Latin America19thcentury

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Latin America19thcentury

  1. 1. LATIN AMERICA IN THE 19TH CENTERY<br />By Brett Bailey<br />
  2. 2. Latin America Independence Movements<br />political and military movement that ended colonial rule by Spain and Portugal over Mexico, Central America, and South America and gave birth to the modern independent nations of Latin America. When the independence movement began at the beginning of the 19th century, Latin America contained two large and productive colonial empires, the Spanish and the Portuguese. Spain’s colonies stretched from what is now the western United States and Mexico to Argentina, while Portugal’s empire was in Brazil. Under the system of colonialism, these territories were subject to extensive and complex networks of control by Spain and Portugal. Both empires functioned fairly well for three centuries.<br />
  3. 3. Latin America Independence Movements<br />But by the mid-1700s grievances developed among the colonists, who complained about economic restrictions and tax burdens imposed by the imperial powers. Those born in the colonies also resented the fact that European-born residents were favored for important bureaucratic and administrative positions. Once the Spanish colonies and Brazil won their independence, however, they found themselves ill-prepared to function effectively. Because of the colonial system, their economies were not diversified, their roads and ports were not developed, and their people lacked experience at representative government. Leaders were divided over the roles that government and the church should play in the new nations. Within many countries, regions fought with each other for political or economic power. The independent nations created somewhat more open societies than the colonial regimes they replaced, introducing republican institutions, gradually ending slavery, and allowing some improvement in the status of nonwhites. But many of the countries came under the control of military dictators, setting a pattern that continued into the 20th century.<br />
  4. 4. Latin America at Mid-Century<br />Latin America, philosophy inGeographically, Latin America extends from the Mexican–US border to those regions of Antarctica to which various Latin American countries have laid claim. It includes the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. Philosophy in Latin America dates from pre-Columbian (before 1492 in Hispanic America) and precabralian times (before 1500 in Brazil). Autochthonous cultures, particularly the Aztecs, Mayas, Incas and Tupi-Guarani, produced sophisticated thought systems centuries before the arrival of Europeans in America.Academic philosophy began in the sixteenth century when the Catholic church began to establish schools, monasteries, convents and seminaries in Latin America. The seventeenth century saw little philosophical activity as effort was made to use academic thought to maintain the status quo, which reinforced a basically medieval worldview. Intellectually, the eighteenth century perpetuated this calm traditionalism until mid-century when a generation of Jesuits tried to break with the thought of Aristotle in order to modernize it. Political turmoil prevented academic philosophy from broadening in the early part of the nineteenth century. Later in the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth, positivism eventually became entrenched in most Latin American countries. In the early twentieth century new intellectual movements began as a backlash against anti-positivism.<br />
  5. 5. Latin America at Mid-Century<br />Academic philosophy grew up in the sixteenth century when the Catholic church began to establish schools, monasteries, convents and seminaries in Latin America. If the encounter with the New World had significant impact on the European mind, this was not initially reflected in the philosophy being taught and written in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which tended to restate and reinforce medieval values. However, intriguing writings on ethics and jurisprudence grew out of the contact between Spain and Latin America. Essentially, these writings analysed the relationship between cultural differences and human rights. The Dominican friar Bartolomé de lasCasas was a pivotal figure who defended the rights of native and African peoples living in the Indies in the sixteenth century<br />
  6. 6. Influence of Britain<br />In nineteenth century Latin America, outside influences such as the United States, Great Britain, and France all had major impacts on the development and progression of Latin American countries. The Latin American countries looked to Europe as well as the United States as the model for a way of living. They attempted to recreate in their nations and states what they saw as everyday living in Europe and the United States. They modeled their style of dress, architecture, and modern technology around these European ideas. Latin American countries modeled the “acceptable” style of dress after the same fashion they saw Europeans wearing at the time. The elite members of society, whether they were of European descent or not, took Europe’s style of dress with them when they settled into Latin American land. The typical clothes one would wear if he was an elite member of society were the frock coat, the nice looking white dress shirt, the black pants, and large boots. Although most citizens who wore these clothes were people who came from European descent, there were indigenous people who adopted the European way of life and shunned their old ways. One such example of this is Benito Juárez. He even became famous for cons<br />
  7. 7. Influence of Britain<br />Overall, foreign influence on a developing Latin America has shaped the countries into what they are today. Major influences on them by Europe and the United States have created a sense of fashion, architecture, and advancements within the Latin American countries. Many times it was just a recreation of European and American values and ways of life.The most important theme of foreign influence on nineteenth century Latin America came in the form of technology and advancements. The main topic in the two books we have read have been about progression in the Latin American countries through advancing from a simple way of life that the indigenous people lived into a way of life modeled after the living style in Europe and the United States. The whole definition of progress in the 19th century was recreating their Latin American nations as close to possible to the United States and Europe. <br />
  8. 8. Latin American Wars<br />The late 19th century was a time for the young Latin American democracies to flourish. As economies grew, the republics stabilized and began to develop their own national identities. There was also strife, however, as some of Latin America’s most brutal wars, such as the War of the Pacific and the War of the Triple Alliance, took their toll on the new nations.<br />As late as 1808, Spain’s New World Empire stretched from parts of the present-day US west to Tierra del Fuego, from the Caribbean to the Pacific. By 1825, it was all gone except for a handful of islands in the Caribbean. What happened? How could Spain’s New World Empire fall apart so quickly and completely? The answer is long and complicated, but here are some of the essential points.<br />
  9. 9. Latin American Wars<br />Latin American Independence (1807-1824), political and military movement that ended colonial rule by Spain and Portugal over Mexico, Central America, and South America and gave birth to the modern independent nations of Latin America.When the independence movement began at the beginning of the 19th century, Latin America contained two large and productive colonial empires, the Spanish and the Portuguese. Spain’s colonies stretched from what is now the western United States and Mexico to Argentina, while Portugal’s empire was in Brazil. Under the system of colonialism, these territories were subject to extensive and complex networks of control by Spain and Portugal.Both empires functioned fairly well for three centuries. But by the mid-1700s grievances developed among the colonists, who complained about economic restrictions and tax burdens imposed by the imperial powers. Those born in the colonies also resented the fact that European-born residents were favored for important bureaucratic and administrative positions<br />
  10. 10. Argentina<br />

