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How A Bill Becomes Law
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How A Bill Becomes Law

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  • 1. Government How a Bill Becomes A Law and Politics
  • 2. Who makes law?
  • 3. Who makes law? • Any member of the House of Commons or Senate may introduce a bill • Private member’s bill = a bill that does not come from Cabinet • The Cabinet usually controls which bills are introduced
  • 4. The Cabinet • The Cabinet decides which issues require new legislation • The public service investigates policies and alternatives, and reports to the minister in charge • The minister then reports to Cabinet • A decision is made to introduce a new law, or change and existing one
  • 5. Order-in-Council • The Cabinet can also agree on an Order-in-Council • Technically they are issued by the Governor General, but in practice the decision is made by Cabinet • These have the force of law without having to pass through Parliament • Often are regulations authorized by existing acts of Parliament
  • 6. First Reading • A formality, introduces the bill without debate • Bill is printed and given a number • “C” for Commons • “S” for Senate
  • 7. Second Reading • First debate • The bill is debated generally • A vote is taken on the principle of the bill
  • 8. Committee • Bill is sent to committee for in depth study • Opportunity for public and expert input • Amendments suggested
  • 9. Report Stage • Committees propose amendments • Amendments are considered and voted on • House members debate and suggest further changes for the bill
  • 10. Third Reading • House accepts or rejects the amended bill • Final opportunity for debate • A vote is held to pass the bill in the House
  • 11. Senate • The bill is sent to the Senate • The process repeats through the Senate
  • 12. Royal Assent • Also called Formal Assent • Once signed, the bill becomes law

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