Struggle And Survival

Uploaded on


  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Struggle and Survival By Brett Bailey
  • 2. Opechancanough: • This tribe lived in the time of 1569 and 1598 to 1646 in West point Virginia. Opechancanough, younger brother of paramount chief Wahunsenacawh (Powhatan). He was primarily known as the nationalist war chief who masterminded the intertribal Indian rebellion of 1622, and later 1644, until he was assassinated while held in captivity by the English colonists in Virginia in 1646.
  • 3. Opechancanough • There are many theories about the true identity of Opechancanough as well as his rationale for instigating the ingeniously coordinated Virginia Indian rebellions. Some historians believe that Opechancanough was that unnamed captive, and his experiences among the Spanish may have influenced his deep distrust of • European settlers in the quot;New Worldquot;. He must have known that their plans for colonization would result in the cultural annihilation and displacement of his people by the Europeans.
  • 4. Diego Vasicuio: • This man lived in the time of 1671. He was a very quiet man and avoided several conflicts such as the Spanish Imperial System. From the beginning of this system the Spanish tried to convert the Indians of Peru into Catholics, however Diego tried to keep the religious traditions alive.
  • 5. Diego Vasicuio: • Within these Indian communities the Sorimana worshipers created a cult that was flourishing again in Salamanca. The other priest Prado of the Spanish was outraged with Diego’s ceremonies and thought they were offensive. Diego preached things very similar to the Christian God and that did not sit well with Prado. In the end The Sorimana received public punishment • And Father Diego survived while living with the European domination.
  • 6. Thomas Peters: • In November of 1776, Thomas Peters joined an all black regiment called the Black Pioneers. Prior to joining the regiment, he was a fugitive slave who left Wilmington, North Carolina. While serving with the Black Pioneers, Peters became well known and progressed to the rank of sergeant. The Black Pioneers were then transported from New York to Nova Scotia. •
  • 7. Thomas Peters: • When Peters arrived in Nova Scotia, he became a resident of Brindley Town near Digby. He received rations from the government for a time, but decided to leave Annapolis County for Saint John because he could not secure farmland near his town lot. He relocated to Saint John; unfortunately, the settlement situation was much the same there. Blacks had received only one acre each. • • In 1791, many blacks in both Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had a lot of trouble being granted farms. Thomas Peters became their representative and drafted many petitions for them. When they were rejected he decided to travel to England to represent them to the Crown. •
  • 8. Francisco Baquero: • The Spanish dissident’s selected the master shoemaker Francisco Baquero to represent them before the authorities. In his first petition Baquero emphasized the racial discrimination that the shoemakers guild had institutionalized against all non white members with the exception of Indians. Baquero argued this new policy of segregation was wrong and unjust. The Spanish Crown’s long established policy of institutionalized racial discrimination would now be turned on its head. •
  • 9. Francisco Baquero: • Baquero fought the guild through its procurators and quickly countered the nonwhites arguments that in nature there was a hierarchy of orders. Baqueros guild merely reflected the natural order of things and was not satisfied with racist theories and created higher standards of quality. Soon steps were taken in Buenos Aires to form the segregated shoemakers guild. These efforts failed finally in 1799 when this council refused the guilds and did not pursue this matter further.
  • 10. Damianada Cunha • Was a Caiapo Indian women that received a commission from the governor of Goias to organize an expedition to pacify a group of her people in 1819. She was considered a distinguished communal leader. Damians life was paired with the aldeia and they were inseparable. In years following she became the principle leader of that community. She then was a huge support of the church and interpreted teachings to the neighbors and mitigated all conflict between aldeias people and the Brazilian state. She died in 1831 and because of this the people of the aldeias vanished one by one following her death.
  • 11. Damianada Cunha • Even though Damnian had been trained in the outsider’s ways she had learned the local language and became a believer in their religion. She had a great deal of respect among the Caiapo and enhanced her position as a broker with the relations of the outsiders. Unlike her counterparts, she was not subject to forced labor even though she may have worked in fields. This culture and that of the aldeias enjoyed tranquility in the lifetime of her existence.
  • 12. Red Shoes: • ShulushHoma of Couechitto was known as Red Shoes by the Englishmen. He lived in Couechitto, which was the capital of his nation and home to their biggest chief. He was born in the eighteenth century into a world of chaos, change and destruction. European disease had damaged the slave raids and ravaged the Choctaws. International trade networks became a vital to their existence and completely changed their economy.
