The Reading Process –
from understanding to teaching
The reading process –
a transactional view




           Reader    Transaction      Text




            Immediate situat...
Reading Behaviours of a
Proficient Reader
  Develops anticipation; activates prior
      knowledge

  Decodes and sample...
Reading problems of our
students as novice readers
 Little anticipation
 Read word by word
 Got stuck with a difficult ...
The Cueing Systems of the
English Language

     1. Graphophonic cues
     2. Semantic cues
     3. Syntactic cues
Graphophonic Cues (Visual)

   Letter-sound correspondences

    Questions to ask:

     Do I know the beginning / endin...
Semantic Cues (Meaning)

  context of the sentence / passage
  background knowledge / prior experience


  Questions to ...
Syntactic Cues (Structural)

    grammatical patterns



  Questions to ask:
   What word would fit into the structural
...
Miscues – What caused them?


I can sleep those hiccups.     (stop)

Elephant gives it a toy.     (try)

I can‟t do out an...
Miscues – What caused them?


   All animals are sleep.    (sleeping)

   As the animals go back to sleep. (All)

   Do yo...
Quality miscues – substitutions
that preserve meaning

  It‟s a hot sunny afternoon.    (summer)

  Poor animal has the hi...
Quality miscues – self-corrections


      “Boo!” her shouts.          (he)

      We like sharing or candy.   (our)

    ...
Implications for teachers
  Explicit and planned instruction for
       reading skills

  Emphasis on interactiveness of...
A balanced reading
program –5 essential
components
  1. Phonological awareness
  2. Phonics
  3. Sight words & vocabulary ...
A balanced reading programme


 - Phonological awareness &
 phonics skills
Phonological awareness &
phonics skills

Phonological awareness ---
 awareness of constituent sounds of written words in ...
Phonics skills



   Phonics skills are means to the end of
   successful reading ---- „a catalyst which
   triggers the p...
Teaching phonics in our context


 Questions to ask:
  Why  do we teach phonics to our very young
  learners?
  What    ...
Teaching phonics in our context


    Characteristics of our learners
    inadequate language environment, limited prior...
Teaching phonics in our context
  Different phonological characteristics between Chinese
   and English
 Q: How should we...
Implications for teachers

   Phonics should be a meaningful and integrated
    part of our curriculum (reading program),...
Implications for teachers


 Q:     Is it advisable for teachers to use a separate
      package to help students learn ph...
What are the problems?



1.   Unfamiliar vocabulary --- difficult to draw analogy

2.   Unrelated to their studies --- ex...
Planning: phonics & our
curriculum

    Integration



                  Variation




                              Appli...
Curriculum Restructuring & Integration
                           Activities / tasks
                            Games ……....
Connecting with the Natural World
                        Activities : songs & rhymes,
                         sharing of...
Planning: phonics & our
curriculum

   Embed phonics with all other areas of learning &
    make full use of all existing...
A balanced reading programme




    -- Sight words
What are sight words?



     Words that are recognized
     as wholes, on sight
one, two, you,
have, father, the,                  the, and, I, book,
they….                              play, happy, big...
The role of sight words in
reading


 Quick word recognition  reasonable
 reading speed  less interference with
 compre...
To learn a sight word, the
students must:


  see the word in context many times
  hear the word and say it aloud
  ide...
Learning sight words through
games and activities

  • Reading sight word cards with partner
  • Snap cards and Pelmanism
...
Vocabulary Development
   through intensive and extensive reading


 Useful ways to „anchor‟ words:
  word walls / semant...
A balanced reading programme


     -- Reading Fluency
Fluent oral
                 reading (with        Access to
                 expression)          models of
              ...
Repeated Reading
 reading of short, easy & interesting texts over
     and over again

 well-researched method to improv...
A balanced reading programme



    -- comprehension strategies
“…. Reading comprehension
has come to be viewed as the
„essence of reading‟”
         ---(National Reading Panel, 2000, p....
Different approaches

   linear approach (comprehension takes place
    through progressive analysis of small units,
    ...
Transactional view of reading:

   Meaning is constructed through multiple & evolving complex
    transactions between th...
Transactional view of reading:

Both the outcomes of comprehension and the
 process itself are interactive and dynamic.

