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Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching

Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching






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    Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching Presentation Transcript

    • The Reading Process – from understanding to teaching
    • The reading process – a transactional view Reader Transaction Text Immediate situational contexts Broader sociolinguistic contexts Source: Weaver C, 1988
    • Reading Behaviours of a Proficient Reader  Develops anticipation; activates prior knowledge  Decodes and samples with sufficient speed  Predicts as he reads  Reads on, re-reads, confirms or corrects
    • Reading problems of our students as novice readers  Little anticipation  Read word by word  Got stuck with a difficult word and give up reading  Skip difficult words and read on despite loss of meaning  Seldom re-read and self-correct
    • The Cueing Systems of the English Language 1. Graphophonic cues 2. Semantic cues 3. Syntactic cues
    • Graphophonic Cues (Visual)  Letter-sound correspondences Questions to ask:  Do I know the beginning / ending sounds?  Are there pronounceable parts?  Do I know any words of similar spelling?
    • Semantic Cues (Meaning)  context of the sentence / passage  background knowledge / prior experience Questions to ask:  What word would fit the meaning here?  Does this word make sense?
    • Syntactic Cues (Structural)  grammatical patterns Questions to ask:  What word would fit into the structural pattern here?  Does it sound like English?
    • Miscues – What caused them? I can sleep those hiccups. (stop) Elephant gives it a toy. (try) I can‟t do out and I have nothing to do. (go) Can I read you a story, mum? // No, I‟m tiger. (tired) Grandma makes a hot in the castle. (hole)
    • Miscues – What caused them? All animals are sleep. (sleeping) As the animals go back to sleep. (All) Do you want to do you homework? (your)
    • Quality miscues – substitutions that preserve meaning It‟s a hot sunny afternoon. (summer) Poor animal has the hiccups. (elephant) I can stop her hiccups. (those) “Why not clean your room?” Mum asks. (tidy)
    • Quality miscues – self-corrections “Boo!” her shouts. (he) We like sharing or candy. (our) He was the hiccups. (has)
    • Implications for teachers  Explicit and planned instruction for reading skills  Emphasis on interactiveness of reading process – anticipation, prediction, personal responses, critical and reflective thinking, etc.  Wide reading of easy and interesting materials
    • A balanced reading program –5 essential components 1. Phonological awareness 2. Phonics 3. Sight words & vocabulary development 4. Reading fluency 5. Comprehension strategies
    • A balanced reading programme - Phonological awareness & phonics skills
    • Phonological awareness & phonics skills Phonological awareness ---  awareness of constituent sounds of written words in learning to read and spell  knowledge of phonemes, onsets and rimes and syllables  influences the development of word decoding & reading Phonics skills instruction ---  a way of teaching reading that stresses learning how letters correspond to sounds and how to use this knowledge in reading and spelling through various skills like decoding and blending
    • Phonics skills Phonics skills are means to the end of successful reading ---- „a catalyst which triggers the process of learning to read‟ ---- Maclean (1998)
    • Teaching phonics in our context Questions to ask: Why do we teach phonics to our very young learners? What should we teach? (knowledge of sounds or skills) How can we teach phonics effectively? Who is the best person to teach phonics in school? ………..
    • Teaching phonics in our context  Characteristics of our learners  inadequate language environment, limited prior knowledge and repertoire of words Q: What can we base on? Where should we start?  Different approaches e.g. part-to-whole, whole-to-part, phoneme-by-phoneme, onsets & rimes Q: What are the rationale & purposes? How effective are they? How should the teachers and learners make their choice?
    • Teaching phonics in our context  Different phonological characteristics between Chinese and English Q: How should we focus on potentially problematic sounds and letter combinations?  Learner needs and differences e.g. background, learning styles, attitude, relationship between phonics and other areas of learning Q: How should we cater for our learners‟ needs and differences?  How can we help our learners learn phonics effectively? proactive teaching active phonics skills
    • Implications for teachers  Phonics should be a meaningful and integrated part of our curriculum (reading program), with ample opportunities for learning, application and solving learning problems.  Teaching must build on what students already know and give them space to see patterns and draw inferences.
    • Implications for teachers Q: Is it advisable for teachers to use a separate package to help students learn phonics and tackle their learning problems? Q: Should phonics be treated in isolation and handled by one teacher alone e.g. NET?