  • 13. Red Shoes: • Red Shoes seized the opportunities Europeans offered. He was on a mission in search of these gift exchanges but in time he found other ways to obtain trade goods. Red shoes fought the wars in the early 1720;s with the Choctaws and the French searching four trade and bounties to obtain. His power became stronger when the Mingo Tchito power structure fell to its demise. Red shoes helped dismantle this structure and gained the rewards because of this.
  • 14. Martin Ocelotl • Martin Ocelotl continued to predict the future; death, weather, etc, speak against the Church and have gatherings in his cellar. The newly appointed Bishop Zumarraga heard of all these things and decided Martin was too much of a threat to the evangelization movement and took action at once. He gathered six witnesses to testify to the allegations of idolatry, sorcery, and degeneracy charged to Ocelotl. These six told stories of all sorts of wicked dealings of Martin; the meetings in the cellar, native rituals, making people sick, speaking against the faith, and his encouragement to live to pleasure the flesh (i.e.: eating, drinking, making love). Given such a picture of a hedonistic Oceotl, the judges agreed unanimously that Martin should be banished from New Spain and sent to the inquisitors of Seville to be kept in jail for the rest of his life.
  • 15. Martin Ocelotl • While all of his lands and possessions were being auctioned off, many strange things came up that contradicted his allegations: for instance it was said that since 1531, Martin had been banned from the cities of Tetzcoco and Tlalmenalco for his transgressions. This might have been a false cover up used by the natives to keep Martin’s lands and possessions from the inquisition. Martin had many possessions, land, crops, houses, gold, jewels, slaves and an enormous estate that were disposed of after his removal. • The ship carrying the destitute Martin was strangely lost at sea near some unspecified port and never head from again.
  • 16. Juan de Morga&Gertrudis de Escobar • Juan de Morga was a slave who-bought by master Mestizo who • Torments him. Morga sells his soul to devil and prays to satin instead of God. After this his master treats him better in fear that Morga will revolt. Morga pretends to experience visions from devil so that he will be handed over to inquisition • • Both Morga and Escobars utilization of the social institutions (the church and the inquisition) shows their success in using the primarily ineffective bureaucratic institutions to their advantage. While normally these institutions would not help the powerless, occasionally their mission to hold up certain norms of behavior in society and to gain respect from members of society compelled them to help the powerless.
  • 17. Juan de Morga&Gertrudis de Escobar • Escobar’s utilization of the social institutions (the church and the inquisition) shows their success in using the primarily ineffective bureaucratic institutions to their advantage. While normally these institutions would not help the powerless, occasionally their mission to hold up certain norms of behavior in society and to gain respect from members of society compelled them to help the powerless.
  • 18. Antonio de Gouveia • Born in 1528 to a Christian family in Terceira, he went to Lisbon where he became an Azorean priest who lived during the sixteenth century. He did not follow the structure of his time and moved freely about the Atlantic Ocean. He was a very charming man that studied various things from astrology to alchemy and also practiced medicine. People followed his word and believed he knew the key to invisibility.
  • 19. Antonio de Gouveia • In Bahia and Pernambuco he became known as the gold priest. People believed he had a strong knowledge of mining and could utilize his skills for the better of the country. His talents attracted many individuals including young Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque. In this friendship, they headed explorations in search of silver and gold and captured Indians for the slave market.
  • 20. Cristobal Bequer • Was a very argumentative person. He became involved in a battle between Thomas Berris and one of the choir chaplains in the cathedral. He later assaulted Berris and from then on his anger took hold of his conquests. He initiated campaigns to bother the judicial process as well as demanded posts for proper charges. Through his action’s Bequer was unable to make himself liked and not welcome even amongst his very own. He caused a great deal of conflict and killed innocent victims. The new Archbishop in Lima in July of 1751 investigated Bequers wrong doings and took appropriate actions.
  • 21. Cristobal Bequer • Bequer soon got away and successfully avoided prosecution yet again. He had a lack of respect for officials and seemed to get away with anything. He manages to alienate himself from society and soon became an easy target for all wrong doings. These actions proved to be his demise in the end.