Q...
Current practice

   „Teachers taught comprehension less than one
    percent of the time, and that this instruction was
...
Current practice

   Reading ---- „the most thoroughly studied and least
    understood process in education today‟

   ...
Current practice
   A typical comprehension lesson:
1. Start with word-by-word decoding and translation (using
   control...
Current practice
Problems:
 no training of higher-order comprehension skills:
       interpretive (read between the line...
What do our students think?
    „I used to believe that I have to know all the words in the
     English readings in orde...
What affect comprehension?
 students‟ experiential background
 students‟ sensory & perceptual abilities

 students‟ thi...
Transactional strategies
instruction
Help students to
 activate their prior knowledge
 make predictions
 generate quest...
Transactional strategies
instruction
  Predict:
  think about the title, the illustrations, and what you have read so far...
Explicit teaching
   Direct explanation (describe what the strategy is and
    explain why the strategy should be learned...
Implications for teachers
Issues to consider:
 comprehension or psycholinguistic guessing
   skill can & should be taught...
Implications for teachers

 Things to do:
  draw in / activate students‟ prior knowledge

  develop students‟ awareness ...
Not so ‘typical’ comprehension
exercises ---
     guessing game & confirmation / correction
     brainstorming & mind-ma...
Conclusion

 It is important that a full range of
 instructional approaches be considered
 within a variety of contexts th...
The Reading Process

    See and perceive the symbols
    Follow the sequence of words

    Associate symbols and sound...
Transaction


   Putting everything together to construct a
  personal meaning for the text

   Communicating thoughts a...
Reading sight word cards with
partners
Snap cards and Pelmanism
Snakes and Ladders
Dominoes
Fluent oral reading (with expression)
Models of expressive reading
(Silent) Reading Fluency
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Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching

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Reading Process From Understanding To Teaching

