Learning Disabilities
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  • 1. Learning Disabilities
  • 2. LD Definition Processes involved in understanding language NOT only Reading! listening, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, mathing (Includes ) perceptual disabilities brain injury minimal brain dysfunction Dyslexia developmental aphasia
  • 3. LD Definition Auditory and Visual Processing Disabilities - sensory disability in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision. Dyscalculia - a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts. Dysgraphia - a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space. Dyslexia - a language based disability, in which a person has trouble understanding words, sentences, or paragraphs Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 4. LD Definition Title 1 vs IDEiA exclusionary language (NOT attributed to): mental retardation emotional disturbance cultural difference environmental economic disadvantage “learning disabilities reflect unexpected learning problems in a seemingly capable child” (Zigmond) Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 5. LD Identification Discrepancy between (IQ) & achievement No Universally accepted assessment No precise definition No demarcation of average reading ability Unidentified is MUCH worse Most identified around 3rd grade Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 6. LD Identification Reading deficit & ADD : Reading struggles more exacerbated, severe, and resistant to intervention Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 7. LD Identification Time w/o service=difficult for improved outcomes Co-morbid Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 8. Prevalence Rate over the past 20 years – why? 5% of all public school students LD = ½ of all SPED services (2.9 million students) Mostly Reading Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 9. Prevalence Rate Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 10. Prevalence Rate Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 11. Phases of Assessment Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 12. Students Characteristics Writing Difficulty with sentence structure, poor grammar, omitted words. Frequent spelling errors, inconsistent spelling, letter reversals. Difficulty copying from board or overhead. Poorly formed letters, difficulty with spacing, capitals, and punctuation. Reading Confusion of similar words, difficulty using phonics, problems reading multi-syllable words. Slow reading rate and/or difficulty adjusting speed to the nature of the reading task. Difficulty with comprehension and retention of material that is read, but not with material presented orally. Math Difficulty memorizing basic facts. Confusion or reversal of numbers, number sequence, or operational symbols. Difficulty reading or comprehending word problems. Problems with reasoning and abstract concepts. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 13. Students Characteristics Social Skills Difficulty quot;readingquot; facial expressions, body language. Problems interpreting subtle messages such as sarcasm. Confusion in spatial orientation, getting lost easily, difficulty following directions. Disorientation in time, difficulty telling time. (Wren) Study Skills Poor organization and time management. Difficulty following directions. Poor organization of notes and other written materials. Need more time to complete assignments. Oral Language Difficulty memorizing basic facts. Difficulty expressing ideas orally which the student seems to understand. Problems describing events or stories in proper sequence. Residual problems with grammar, difficulty with inflectional or derivational endings. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 14. Reading Intervention 2-3 yrs reading failure unresponsive to intervention Frequent and intense How to carry out inclusion ? phonological awareness instruction in kindergarten leads to positive effects during the first grade. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 15. Reading Intervention Phonological awareness Sound-symbol relationships Meaning and reading comprehension EXPERT teachers in kindergarten & 1st grade It must be done: 74% students identified @ age 9 in lowest quartile throughout middle/high Longer student faces failure = greater chance for more severe (co-morbid) problems Intervention depends on severity Explicit and targeted interventions:
  • 16. Teacher Frustration Leads frustration and poor confidence. Great teachers leave the profession or leave Special Education. This cycle of events calls for honest and aggressive reform in higher education. Teachers unprepared to teach x (math, reading…) to this population. Can’t be an expert and an area that you have not been taught! We (colleges of Education) have inadequately addressed this issue Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 17. Things we’re doing Wrong Ambiguous Definitions. Social and Political Factors Inadequate Preparation of Teachers Number of Professional Specialties Involved Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 18. Things we can Do Better Increased Awareness Identification of LD in Girls Better Research Understanding of the Impact Broader Definitions Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 19. Reading Strategies (there is no 1 way – these are ideas) Decoding What is decoding? •Teach regular phonetic patterns of English • These familiar rules / apply to new context • Begin simple words then more complex • Irregular patterns introduced then mastered Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 20. Reading Strategies (there is no 1 way – these are ideas) Comprehension Skills •Build from fundamental to advanced • Factual texts first. Then evaluate / analyze Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 21. Reading Strategies (there is no 1 way – these are ideas) Approaches •Need multiple approaches to instruction • Research based • Strategy should target the individual need and learning style o phonics? o Linguistic o Multisensory o Language Experience Approach o Reading Comprehension Support
  • 22. Conclusions Definition Individualized Teacher training Targeted Approaches research-based strategies Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  • 23. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D.