27 sayings grammar practice

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27 sayings grammar practice

  1. 1. Lesson 27Regular Comparison of Adjectives
  2. 2. Recitation♦model verbs6 tenses active and passive
  3. 3. amo amare amavi amatus Presentamo amamusamas amatisamat amant Imperfectamabam amabamusamabas amabatisamabat amabant Futureamabo amabimusamabis amabitisamabit amabunt
  4. 4. amo amare amavi amatus Perfectamavi amavimusamavisti amavistisamavit amaverunt Pluperfectamaveram amaveramusamaveras amaveratisamaverat amaverant Future Perfectamavero amaverimusamaveris amaveritisamaverit amaverint
  5. 5. amo amare amavi amatus Presentamor amamuramaris amaminiamatur amantur Imperfectamabar amabamuramabaris amabaminiamabatur amabantur Futureamabor amabimuramaberis amabiminiamabitur amabuntur
  6. 6. amo amare amavi amatus Perfectamatus –a –um, sum amati –ae –a, sumuses estisest sunt Pluperfectamatus –a –um, eram amati –ae –a, eramuseras eratiserat erant Future Perfectamatus –a –um, ero amati –ae –a, erimuseris eritiserit erunt
  7. 7. moneo monēre monui monitus Presentmoneo monemusmones monetismonet monent Imperfectmonebam monebamusmonebas monebatismonebat monebant Futuremonebo monebimusmonebis monebitismonebit monebunt
  8. 8. moneo monēre monui monitus Perfectmonui monuimusmonuisti monuistismonuit monuerunt Pluperfectmonueram monueramusmonueras monueratismonuerat monuerant Future Perfectmonuero monuerimusmonueris monueritismonuerit monuerint
  9. 9. moneo monēre monui monitus Presentmoneor monemurmoneris moneminimonetur monentur Imperfectmonebar monebamurmonebaris monebaminimonebatur monebantur Futuremonebor monebimurmoneberis monebiminimonebitur monebuntur
  10. 10. moneo monēre monui monitus Perfectmonitus –a –um, sum moniti –ae –a, sumuses estisest sunt Pluperfectmonitus –a –um, eram moniti –ae –a, eramuseras eratiserat erant Future Perfectmonitus –a –um, ero moniti –ae –a, erimuseris eritiserit erunt
  11. 11. rego regere rexi rectus Presentrego regimusregis regitisregit regunt Imperfectregebam regebamusregebas regebatisregebat regebant Futureregam regemusreges regetisreget regent
  12. 12. rego regere rexi rectus Perfectrexi reximusrexisti rexistisrexit rexerunt Pluperfectrexeram rexeramusrexeras rexeratisrexerat rexerant Future Perfectrexero rexerimusrexeris rexeritisrexerit rexerint
  13. 13. rego regere rexi rectus Presentregor regimurregeris regiminiregitur reguntur Imperfectregebar regebamurregebaris regebaminiregebatur regebantur Futureregar regemurregeris regeminiregetur regentur
  14. 14. rego regere rexi rectus Perfectrectus –a –um, sum recti –ae –a, sumuses estisest sunt Pluperfectrectus –a –um, eram recti –ae –a, eramuseras eratiserat erant Future Perfectrectus –a –um, ero recti –ae –a, erimuseris eritiserit erunt
  15. 15. audio audire audivi auditus Presentaudio audimusaudis auditisaudit audiunt Imperfectaudiebam audiebamusaudiebas audiebatisaudiebat audiebant Futureaudiam audiemusaudies audietisaudiet audient
  16. 16. audio audire audivi auditus Perfectaudivi audivimusaudivisti audivistisaudivit audiverunt Pluperfectaudiveram audiveramusaudiveras audiveratisaudiverat audiverant Future Perfectaudivero audiverimusaudiveris audiveritisaudiverit audiverint
  17. 17. audio audire audivi auditus Presentaudior audimuraudiris audiminiauditur audiuntur Imperfectaudiebar audiebamuraudiebaris audiebaminiaudiebatur audiebantur Futureaudiar audiemuraudieris audieminiaudietur audientur
  18. 18. audio audire audivi auditus Perfectauditus –a –um, sum auditi –ae –a, sumuses estisest sunt Pluperfectauditus –a –um, eram auditi –ae –a, eramuseras eratiserat erant Future Perfectauditus –a –um, ero auditi –ae –a, erimuseris eritiserit erunt
  19. 19. capio capere cepi captus Presentcapio capimuscapis capitiscapit capiunt Imperfectcapiebam capiebamuscapiebas capiebatiscapiebat capiebant Futurecapiam capiemuscapies capietiscapiet capient
  20. 20. capio capere cepi captus Perfectcepi cepimuscepisti cepistiscepit ceperunt Pluperfectceperam ceperamusceperas ceperatisceperat ceperant Future Perfectcepero ceperimusceperis ceperitisceperit ceperint
