2.
quote
Math is right up there with snakes,
public speaking, and heights. Burns, M. (1998)
Problems with computation or problem-solving?
What if they have language-based processing difficulty?
3.
goals
nctm
what else?
Becoming mathematical problem solvers
Learning to value mathematics
Learning to reason mathematically
Becoming confident in their ability to do mathematics
Learning to communicate mathematically
5.
emphasis
attention
communication disorders conceptual
memory
organizational skills
processing difficulties
poor self esteem
a) figure it out
b) show me
c) explain
7.
manipulatives
research on
improved attitude toward math
meaningful notational system
increase concept development
increase math achievement
better than not using them
long-term use – best !
8.
problems with manipulatives
teacher trust
class limitations: schedule
dominance of text lessons
trust self over manipulative
Study:
secondary use: 1ce monthly
elementary: daily
9.
csa
use of
concrete
csa related to metacognition
semi-concrete
abstract
concrete
intro with concrete objects
semi-concrete
pictorial representation of concept
abstract
use of numeric instead of pictorial
10.
S.T.A.R.
Search the word problem
Translate to equation in picture form
Answer the problem
Review the solution
11.
S.T.A.R.
search
read carefully
self-regulated thinking (questioning)
write down the facts
12.
S.T.A.R.
translate
represent the problem (concrete application)
draw picture of representation (semi-concrete)
algebraic expression (abstract)
identify the operations
students choose a variable for the unknown
13.
S.T.A.R.
answer
use rules to add/subtract + & - numbers
use rules of solving simple questions
use the appropriate operations (+-x / )
14.
S.T.A.R.
review
check the answer
check the reasonableness of the answer
reread the problem
15.
self instruction
metacognitive strategies
examples
cue cards – to ask themselves
structured worksheet: organization
questions: to serve as prompts
16.
self instruction
metacognitive strategies
general guidelines
support from structured worksheets
advance or graphic organizers
support from strategy instruction
re-read information for clarity
research: straight to solve the problem
diagram representation of the problems before solving them
17.
instruction
computer aided
programs help with remediation/instruction
visual demonstration
games
spreadsheets
http://xrl.us/MathGames
18.
instruction
explicit
start with prior knowledge
model problem and think aloud
prompt students ~ assistance
19.
feedback
corrective
patterns or evidence of strategy
meet individually / small group
positive statements !!
specify error patterns
show how to complete with strategy
opportunity on similar prob (guided practice)
end on positive comment
20.
recommendations
simplify
Guided->independent practice
physical and pictorial model
think aloud strategies
Allotted time
relate to real life
let students practice !
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