  1. 1. The Reading Process – from understanding to teaching
  2. 2. The reading process – a transactional view Reader Transaction Text Immediate situational contexts Broader sociolinguistic contexts Source: Weaver C, 1988
  3. 3. Reading Behaviours of a Proficient Reader  Develops anticipation; activates prior knowledge  Decodes and samples with sufficient speed  Predicts as he reads  Reads on, re-reads, confirms or corrects
  4. 4. Reading problems of our students as novice readers  Little anticipation  Read word by word  Got stuck with a difficult word and give up reading  Skip difficult words and read on despite loss of meaning  Seldom re-read and self-correct
  5. 5. The Cueing Systems of the English Language 1. Graphophonic cues 2. Semantic cues 3. Syntactic cues
  6. 6. Graphophonic Cues (Visual)  Letter-sound correspondences Questions to ask:  Do I know the beginning / ending sounds?  Are there pronounceable parts?  Do I know any words of similar spelling?
  7. 7. Semantic Cues (Meaning)  context of the sentence / passage  background knowledge / prior experience Questions to ask:  What word would fit the meaning here?  Does this word make sense?
  8. 8. Syntactic Cues (Structural)  grammatical patterns Questions to ask:  What word would fit into the structural pattern here?  Does it sound like English?
  9. 9. Miscues – What caused them? I can sleep those hiccups. (stop) Elephant gives it a toy. (try) I can‟t do out and I have nothing to do. (go) Can I read you a story, mum? // No, I‟m tiger. (tired) Grandma makes a hot in the castle. (hole)
  10. 10. Miscues – What caused them? All animals are sleep. (sleeping) As the animals go back to sleep. (All) Do you want to do you homework? (your)
  11. 11. Quality miscues – substitutions that preserve meaning It‟s a hot sunny afternoon. (summer) Poor animal has the hiccups. (elephant) I can stop her hiccups. (those) “Why not clean your room?” Mum asks. (tidy)
  12. 12. Quality miscues – self-corrections “Boo!” her shouts. (he) We like sharing or candy. (our) He was the hiccups. (has)
  13. 13. Implications for teachers  Explicit and planned instruction for reading skills  Emphasis on interactiveness of reading process – anticipation, prediction, personal responses, critical and reflective thinking, etc.  Wide reading of easy and interesting materials
  14. 14. A balanced reading program –5 essential components 1. Phonological awareness 2. Phonics 3. Sight words & vocabulary development 4. Reading fluency 5. Comprehension strategies
  15. 15. A balanced reading programme - Phonological awareness & phonics skills
  16. 16. Phonological awareness & phonics skills Phonological awareness ---  awareness of constituent sounds of written words in learning to read and spell  knowledge of phonemes, onsets and rimes and syllables  influences the development of word decoding & reading Phonics skills instruction ---  a way of teaching reading that stresses learning how letters correspond to sounds and how to use this knowledge in reading and spelling through various skills like decoding and blending
  17. 17. Phonics skills Phonics skills are means to the end of successful reading ---- „a catalyst which triggers the process of learning to read‟ ---- Maclean (1998)
  18. 18. Teaching phonics in our context Questions to ask: Why do we teach phonics to our very young learners? What should we teach? (knowledge of sounds or skills) How can we teach phonics effectively? Who is the best person to teach phonics in school? ………..
  19. 19. Teaching phonics in our context  Characteristics of our learners  inadequate language environment, limited prior knowledge and repertoire of words Q: What can we base on? Where should we start?  Different approaches e.g. part-to-whole, whole-to-part, phoneme-by-phoneme, onsets & rimes Q: What are the rationale & purposes? How effective are they? How should the teachers and learners make their choice?
  20. 20. Teaching phonics in our context  Different phonological characteristics between Chinese and English Q: How should we focus on potentially problematic sounds and letter combinations?  Learner needs and differences e.g. background, learning styles, attitude, relationship between phonics and other areas of learning Q: How should we cater for our learners‟ needs and differences?  How can we help our learners learn phonics effectively? proactive teaching active phonics skills
  21. 21. Implications for teachers  Phonics should be a meaningful and integrated part of our curriculum (reading program), with ample opportunities for learning, application and solving learning problems.  Teaching must build on what students already know and give them space to see patterns and draw inferences.
  22. 22. Implications for teachers Q: Is it advisable for teachers to use a separate package to help students learn phonics and tackle their learning problems? Q: Should phonics be treated in isolation and handled by one teacher alone e.g. NET?
  23. 23. What are the problems? 1. Unfamiliar vocabulary --- difficult to draw analogy 2. Unrelated to their studies --- extra burden & can‟t help to solve learning problems 3. No application --- no explicit teaching of skills and how to apply them in new texts 4. No feedback or assessment
  24. 24. Planning: phonics & our curriculum Integration Variation Application