  21. 21. capio capere cepi captus Presentcapior capimurcaperis capiminicapitur capiuntur Imperfectcapiebar capiebamurcapiebaris capiebaminicapiebatur capiebantur Futurecapiar capiemurcapieris capieminicapietur capientur
  22. 22. capio capere cepi captus Perfectcaptus –a –um, sum capti –ae –a, sumuses estisest sunt Pluperfectcaptus –a –um, eram capti –ae –a, eramuseras eratiserat erant Future Perfectcaptus –a –um, ero capti –ae –a, erimuseris eritiserit erunt
  23. 23. Recitation♦imperatives
  24. 24. RecitationVerb Singular Plural Meaningamo, amare ama amate Love!moneo, monēre monē monete Warn!rego, regere rege regite Rule!capio, capere cape capite Take!audio, audire audi audite Hear!sum, esse es este Be!dico, dicere dic dicite Speak!duco, ducere duc ducite Lead!facio, facere fac facite Make!
  25. 25. Recitation♦5 declensions:mensa, servus, bellum, pater, flumen, portus, res
  26. 26. Recitation♦Adjectives:acer acris acrebrevis –epotens potentis
  27. 27. Recitation SIngular PluralM F N M /F Nacer acris acre acres acria acris acris acrium acrium acri acri acribus acribus acrem acre acres acria acri acri acribus acribus
  28. 28. Recitation SIngular Plural M /F N M /F Nbrevis breve breves breviabrevis brevis brevium breviumbrevi brevi brevibus brevibusbrevem breve breves breviabrevi brevi brevibus brevibus
  29. 29. Recitation M/F NSingular Plural Singular Pluralpotens potentes potens potentiapotentis potentium potentis potentiumpotenti potentibus potenti potentibuspotentem potentes potens potentiapotenti potentibus potenti potentibus
  30. 30. Recitation♦Preposition Songs:-ab corum cum de ex in prae pro sine sub tenus-ad ante apud in inter ob per post propter sub trans circum contra juxta
  31. 31. Recitation♦Ordinal & Cardinal Numbers
  32. 32. Recitation Cardinal Ordinalunus –a –um one primus –a –um firstduo –ae –o two secundus –a –um second tres tria three tertius –a –um third quattuor four quartus –a –um fourth quinque five quintus –a –um fifth sex six sextus –a –um sixth septem seven septimus –a –um seventh octo eight octavus –a –um eighth novem nine nonus –a –um ninth decem ten decimus –a –um tenth
  33. 33. RecitationRoman Numeral Cardinal XI undecim eleven XII duodecim twelve XIII tredecim thirteen XIV quattuordecim fourteen XV quindecim fifteen XVI sedecim sixteen XVII septendecim seventeen XVIII duodeviginti eighteen XIX undeviginti nineteen XX viginti twenty
  34. 34. Recitation 3rd Person Pronouns; Demonstrative Pronouns (1) Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuteris ea id ei eae eaejus ejus ejus eorum earum eorumei ei ei eis eis eiseum eam id eos eas eaeo eā eo eis eis eis
  35. 35. RecitationDemonstrative Pronouns (Near) (2) Singular Plural M F N M F Nhic haec hoc hi hae haechujus hujus hujus horum harum horumhuic huic huic his his hishunc hanc hoc hos has haechoc hac hoc his his his
  36. 36. Recitation Demonstrative Pronouns (Far) (3) Singular Plural M F N M F Nille illa illud illi illae illaillíus illíus illíus illorum illarum illorumilli illi illi illis illis illisillum illam illud illos illas illaillo illā illo illis illis illis
  37. 37. Recitation Demonstrative Pronouns (Near to Person Spoken to) (4) Singular Plural M F N M F Niste ista istud isti istae istaistíus istíus istíus istorum istarum istorumisti isti isti istis istis istisistum istam istud istos istas istaisto istā isto istis istis istis
  38. 38. Recitation Intensive Pronouns Singular Plural M F N M F Nipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsaipsíus ipsíus ipsíus ipsorum ipsarum ipsorumipsi ipsi ipsi ipsis ipsis ipsisipsum ipsam ipsum ipsos ipsas ipsaipso ipsā ipso ipsis ipsis ipsis
  39. 39. Recitation 3rd Person Reflexive PronounsCase Form MeaningNom ----Gen. sui of himself, herself, itself, themselvesDat. sibi to/for himself, herself, itself, themselvesAcc. se himself, herself, itself, themselvesAbl. se ibwf himself, herself, itself, themselves