By 1826 the people began to realize something had to be done to unify the country. So there was a meeting in Buenos Aires. A new constitution was written and Bernardino Rivadavia was elected president. The provinces took offense to this, so Rivadavia resigned and civil war ensued from 1826-1828. It was at this time of civil war that the most influential man in 19th century Argentine history arose, Juan Manuel de Rosas. In 1829 he was elected to a three year term as a federalist, meaning he was an advocate of a government sharing power between the national and provincial sectors, as opposed to an unitario, who would support the idea of a strong central government. Rosas was really nothing more than a gaucho (an Argentine cowboy). But he managed to make alliance with the Catholic Church and even was successful in enacting laws to improve education. Yet despite his success, he left after his term ended in 1832 to help drive out natives in the south and open up more lands for civilization. These achievements of course made Rosas a national hero, and all the while his wife was back in Buenos Aires stirring things up. This would eventually give Juan Manuel de Rosas the chance to again be the savior of Argentina. As the situation worsened in Buenos Aires, it became ever easier for Rosas to ride back in and take power. He did this in 1835 and was elected to a five year term as president. What he did was establish a dictatorship. Opponents were exiled or killed, and school children were taught of the &quot;Great Rosas&quot;.
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  11. 11. Argentina<br />The Viceroyalty was named after the vast Río de la Plata (River Plate) that empties into the Atlantic Ocean. This region includes the countries of Argentina, Southern Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The mining region of Upper Peru (now Bolivia) was incorporated into the new Viceroyalty, and silver from these mines was shipped through the port of Buenos Aires. As a result, the city of Buenos Aires grew spectacularly, yet the interior provinces began a slow decline that would accelerate after the wars of independence. (See the map in this case for more information on the geography of the region). The wars of independence were the product of an imperial crisis caused by the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1808 and the capture of King Ferdinand VII. Everywhere in Latin America, juntas, administrative councils, were formed to rule in the name of the captive king. These small-scale initiatives led to full-blown independence movements, especially after the restoration of Ferdinand VII and his insistence on the absolute authority of the Spanish throne. The creoles of Buenos Aires, eager to trade freely with other nations, sought to achieve their independence by first attempting to capture the mining region, and then launching a major campaign to dislodge Spanish forces from the rest of the Viceroyalty.<br />

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