    • What are the problems? 1. Unfamiliar vocabulary --- difficult to draw analogy 2. Unrelated to their studies --- extra burden & can‟t help to solve learning problems 3. No application --- no explicit teaching of skills and how to apply them in new texts 4. No feedback or assessment
    • Planning: phonics & our curriculum Integration Variation Application
    • Curriculum Restructuring & Integration Activities / tasks Games …….. Other resources: Big Books Supplementary / Textbook Small readers (framework/ context/ Poems / Plays Grammar / Phonics language focus) Reading / Listening worksheets ….. materials…. output guided writing / free writing / reading aloud / reading interest / project……. authentic and meaningful use of language
    • Connecting with the Natural World Activities : songs & rhymes, sharing of students’ work Big Books: 1.What’s the time ? Other resources: Textbook 2.Every Monday • teacher’s diary 3.All through the week Unit 5: Telling the time, describing with cat and dog • worksheets habitual actions 4.What’s the weather like today? • sounds (ay, og, Unit 6: Days of the week 5. Weather machine ice) Unit 7,8: Weather and seasons Small readers: 1. The busy giant 2. Winnie and the cat output free writing — ‘My diary’: describing particular activities & expressing feelings in short paragraphs authentic and meaningful use of language
    • Planning: phonics & our curriculum  Embed phonics with all other areas of learning & make full use of all existing resources ---textbooks, big books, readers, sound books ….  Build on what students already know & encourage active learning --- analogy  Teach different essential skills explicitly  Give feedback and reflect on student learning --- observation, formative and summative assessment
    • A balanced reading programme -- Sight words
    • What are sight words? Words that are recognized as wholes, on sight
    • one, two, you, have, father, the, the, and, I, book, they…. play, happy, big…. Words that cannot be High-frequency words phonically produced witches, spell, Snow White, magic, frogs, Billy Goat Gruff, castle Biff, Chip Words of special interest
    • The role of sight words in reading Quick word recognition  reasonable reading speed  less interference with comprehension  better meaning construction  Good sight words  more attention on new words  vocabulary expansion
    • To learn a sight word, the students must:  see the word in context many times  hear the word and say it aloud  identify the word, in context and in isolation
    • Learning sight words through games and activities • Reading sight word cards with partner • Snap cards and Pelmanism • Snakes and Ladders • Dominoes
    • Vocabulary Development through intensive and extensive reading Useful ways to „anchor‟ words:  word walls / semantic mapping  class dictionary / personal vocabulary books  word building /word analysis (tied in with phonics)  using words in writing
    • A balanced reading programme -- Reading Fluency
    • Fluent oral reading (with Access to expression) models of expressive reading (SILENT) READING FLUENCY Comprehension Word recognition Chunking words (fast & accurate) (syntactic cues) (Source: Oakley, G. 2001)
    • Repeated Reading  reading of short, easy & interesting texts over and over again  well-researched method to improve fluency (Samuels 1979, 2002)  often results in improved comprehension (Hasbrouch, Ihnot, & Rogers 1999)  most students enjoy it; a favoured activity among low-progress readers (Lipson & Wixson 1997)
    • A balanced reading programme -- comprehension strategies
    • “…. Reading comprehension has come to be viewed as the „essence of reading‟” ---(National Reading Panel, 2000, p.4-1)
    • Different approaches  linear approach (comprehension takes place through progressive analysis of small units, beginning with the word and ending in the sentence) v.s.  psycholinguistic approach (emphasizing the paragraph as basic text unit and focus on mental process leading to global comprehension)
    • Transactional view of reading:  Meaning is constructed through multiple & evolving complex transactions between the reader, text and context  Reading is a „psycholinguistic guessing game‟ --- from hypotheses to confirmation/rejection --- a „cyclical process of sampling, predicting, confirming & correcting‟ --- K.S. Goodman  Comprehension is not just the by-product of accurate word recognition… comprehension is a complex process which requires active and intentional cognitive effort on the part of the reader.
    • Transactional view of reading: Both the outcomes of comprehension and the process itself are interactive and dynamic. Q: How can students work actively to integrate textual information with preexisting knowledge structure / schemata?
    • Current practice  „Teachers taught comprehension less than one percent of the time, and that this instruction was more than a matter of „mentioning‟ than actual explanation or demonstration‟ ------ Dolores Durkin (1978-79)  Comprehension instruction remains inadequate in our classrooms. ---- Michael Pressley (1998)
    • Current practice  Reading ---- „the most thoroughly studied and least understood process in education today‟  Reading has been sorely neglected in foreign language classrooms, and most recent methodological innovations have little to say about the development of reading comprehension.  Comprehension of text is not a visible act, nor is it audible.