  40. 40. Recitation Reflexive Pronoun AdjectivesPerson Singular Meaning Plural Meaning1st meus mea meum my (own) noster nostra our (own) nostrum2nd tuus tua tuum your (own) vester vestra your (pl.) (own) vestrum3rd suus sua suum his, her, its, their (own)
  41. 41. Recitation Present Subjunctive of SumSingular Pluralsim I may be simus we may besis you may be sitis you all may besit hsi may be sint they may be
  42. 42. RecitationImperfect Subjunctive of SumSingular Pluralessem I might be essemus we might beesses you might be essetis you all might beesset hsi might be essent they might be
  43. 43. Recitation Perfect Subjunctive of sumSingular Pluralfúerim fuérimusfúeris fuéritisfúerit fúerint
  44. 44. Recitation Perfect Subjunctive of sumSingular Pluralfuissem fuissemusfuisses fuissetisfuisset fuissent
  45. 45. Recitation Present Subjunctive Active1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamem moneam regam capiam audiamames moneas regas capias audiasamet moneat regat capiat audiatamemus moneamus regamus capiamus audiamusametis moneatis regatis capiatis audiatisament moneant regant capiant audiant
  46. 46. Recitation Present Subjunctive Passive1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamer monear regar capiar audiarameris monearis regaris capiaris audiarisametur moneatur regatur capiatur audiaturamemur moneamur regamur capiamur audiamuramemini moneamini regamini capiamini audiaminiamentur moneantur regantur capiantur audiantur
  47. 47. Recitation Imperfect Subjunctive Active1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamarem monerem regerem caperem audiremamares moneres regeres caperes audiresamaret moneret regeret caperet audiretamaremus moneremus regeremus caperemus audiremusamaretis moneretis regeretis caperetis audiretisamarent monerent regerent caperent audirent
  48. 48. Recitation Imperfect Subjunctive Passive1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamarer monerer regerer caperer audireramareris monereris regereris capereris audirerisamaretur moneretur regeretur caperetur audireturamaremur moneremur regeremur caperemur audiremuramaremini moneremini regeremini caperemini audireminiamarentur monerentur regerentur caperentur audirentur
  49. 49. Recitation Perfect Subjunctive Active1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamaverim monuerim rexerim ceperim audiverimamaveris monueris rexeris ceperis audiverisamaverit monuerit rexerit ceperit audiveritamaverimus monuerimus rexerimus ceperimus audiverimusamaveritis monueritis rexeritis ceperitis audiveritisamaverint monuerint rexerint ceperint audiverint
  50. 50. Recitation Perfect Subjunctive Passive1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamatus sim monitus, sim rectus, sim captus, sim auditus sima, um sis a, um sis a, um sis a, um sis , a, um sis sit sit sit sit sitamati simus moniti, simus recti, simus capti, simus auditi, simusae, a sitis ae, a sitis ae, a sitis ae, a sitis ae, a sitis sint sint sint sint sint
  51. 51. Recitation Pluperfect Subjunctive Active1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamavissem monuissem rexissem cepissem audivissemamavisses monuisses rexisses cepisses audivissesamavisset monuisset rexisset cepisset audivissetamavissemus monuissemus rexissemus cepissemus audivissemusamavissetis monuissetis rexissetis cepissetis audivissetisamavissent monuissent rexissent cepissent audivissent
  52. 52. Recitation Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive1st 2nd 3rd 3rd io 4thamatus essem monitus, a, essem rectus, a, essem captus, a, essem auditus, essema, um esses um esses um esses um esses a, um esses esset esset esset esset essetamati essemus moniti, ae, essemu recti, ae, essemus capti, ae, essemus auditi, essemae, a essetis a s a essetis a essetis ae, a essetis essent essetis essent essent essent essent
  53. 53. Latin SayingCítius, Áltius, Fórtius
  54. 54. Latin Saying Cítius, Áltius, Fórtiuscitus –a –um; quick cítius; quickeraltus –a –um; high áltius; higherfortis e; strong fórtius; stronger
  55. 55. Latin SayingsFaster, Higher, Stronger.