  • 22. Isabel Moctezuma • Was one of the most famous Indian women of her time? She was born in 1509 and was one of 150 children sired by Montezuma the second, the Aztec emperor. At the young age of eleven she became the Aztec princess married to her uncle Cuitlahuac. Widowed within two months of marriage, she was quickly remarried to her cousin, Cuauhtemoc, the last Azte emperor. Cuauhtemocs was defeated and tortured by the conquering Spaniards and his death left his wife widowed again. •
  • 23. Isabel Moctezuma • Isabel became a symbol of the Hispanization and Christianization of Mexico. • Squanto. Spanish men of both middling and modest social and economic backgrounds could marry Indian women, especially those who belonged to the preconquest nobility. These women were desirable marriage candidates for lesser conquistadors and others seeking to improve social status.
  • 24. Squanto • In 1614, he returned to America as interpreter for Sir Ferdinand’s men as they mapped of the New England coast. Once returned home, Tisquantum apparently continued to act as interpreter for visiting European explorers including Captain Thomas Hunt who brought 27 Nausets and Patuxets aboard ship under false pretenses. The ship sailed for Spain where Hunt attempted to sell his captives as slaves. Although some were sold, the remainder, including Tisquantum, were rescued by the friars of Malaga who gave them sanctuary and exposed them to Christianity.
  • 25. Squanto • The Patuxet became extremely hostile as a result, but were then decimated by what was likely a smallpox epidemic, leaving only those kidnapped to Europe to survive. Tisquantum made his way to England where he was hired by John Slaney, treasurer of the Newfoundland Company. Tisquantum was sent to Newfoundland, where he worked for Captain John Mason, governor of the Newfoundland Colony.
  • 26. Beatriz de Padilla • In 1650 there was a great scandal in the sleepy town of Lagos, near Guadalajara in western New Spain. The shameless mulatta Beatriz de Padilla was accused by the royal agent don Juan Sanchez de Vidaurre, an influential gentleman of the country, sixty-four years of age and the owner of several farms and ranches in the vicinity, and by a secular priest and some others, of having caused dreadful and mysterious things to happen to two of her lovers.
  • 27. Beatriz de Padilla • According to the charges she had poisoned the first of them, a priest who had been serving as commissioner of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Lagos, and then, several weeks later, she had driven the lord mayor of Juchuipila crazy through the exercise of magic. Informed of this development and alarmed at the possibility that one of its representatives might have been done away with in this cold-blooded fashion with impunity, the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Mexico City summoned the alleged murderess to the capital. In the meantime, it instructed its new commissioner in Lagos to undertake a complete investigation of the case.
  • 28. Catarina de Monte Sinay • She was a member of the Desterro convent in Bahia. While nuns engaged in business, others took a life of assuredness. Atoning for their sins and those of their fellow citizens by suffering in imitation of Christ. One of the Catarina de Monte Sinay’s sister nuns, Victoria daEncarnacao, was such a women known for her good deeds and miraculous powers.
  • 29. Catarina de Monte Sinay • She died in August of 1758 and left a big legacy of greatness. She did not concern herself with worldly problems and left all business affairs to men. Even though finding the right path to salvation was no easy matter for her, Catarina was lucky to have among her leaders to exemplify this saintly behavior. Her fathers and family had been born into the monastery of Brazil and continued a tradition of ceremony and ritual.
  • 30. Francisca • Was an indianslave woman of the city of Belem do Para near the top of the Amazon River? She was captured by the Manao tribe that ranged freely over northwestern amazonia during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. During this time trade and cultures flourished and advanced. While Francisca was growing up on this river Negro, the households were in need of help to tend to the plantations. There was serious epidemics and general forced labor within these cities.
  • 31. Francisca • After Francisca was freed, a man named Clemente thought she should be considered a slave like all the rest. This was brought to a case by the chief justice of the colony who declared all women be free. Because her owner did not provide proper paperwork, Francesca was not a legitimate slave. This proved to be a problem and the council soon ordered that Francisca return obediently to the service of her mistress.
  • 32. Miguel Hernandez • Was born in sixteenth century of Mexico. He’s goal was to create a rich and successful life even during harsh circumstances. He found love in a time where racial and prejudices were happening. After this he had a big family and lived to see his children find their own achievements in the world. Diligent and persistent, Miguel explored and expanded his own horizons of the world.