  25. 25. Curriculum Restructuring & Integration Activities / tasks Games …….. Other resources: Big Books Supplementary / Textbook Small readers (framework/ context/ Poems / Plays Grammar / Phonics language focus) Reading / Listening worksheets ….. materials…. output guided writing / free writing / reading aloud / reading interest / project……. authentic and meaningful use of language
  26. 26. Connecting with the Natural World Activities : songs & rhymes, sharing of students’ work Big Books: 1.What’s the time ? Other resources: Textbook 2.Every Monday • teacher’s diary 3.All through the week Unit 5: Telling the time, describing with cat and dog • worksheets habitual actions 4.What’s the weather like today? • sounds (ay, og, Unit 6: Days of the week 5. Weather machine ice) Unit 7,8: Weather and seasons Small readers: 1. The busy giant 2. Winnie and the cat output free writing — ‘My diary’: describing particular activities & expressing feelings in short paragraphs authentic and meaningful use of language
  27. 27. Planning: phonics & our curriculum  Embed phonics with all other areas of learning & make full use of all existing resources ---textbooks, big books, readers, sound books ….  Build on what students already know & encourage active learning --- analogy  Teach different essential skills explicitly  Give feedback and reflect on student learning --- observation, formative and summative assessment
  28. 28. A balanced reading programme -- Sight words
  29. 29. What are sight words? Words that are recognized as wholes, on sight
  30. 30. one, two, you, have, father, the, the, and, I, book, they…. play, happy, big…. Words that cannot be High-frequency words phonically produced witches, spell, Snow White, magic, frogs, Billy Goat Gruff, castle Biff, Chip Words of special interest
  31. 31. The role of sight words in reading Quick word recognition  reasonable reading speed  less interference with comprehension  better meaning construction  Good sight words  more attention on new words  vocabulary expansion
  32. 32. To learn a sight word, the students must:  see the word in context many times  hear the word and say it aloud  identify the word, in context and in isolation
  33. 33. Learning sight words through games and activities • Reading sight word cards with partner • Snap cards and Pelmanism • Snakes and Ladders • Dominoes
  34. 34. Vocabulary Development through intensive and extensive reading Useful ways to „anchor‟ words:  word walls / semantic mapping  class dictionary / personal vocabulary books  word building /word analysis (tied in with phonics)  using words in writing
  35. 35. A balanced reading programme -- Reading Fluency
  36. 36. Fluent oral reading (with Access to expression) models of expressive reading (SILENT) READING FLUENCY Comprehension Word recognition Chunking words (fast & accurate) (syntactic cues) (Source: Oakley, G. 2001)
  37. 37. Repeated Reading  reading of short, easy & interesting texts over and over again  well-researched method to improve fluency (Samuels 1979, 2002)  often results in improved comprehension (Hasbrouch, Ihnot, & Rogers 1999)  most students enjoy it; a favoured activity among low-progress readers (Lipson & Wixson 1997)
  38. 38. A balanced reading programme -- comprehension strategies
  39. 39. “…. Reading comprehension has come to be viewed as the „essence of reading‟” ---(National Reading Panel, 2000, p.4-1)
  40. 40. Different approaches  linear approach (comprehension takes place through progressive analysis of small units, beginning with the word and ending in the sentence) v.s.  psycholinguistic approach (emphasizing the paragraph as basic text unit and focus on mental process leading to global comprehension)
  41. 41. Transactional view of reading:  Meaning is constructed through multiple & evolving complex transactions between the reader, text and context  Reading is a „psycholinguistic guessing game‟ --- from hypotheses to confirmation/rejection --- a „cyclical process of sampling, predicting, confirming & correcting‟ --- K.S. Goodman  Comprehension is not just the by-product of accurate word recognition… comprehension is a complex process which requires active and intentional cognitive effort on the part of the reader.
  42. 42. Transactional view of reading: Both the outcomes of comprehension and the process itself are interactive and dynamic. Q: How can students work actively to integrate textual information with preexisting knowledge structure / schemata?
  43. 43. Current practice  „Teachers taught comprehension less than one percent of the time, and that this instruction was more than a matter of „mentioning‟ than actual explanation or demonstration‟ ------ Dolores Durkin (1978-79)  Comprehension instruction remains inadequate in our classrooms. ---- Michael Pressley (1998)
  44. 44. Current practice  Reading ---- „the most thoroughly studied and least understood process in education today‟  Reading has been sorely neglected in foreign language classrooms, and most recent methodological innovations have little to say about the development of reading comprehension.  Comprehension of text is not a visible act, nor is it audible.
  45. 45. Current practice  A typical comprehension lesson: 1. Start with word-by-word decoding and translation (using controlled vocabulary) 2. Followed by comprehension questions (who, what, when, where etc) most of which involve direct-lifting answers (literal comprehension) 3. End with checking answers with little/no explanation Repeated practice = teaching=good performance in comprehension??
