanting to rescue Germany from the Treaty of Versailles, and get rid of the country’s economic problems.
In the 1920s the Nazi Party barely received any votes. This drastically changed in 1933 when Hitler was legally installed as the chancellor of the German Government.
Once installed, he suppressed all the other political parties and took more power than he was given.
Later in his rule he restricted the lives of Jews. He excluded them from universities, professional organizations, and civil employment.
Efforts at liberating and mobilizing women were beginning to become more present.
The first place the law and decrees regarding women were established were in the Soviet Union.
The laws included full legal and political equality for women, divorce and abortion was legalized and many more.
Zhenotdel was a feminist organization that set up numerous conferences for women. They trained women to run day-care centers, medical clinics, published newspapers and magazines. They encouraged women to be confident with themselves and strive for bigger things.
There was not very much openness about the thought of feminism in China.
Despite Chinese feelings toward feminism, women became much more actively involved in production outside the home.
In the 1960s the famous feminism slogan was “Women can do anything.” That was definitely the way they thought and it made them more confident in what they did.
At the end of the twentieth century ended, colonial rule had lost all credibility in terms of political power.
At the start of the century, people had the idea that “the only legitimate government is self-government.”
One way to explain the end of the colonial empires is to focus on the contradictions in the colonial enterprise because it had rendered its demise inevitable.
The national self-determination was greatly conflicted with the possession of colonies that were denied any opportunity to express their own national character because they could not express their own national character.
The timing of the end of the empire is explained by the coming together of several separate developments at a particular time.
The world wars had weakened Europe.
In the colonies social and economic circumstances generated the human raw material for anticolonial movement.
The end of the colonial empires is also explained by looking at the particular groups or individuals who brought down the colonial system.
Their goal was independence and they struggled with one another over the leadership, power, strategy and more.
Chapter 23 Economic Development in Third World Countries
Economic development was high on the agenda in the Global South.
It was a promise of all the independence struggles and it was the standard by which people measured their government as legitimate or not.
Although it was very difficult to achieve economic development, it also divided class, religion, ethnic group, and gender with mass population growth.
Developing countries had a hard time making deals with the Global North.
It was hard for the leaders of these developing countries to know what ways to pursue these negotiations.
The problem was that most people just expected that the state authorities would take responsibility for economic development of their country, but that did not happen.
India, Latin America, and African states changed by reducing the role of the state in economic affairs which showed the failure and mismanagement of the state-run enterprises.
With this change, China and India had rapid economic growth.
Environmentalism began when Romantic poets attacked the industrial era’s “dark satanic mills” because it threatened the green and pleasant land of England.
Environmentalism achieved a worldwide dimension during the second half of the twentieth century.
It began with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962. It exposed the chemical contamination of the environment that threatened both human health and the survival of many other species.
The book made a huge response by launching the environmental movement in the United States.
The German environmental movement was distinctive because the activist entered the political arena as the Green Party, in which the main concerns were opposition to nuclear energy.
The Western environmentalism focused their attention on wilderness issues.
In the 1970s and 1980s environmentalism involved poor people rather than high and middle class and was concerned with food security, health, basic survival, and movements for social justice.
The environmentalists from the West called individuals to turn away from materialism to appreciate the web of life.