  56. 56. GrammarThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative.
  57. 57. GrammarThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative.The positive degree is descriptive. There is no comparison implied.
  58. 58. GrammarThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, degree and superlative.The positive is descriptive. There is no comparison implied.The comparative degree implies a comparison between two persons or things, either stated or implied.
  59. 59. GrammarThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, degree and superlative.The positive is descriptive. There is no comparison implied.The comparative degree implies a comparison between two persons or things, either stated or implied.The superlative degree implies a comparison among more than two persons or things.
  60. 60. GrammarThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative.positive This lesson is hard.comparative This lesson is harder than Lesson 13.superlative This lesson is the hardest lesson in the book.
  61. 61. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by addingior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem.
  62. 62. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by adding ior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem. certus fortis
  63. 63. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by adding ior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem. cert us fort is
  64. 64. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by adding ior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem. cert us cért ior fort is fórt ior
  65. 65. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by adding ior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem. cert us cért ior cért ius fort is fórt ior fórt ius
  66. 66. GrammarIn Latin, the comparative is formed by adding ior (M/F) and ius (N) to the stem. cert us cért ior cért ius fort is fórt ior fórt iuscertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  67. 67. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cért ior cért ius fort is fórt ior fórt iuscertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  68. 68. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  69. 69. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  70. 70. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  71. 71. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  72. 72. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certain more certain
  73. 73. GrammarIn Latin, the superlative is formed by addingissimus –a –um to the stem. cert us cert íssimus cert íssima cert íssimum fort is fort íssimus fort íssima fort íssimumcertus –a –um cértior cértius certíssimus –a –um certain more certain most certain
  74. 74. GrammarComparative forms are adjectives and must be declined in order to agree with the words they modify in gender, number, and case.
  75. 75. GrammarThe superlative forms are declined like the regular 1st/2nd – declension adjective bonus –a –um.
  76. 76. GrammarThe comparative adjective is declined like regular 3rd –declension nouns, lex and nomen.
  77. 77. GrammarThe comparative adjective is declined like regular 3rd –declension nouns, lex and nomen. M/F N fortior fortiores fortius fortiora fortioris fortiorum fortioris fortiorum fortiori fortioribus fortiori fortioribus fortiorem fortiores fortiorus fortiora fortiore fortioribus fortiore fortioribus
  78. 78. Grammar QuestionsHow many tenses are in the subjunctive? What tenses are missing?
  79. 79. Grammar QuestionsHow many tenses are in the subjunctive? What tenses are missing?Four tenses. The future and future perfect are missing.
  80. 80. Grammar QuestionsWhat are six helping verbs that express the subjunctive in English?
  81. 81. Grammar QuestionsWhat are six helping verbs that express the subjunctive in English?let, might, could, may, should, would
  82. 82. Grammar QuestionsWhat is the difference between indicative and subjunctive?indicative:subjunctive:
  83. 83. Grammar QuestionsWhat is the difference between indicative and subjunctive?indicative: actual events or actionssubjunctive: potential events or actions My children go to school. actual/indicative I want my children to go to school. – potential/subjunctive
  84. 84. Grammar QuestionsA __________ question is asked in doubt or indignation, uses the subjunctive, and is expressed in English by the verbal helper ______.
  85. 85. Grammar QuestionsA deliberative question is asked in doubt or indignation, uses the subjunctive, and is expressed in English by the verbal helper should.
  86. 86. Grammar QuestionsA deliberative question uses the _______ subjunctive for present time and the _________ subjunctive for past time.
  87. 87. Grammar QuestionsA deliberative question uses the present subjunctive for present time and the imperfect subjunctive for past time.
  88. 88. Grammar QuestionsThe hortatory subjunctive expresses __________, _______ _________, ______ ____, and uses the verbal helpers __ and ___.
  89. 89. Grammar QuestionsThe hortatory subjunctive expresses exhortation, indirect command, strong wish, and uses the verbal helpers let and may.
  90. 90. Grammar QuestionsThe subjunctive is used primarily in __________ clauses, but also has some uses in __________ clauses.
  91. 91. Grammar QuestionsThe subjunctive is used primarily in subordinate clauses, but also has some uses in independent clauses.
  92. 92. GrammarTo form the negative of a subjunctive verb, use ?
