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Instructional Strategies
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Instructional Strategies


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  • 1. Explicit systematic intense
  • 2. teacher influence The teacher’s influence on student achievement scores is twenty times greater than any other variable, including class size and student poverty. Fallon , 2003
  • 3. explicit vs. systematic New skills introduced in direct manner Corrective feedback procedures Teacher controls use of language
  • 4. explicit vs. systematic Moves from explicit to implicit over time connected series of lesson plans over time cumulative review instructional set: from simple to complex
  • 5. Features of explicit instruction scaffolding student learning immediate error correction many examples for practice/instruction clear presentation of strategies
  • 6. instruction scaffold temporary devices and procedures teachers use to support students as they learn strategies I do we do you do
  • 7. instruction scaffold Application Teacher modeling Guided practice Independent practice I do we do you do
  • 8. instruction scaffold Correction can’t happen without feedback Feedback can’t happen without monitoring responses through active engagement anticipate / precorrect for student errors teacher guided practice immediate feedback when to gradually release or retain scaffolds Model /lead through guided practice Scaffold with inferential questions
  • 9. instruction types of scaffold prompts think aloud
  • 10. systematic elements of carefully chosen examples carefully planned introduction of skills simple to complex teach critical skills daily cumulative practice & review practice to facilitate mastery practice to facilitate automaticity new skills introduced incrementally confusing items need separation
  • 11. systematic elements of maintenance Fluency accuracy Skill unknown
  • 12. systematic elements of review until no hesitation distributed over time. cumulative & integrated in complex tasks. Varied to show wide application massed practice vs. distributed practice How much review is needed? Reitsma, P. 1983
  • 13. systematic elements of Review must follow initial instruction Type of Learner Number of Repetitions Most Able Less Average 3-8 Least Able More Reitsma, P. 1983
  • 14. intensity of instruction Intensity of instruction is the number of positive instructional interactions (pii’s) per day. The greater the number of pii’s per day, the greater the intensity of instruction. If the quality or effectiveness of the instruction is high, then the two main ways to increase intensity of instruction are to: 1) increase the amount of instructional time and 2) decrease the size of the instructional group Torgesen, 2006
  • 15. intensity of instruction teacher-directed approach high student/teacher interaction pacing opportunities to respond
  • 16. intensity of instruction Alterable Level of Specific Enhancement Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. Options Observe to see if Change person Professional develop- Coaching to teacher is teaching ment to improve Improve teacher’s Instructional implementing all teacher’s skills at skills at explicit parts of the Delivery explicit instruction, instruction, error Comprehensive error correction, and correction, and Learning System opportunities to opportunities to respond respond Schedule & deliver Increase reading block Schedule two Schedule before 90 minutes of daily time, e.g., to 120 min., intervention sessions school, after school, Time reading instruction and/or add intervention daily (a double dose and summer school during protected period daily of 90 min. + 90 min.) instruction sessions reading block Check group Check for group Check further for Provide individual Grouping placement & homogeneity and group homogeneity instruction if needed for provide whole & reduce size of small and further reduce small group Instruction group size of small group instruction Change placement Add scaffolding to Add additional Change program(s) in program program intervention Instructional program(s) Materials Kame’enui, Simmons, Coyne, & Harn, 2003