Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
                                    blind & low   vision
early   history
Rome
       Sparta
                Athens


Depends where you are!
early   history



  ward status
early   history



self emancipation
early   history



   integration
early   history
           Denis
         Diderot


enlightenment
Valentine Haüy   (1784)



Royal Institute for the Blind
Louis   Braille




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
                                    stitching awl
Louis   Braille



        age 10
Charles   Barbier



    night writing
Louis   Braille
raised dot system



                 Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Louis   Braille
corresponds to letters



                    Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Louis   Braille
Tuberculosis - 1852



                  Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
Louis   Braille
France recognition - 1854



                     Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
formal education in      usa
American Printing House
    (for the Blind)



                      Presented By: Brent Daig...
formal education in      usa
early 1900’s public school




                        Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
formal education in      usa
advocacy for integration




                       Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
core   curriculum
1990’s – National agenda




                  Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
legal blindness
                  legal   definition



20/200 or worse
(even with correction)
legal blindness
                                    legal   definition
  20 degrees field of vision




Presented By: Bren...
legal blindness
                                    legal   definition
(does not equate total blindness)




Presented By:...
Low vision
                                    legal   definition
                    20/70 – 20/200



Presented By: Bren...
Low vision
              legal   definition
       (AKA partial sight)



                         Presented By: Brent Dai...
visual acuity
                legal   definition
how sharp images are perceived




                           Presented B...
visual field
               legal   definition
    scope one can see without
   turning head or moving eyes




          ...
IDEIA   definition




           Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
lagniappe
How well can student use residual vision?




                             Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
lagniappe
Impact on education



               Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
lagniappe
Use of modifications?



                Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
lagniappe
Learn with other means
  than print materials


                Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
prevalence      rate
.04% school population
 with visual impairments


                    Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph....
prevalence      rate
90% with impairment
have functional vision



                   Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
the   eye




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
possible   causes
                                    external




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
possible   causes
   growth, thinning, inflammation




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
possible   causes
   Internal (premature birth)




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
student   characteristics


intellectual
characteristics
student   characteristics



delayed skills:
play & interaction
student   characteristics



language &
concept development
student   characteristics


academic
achievement
student   characteristics



limited
perceptual abilities
student    characteristics
perceptual abilities




orientation
student    characteristics
perceptual abilities




mobility
student    characteristics
perceptual abilities




wayfinding
student   characteristics


Impaired
psychological
& social adjustment
toddler   identification



lack of visual fixation
(parent faces / interesting objects)
toddler   identification


abnormal eye
movement
toddler   identification



family history
school age   identification



                Snellen chart
school age   identification



                 teacher report
                    of behavior
school age
common behaviors
                   identification



                        rubbing eyes
school age
common behaviors
                   identification



                           squinting
school age
common behaviors
                   identification



                      tilt head to see
school age
common behaviors
                   identification



                         hold objects
                   ...
school age   identification



                 comprehensive
                    assessment
what to   teach
   regular + expanded curriculum




Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
what to   teach
                            self-advocacy



Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
what to   teach
                   self-determination



Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
compensatory skills



                Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
literacy & braille skills



                   Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
  listening skills



                 Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
orientation & mobility skills




                     Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
social interaction skills



                   Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
independent living skills



                  Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
recreation & leisure skills




                   Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
expanded   curriculum
career & transition skills




                   Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
instructional   strategies



             same curriculum
      (with accommodations)
instructional   strategies



         counsel to deal with
           reaction of others
instructional   strategies



                teach care of
instructional   strategies



       Adaptations for color
   or visual discrimination problems
instructional   strategies



          provide copy of
            teacher notes
instructional   strategies



                 read aloud
instructional   strategies


                audio of print
                    materials
instructional   strategies


         hands on models
           manipulatives
instructional   considerations
assist through touch & sound
                (more than sight)




                        ...
instructional   considerations
use specialized equipment




                        Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
instructional   considerations
    give equal access to
       core curriculum



                        Presented By: Br...
instructional   considerations
do no rearrange furniture




                        Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
instructional   considerations
  appropriate lighting, tactile
materials, decrease visual clutter




                    ...
instructional   technology
program to magnify computer screen
instructional   technology
scan materials for access
instructional   technology
Braille 2 students who use it
instructional   technology
captioned videos
instructional   technology
use of guide dog
instructional   technology
text to speech program
instructional   technology
voice recognition software
general classroom   considerations
request large print in advance




                             Presented By: Brent Dai...
general classroom   considerations
Get training on use of optical
     devices & software




                           P...
general classroom   considerations
encourage peer interactions




                            Presented By: Brent Daigle,...
general classroom   considerations
  address emotional &
    learning needs




                           Presented By: B...
considerations
general classroom


   provide daily cues




                    Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
considerations
general classroom

   consult with vision
  specialist regularly



                    Presented By: Brent...
general classroom   considerations
 use tactile materials




                           Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
general classroom   considerations
reduce glare on materials




                             Presented By: Brent Daigle, ...
general classroom   considerations
speak in normal tones




                           Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
general classroom   considerations
tell student when you leave the room