  93. 93. GrammarTo form the negative of a subjunctive verb, use ne.Ne cedamus. Let us not yield.
  94. 94. GrammarTo express purpose with the conjunction ut, the main clause is in the _________, and the subordinate clause is in the __________.
  95. 95. GrammarTo express purpose with the conjunction ut, the main clause is in the indicative, and the subordinate clause is in the subjunctive.
  96. 96. GrammarThe imperfect subjunctive active is built on the ________.
  97. 97. GrammarThe imperfect subjunctive active is built on the infinitive.
  98. 98. GrammarThe perfect and pluperfect subjunctives are built on the ______ stem by adding ___and ___, respectively.
  99. 99. GrammarThe perfect and pluperfect subjunctives are built on the perfect stem by adding eri and isse, respectively.
  100. 100. GrammarWhat are the four uses of the subjunctive you have learned in this unit?
  101. 101. GrammarWhat are the four uses of the subjunctive you have learned in this unit?hortatory subjunctive, deliberative questions, and purpose (ut) clause
  102. 102. GrammarHow do you form the perfect subjunctive passive?
  103. 103. GrammarHow do you form the perfect subjunctive passive?the 4th principal part + the present subjunctive of sum
  104. 104. GrammarA negative clause of purpose replaces ut with ___.
  105. 105. GrammarA negative clause of purpose replaces ut with ne.
  106. 106. GrammarThe perfect subjunctive active is the same as the _____ _______ _____ indicative, except for the 1st person singular.
  107. 107. GrammarThe perfect subjunctive active is the same as the future perfect active indicative, except for the 1st person singular.
  108. 108. GrammarThe two common feminine nouns of the 4th declension are: ________ and ________.
  109. 109. GrammarThe two common feminine nouns of the 4th declension are: domus and manus.
  110. 110. GrammarThe two common neuter nouns of the 4th declension are: ______and _____.
  111. 111. GrammarThe two common neuter nouns of the 4th declension are: cornu and genu.
  112. 112. Grammar QuestionsThe three degrees of comparison are ________, _____________, and ___________.
  113. 113. Grammar QuestionsThe three degrees of comparison are positive, comparative, and superlative.
  114. 114. Grammar QuestionsThe _______ is descriptive only.
  115. 115. Grammar QuestionsThe positive is descriptive only.
  116. 116. Grammar QuestionsThe ___________ implies a comparison between two persons or things.
  117. 117. Grammar QuestionsThe comparative implies a comparison between two persons or things.
  118. 118. Grammar QuestionsThe ___________ implies a comparison among more than two persons or things.
  119. 119. Grammar QuestionsThe superlative implies a comparison among more than two persons or things.
  120. 120. Grammar QuestionsIn Latin, the comparative adjective is formed from the positive by adding ____and _____to the stem.
  121. 121. Grammar QuestionsIn Latin, the comparative adjective is formed from the positive by adding –ior and –ius to the stem.
  122. 122. Grammar QuestionsIn Latin, the superlative adjective is formed by adding _________________to the stem.
  123. 123. Grammar QuestionsIn Latin, the superlative adjective is formed by adding –issimus –a –um to the stem.
  124. 124. Grammar QuestionsThe comparative adjective is declined like the regular ______________ noun.
  125. 125. Grammar QuestionsThe comparative adjective is declined like the regular 3rd declension noun.
  126. 126. Grammar QuestionsThe comparative adjective _____ _____follow the i-stem pattern of the regular adjective, brevis –e.
  127. 127. Grammar QuestionsThe comparative adjective does not follow the i-stem pattern of the regular adjective, brevis –e.
  128. 128. Grammar QuestionsThe superlative adjective is declined like the regular ___________________ adjective.
  129. 129. Grammar QuestionsThe superlative adjective is declined like the regular 1st/2nd – declension adjective.
  130. 130. Practice♦TranslateThis rock is the hardest.
  131. 131. Practice♦TranslateHoc saxum est durissimum
  132. 132. Practice♦TranslatePone saxum gravius in fossam.
  133. 133. Practice♦TranslatePlace the heavier rock in the ditch.
  134. 134. Practice♦TranslateExercitum potentissimum habemus.
  135. 135. Practice♦TranslateWe have the most powerful army.
  136. 136. Practice♦TranslateCitius, Altius, Fortius.
  137. 137. Practice♦TranslateFaster, Higher, Stronger.
  138. 138. Practice♦Conjugate paro in the active and passive indicative.

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