  • 33. Miguel Hernandez • Miguel lived in the small town of Queretaro. This town had a promising future rich in agriculture and commerce. Because Miguel was smart, skilled and literate he soon became one of the leading citizens of Mulatto. It wasn’t until later that Miguel found his niche in the freighting business. He paved the way for trade and expansion
  • 34. Hernando de Valencia • Was a tax collector. He lived a long brutal life and was imprisoned. He told visitors from Spain that he had been thrown and dragged by a mule. This case was overthrown by the judge and written several endorsements for a plea.
  • 35. Hernando de Valencia • After this the contender’s own social life returned back to normal. The list of visitors was the notable and higher social ranked of the society. The soon conducted business and talked bureaucracy. These transactions concerned the dispatches of Spain. Hernados arrogant ways with the convents gatekeeper made soon several complaints.
  • 36. EnricoMartínez • was cosmographer to the King of Spain, interpreter for the Spanish Inquisition, publisher, and hydraulic engineer. • According to some he was of Spanish descent; Alexander von Humboldt says that he was either a German or Dutchman, and according to others a Mexican educated in Spain, but in all probability he was a Frenchman, Henri Martín Hispanicize under the form of EnricoMartín or Martínez • • Martínez' plan was to open a canal as outlet to the Lake of Zumpango to prevent its overflow. The work began on 28 November 1607, and was terminated by 13 May 1609.
  • 37. EnricoMartínez • Corrosion and the constant action of the water caused caving-in in the interior of the tunnel, and obstructed the passage to such an extent that, during the viceregency of Archbishop Fray Garcia Guerra (1611–12), in reply to the inquiry made by Philip III for information concerning the utility of the work, the amount so far expended, and what would still be required to complete it, the archbishop and the municipal government replied that the work done by Martínez was not sufficient to place the city beyond the danger of inundations and that $413,325 had been expended and 1,126,650 workmen engaged in the work.
  • 38. Jacob Young • • Coursey'scompanion and interpreter, Jacob Young, found no comfort at all in the treaty. Young had been more than a trader among the Susquehannocks. An Onondaga spokesman disclosed that Jacob Young had been quot;a great Leader and Captainquot; in the prolonged SusquehannockIroquois wars. Maliciously the Onondagan added that Young had been quot;a great occasionquot; of the Iroquois attacks on both Christians and Indians. (It may be noted that, though Coursey's Instructions had been to curry favor with the Iroquois by blaming the Susquehannocks for backwoods killings, the Iroquois matteroffactly admitted their culpability.) 112
  • 39. Jacob Young • Young could see the implications for himself of Maryland's acquiescence in the Susquehannocks' disappearance into Iroquoia. Young's business was at the Chesapeake; the business would depart with its patrons. Perhaps Young also had become Indian enough to feel humiliated by the legal extinction of the nation he had led and befriended. He mourned to Coursey, quot;If he had known before coming that the Susquehannocks were not to be included in the peace, he would rather have given 20,000 pounds of tobacco than to come.quot; Coursey remembered the remark and turned it against Young on a later occasion.
  • 40. Micaela Angela Carrillo • She arose from near desolation to inherited important land in the town, which she lived. She and her daughter did not follow the rules and traditions of women at that time and performed several labor tasks. She was known for manufacturing a strong drink known as Pluque. She taught her sons and daughters these trades and soon equipped them with vital knowledge for this time.
  • 41. Micaela Angela Carrillo • Micaela lived in Nuestra Senora de Asuncion Amozoque. This village was predominately Indian and extremely close to the large and wealthy Spanish city of Puebla de Los Angeles. This was a leading center of manufacture and trade. This drink that she made was made from the maguey plant. From its sweet tasting sap, it was fermented in a vat of cowhide to make an intoxicating drink they called pluque. This paved the way for new opportunities for women.
  • 42. Joseph Rachell& Rachael Pringle- Polgreen • Known as Petty Entrepreneurs. Joseph Rachell began her career as a shopkeeper. She used the proceeds that the freedmen saved from marketing activities to open small shops that are sold food goods. Rachell was considered industrious and upright in the eyes of tradesman. Whenever vessels arrived Joseph was the first person to be offered the merchandise. •
  • 43. Joseph Rachell& Rachael Pringle- Polgreen • Known as the tavern keeper. She accumulated respect and achievements at a time where women weren’t seen much less heard. Shop keeping was the major vessel that allowed freed women the chance to become economically successful just as men. Rachael was one of the first women to own a hotel tavern.