  46. 46. Current practice Problems:  no training of higher-order comprehension skills:  interpretive (read between the lines)  critical (read for evaluation)  creative (read beyond the lines)  no development of students‟ skills in syntactical, semantic, lexical, stylistic analysis and making excursion to their knowledge of the world to confirm meaning  loss of contextual focus, overview, and immediate frustration as soon as the reader encounters an unknown word
  47. 47. What do our students think?  „I used to believe that I have to know all the words in the English readings in order to understand the readings. Therefore, I read in English with the dictionary beside me all the time. I read English readings only for homework before I came to this reading class. I never read any English readings because I wanted to read them….. I like to read in my first language, but I just could not read in English with the same feeling as I read in Chinese. The belief that I have to know all the words in order to understand the reading made me lose interest…..’ ---- Li, an ESL student  „Younger and poorer readers often rely on a single criterion for textual understanding: Understanding of individual words‟ ---- Garner & Alexander (1989)
  48. 48. What affect comprehension?  students‟ experiential background  students‟ sensory & perceptual abilities  students‟ thinking abilities  students‟ affective aspects (self-concepts, attitudes & interest)  word recognition strategies  comprehension strategies * greatest obstacles to comprehension are students’ dispositions towards reading---- Villaume & Edna
  49. 49. Transactional strategies instruction Help students to  activate their prior knowledge  make predictions  generate questions, answer questions and draw inferences  monitor their comprehension & seek clarification when confused  create pictorial mental imagery & mnemonic imagery  create summaries of what they have read  evaluate what they have read
  50. 50. Transactional strategies instruction Predict: think about the title, the illustrations, and what you have read so far; Tell what you think will happen next or what you will learn Question: Ask yourself questions as you read Monitor/clarify: Ask yourself if what you are reading make sense If you don‟t understand something, reread, read aloud, or use the illustrations Summarize: Think about the main ideas or the important part of the story Tell the important things in your own words Evaluate: Ask yourself Do I like what I have read? Do I agree or disagree with it? Am I learning what I wanted to know? How good a job has the author done?
  51. 51. Explicit teaching  Direct explanation (describe what the strategy is and explain why the strategy should be learned and used)  Modeling (model it and provide examples of the circumstances under which the strategy should be used)  Guided practice & scaffolding  Feedback  Application * increase students’ metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies
  52. 52. Implications for teachers Issues to consider:  comprehension or psycholinguistic guessing skill can & should be taught  students‟ comprehension is developmental  reading comprehension should be a dynamic interactive exchange between teacher & students  students can compensate for a lack of English proficiency by increasing their awareness of reading strategies  extensive reading practice is essential in building both fluency & knowledge (extensive v.s. intensive reading practice)
  53. 53. Implications for teachers Things to do:  draw in / activate students‟ prior knowledge  develop students‟ awareness of clue-searching strategies  select text based on students‟ interests and knowledge and make comprehension an integrated part of the curriculum  use different reading materials (including readers) and design a variety of tasks for different purposes
  54. 54. Not so ‘typical’ comprehension exercises ---  guessing game & confirmation / correction  brainstorming & mind-mapping  semantic webbing & story mapping  cloze --- with specific purposes focusing on particular skills e.g. reference skills, using semantic or syntactic clues  matching e.g. vocabulary skill  proof-reading questions  personal response  reading-writing connection
  55. 55. Conclusion It is important that a full range of instructional approaches be considered within a variety of contexts that address both developmental and cultural differences in how children best learn to comprehend.
  56. 56. The Reading Process  See and perceive the symbols  Follow the sequence of words  Associate symbols and sounds  Associate symbols and meanings  Follow the grammatical patterns  Relate ideas to past experience  Make inferences/evaluate  Deal with personal interests and attitudes that affect reading (Source: Burns, Roe and Ross, 1999)
  57. 57. Transaction  Putting everything together to construct a personal meaning for the text  Communicating thoughts and emotions between reader and writer
  58. 58. Reading sight word cards with partners
  59. 59. Snap cards and Pelmanism
  60. 60. Snakes and Ladders
  61. 61. Dominoes
  62. 62. Fluent oral reading (with expression)
  63. 63. Models of expressive reading
  64. 64. (Silent) Reading Fluency
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