    • Current practice  A typical comprehension lesson: 1. Start with word-by-word decoding and translation (using controlled vocabulary) 2. Followed by comprehension questions (who, what, when, where etc) most of which involve direct-lifting answers (literal comprehension) 3. End with checking answers with little/no explanation Repeated practice = teaching=good performance in comprehension??
    • Current practice Problems:  no training of higher-order comprehension skills:  interpretive (read between the lines)  critical (read for evaluation)  creative (read beyond the lines)  no development of students‟ skills in syntactical, semantic, lexical, stylistic analysis and making excursion to their knowledge of the world to confirm meaning  loss of contextual focus, overview, and immediate frustration as soon as the reader encounters an unknown word
    • What do our students think?  „I used to believe that I have to know all the words in the English readings in order to understand the readings. Therefore, I read in English with the dictionary beside me all the time. I read English readings only for homework before I came to this reading class. I never read any English readings because I wanted to read them….. I like to read in my first language, but I just could not read in English with the same feeling as I read in Chinese. The belief that I have to know all the words in order to understand the reading made me lose interest…..’ ---- Li, an ESL student  „Younger and poorer readers often rely on a single criterion for textual understanding: Understanding of individual words‟ ---- Garner & Alexander (1989)
    • What affect comprehension?  students‟ experiential background  students‟ sensory & perceptual abilities  students‟ thinking abilities  students‟ affective aspects (self-concepts, attitudes & interest)  word recognition strategies  comprehension strategies * greatest obstacles to comprehension are students’ dispositions towards reading---- Villaume & Edna
    • Transactional strategies instruction Help students to  activate their prior knowledge  make predictions  generate questions, answer questions and draw inferences  monitor their comprehension & seek clarification when confused  create pictorial mental imagery & mnemonic imagery  create summaries of what they have read  evaluate what they have read
    • Transactional strategies instruction Predict: think about the title, the illustrations, and what you have read so far; Tell what you think will happen next or what you will learn Question: Ask yourself questions as you read Monitor/clarify: Ask yourself if what you are reading make sense If you don‟t understand something, reread, read aloud, or use the illustrations Summarize: Think about the main ideas or the important part of the story Tell the important things in your own words Evaluate: Ask yourself Do I like what I have read? Do I agree or disagree with it? Am I learning what I wanted to know? How good a job has the author done?
    • Explicit teaching  Direct explanation (describe what the strategy is and explain why the strategy should be learned and used)  Modeling (model it and provide examples of the circumstances under which the strategy should be used)  Guided practice & scaffolding  Feedback  Application * increase students’ metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies
    • Implications for teachers Issues to consider:  comprehension or psycholinguistic guessing skill can & should be taught  students‟ comprehension is developmental  reading comprehension should be a dynamic interactive exchange between teacher & students  students can compensate for a lack of English proficiency by increasing their awareness of reading strategies  extensive reading practice is essential in building both fluency & knowledge (extensive v.s. intensive reading practice)
    • Implications for teachers Things to do:  draw in / activate students‟ prior knowledge  develop students‟ awareness of clue-searching strategies  select text based on students‟ interests and knowledge and make comprehension an integrated part of the curriculum  use different reading materials (including readers) and design a variety of tasks for different purposes
    • Not so ‘typical’ comprehension exercises ---  guessing game & confirmation / correction  brainstorming & mind-mapping  semantic webbing & story mapping  cloze --- with specific purposes focusing on particular skills e.g. reference skills, using semantic or syntactic clues  matching e.g. vocabulary skill  proof-reading questions  personal response  reading-writing connection
    • Conclusion It is important that a full range of instructional approaches be considered within a variety of contexts that address both developmental and cultural differences in how children best learn to comprehend.
    • The Reading Process  See and perceive the symbols  Follow the sequence of words  Associate symbols and sounds  Associate symbols and meanings  Follow the grammatical patterns  Relate ideas to past experience  Make inferences/evaluate  Deal with personal interests and attitudes that affect reading (Source: Burns, Roe and Ross, 1999)
    • Transaction  Putting everything together to construct a personal meaning for the text  Communicating thoughts and emotions between reader and writer
    • Reading sight word cards with partners
    • Snap cards and Pelmanism
    • Snakes and Ladders
    • Dominoes
    • Fluent oral reading (with expression)
    • Models of expressive reading
    • (Silent) Reading Fluency