                              Presented By: Br...
general classroom   considerations
maintain high expectations



                             Presented By: Brent Daigle, ...
Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
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Blind & low vision

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Blind & low vision

  1. 1. Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D. blind & low vision
  2. 2. early history Rome Sparta Athens Depends where you are!
  3. 3. early history ward status
  4. 4. early history self emancipation
  5. 5. early history integration
  6. 6. early history Denis Diderot enlightenment
  7. 7. Valentine Haüy (1784) Royal Institute for the Blind
  8. 8. Louis Braille Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D. stitching awl
  9. 9. Louis Braille age 10
  10. 10. Charles Barbier night writing
  11. 11. Louis Braille raised dot system Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  12. 12. Louis Braille corresponds to letters Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  13. 13. Louis Braille Tuberculosis - 1852 Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  14. 14. Louis Braille France recognition - 1854 Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  15. 15. formal education in usa American Printing House (for the Blind) Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  16. 16. formal education in usa early 1900’s public school Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  17. 17. formal education in usa advocacy for integration Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  18. 18. core curriculum 1990’s – National agenda Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  19. 19. legal blindness legal definition 20/200 or worse (even with correction)
  20. 20. legal blindness legal definition 20 degrees field of vision Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  21. 21. legal blindness legal definition (does not equate total blindness) Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  22. 22. Low vision legal definition 20/70 – 20/200 Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  23. 23. Low vision legal definition (AKA partial sight) Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  24. 24. visual acuity legal definition how sharp images are perceived Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  25. 25. visual field legal definition scope one can see without turning head or moving eyes Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  26. 26. IDEIA definition Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  27. 27. lagniappe How well can student use residual vision? Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  28. 28. lagniappe Impact on education Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  29. 29. lagniappe Use of modifications? Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  30. 30. lagniappe Learn with other means than print materials Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  31. 31. prevalence rate .04% school population with visual impairments Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  32. 32. prevalence rate 90% with impairment have functional vision Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  33. 33. the eye Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  34. 34. possible causes external Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  35. 35. possible causes growth, thinning, inflammation Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  36. 36. possible causes Internal (premature birth) Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  37. 37. student characteristics intellectual characteristics
  38. 38. student characteristics delayed skills: play & interaction
  39. 39. student characteristics language & concept development
  40. 40. student characteristics academic achievement
  41. 41. student characteristics limited perceptual abilities
  42. 42. student characteristics perceptual abilities orientation
  43. 43. student characteristics perceptual abilities mobility
  44. 44. student characteristics perceptual abilities wayfinding
  45. 45. student characteristics Impaired psychological & social adjustment
  46. 46. toddler identification lack of visual fixation (parent faces / interesting objects)
  47. 47. toddler identification abnormal eye movement
  48. 48. toddler identification family history
  49. 49. school age identification Snellen chart
  50. 50. school age identification teacher report of behavior
  51. 51. school age common behaviors identification rubbing eyes
  52. 52. school age common behaviors identification squinting
  53. 53. school age common behaviors identification tilt head to see
  54. 54. school age common behaviors identification hold objects close to eyes
  55. 55. school age identification comprehensive assessment
  56. 56. what to teach regular + expanded curriculum Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  57. 57. what to teach self-advocacy Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  58. 58. what to teach self-determination Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  59. 59. expanded curriculum compensatory skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  60. 60. expanded curriculum literacy & braille skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  61. 61. expanded curriculum listening skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  62. 62. expanded curriculum orientation & mobility skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  63. 63. expanded curriculum social interaction skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  64. 64. expanded curriculum independent living skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  65. 65. expanded curriculum recreation & leisure skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  66. 66. expanded curriculum career & transition skills Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  67. 67. instructional strategies same curriculum (with accommodations)
  68. 68. instructional strategies counsel to deal with reaction of others
  69. 69. instructional strategies teach care of
  70. 70. instructional strategies Adaptations for color or visual discrimination problems
  71. 71. instructional strategies provide copy of teacher notes
  72. 72. instructional strategies read aloud
  73. 73. instructional strategies audio of print materials
  74. 74. instructional strategies hands on models manipulatives
  75. 75. instructional considerations assist through touch & sound (more than sight) Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  76. 76. instructional considerations use specialized equipment Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  77. 77. instructional considerations give equal access to core curriculum Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  78. 78. instructional considerations do no rearrange furniture Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  79. 79. instructional considerations appropriate lighting, tactile materials, decrease visual clutter Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  80. 80. instructional technology program to magnify computer screen
  81. 81. instructional technology scan materials for access
  82. 82. instructional technology Braille 2 students who use it
  83. 83. instructional technology captioned videos
  84. 84. instructional technology use of guide dog
  85. 85. instructional technology text to speech program
  86. 86. instructional technology voice recognition software
  87. 87. general classroom considerations request large print in advance Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  88. 88. general classroom considerations Get training on use of optical devices & software Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  89. 89. general classroom considerations encourage peer interactions Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  90. 90. general classroom considerations address emotional & learning needs Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  91. 91. considerations general classroom provide daily cues Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  92. 92. considerations general classroom consult with vision specialist regularly Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  93. 93. general classroom considerations use tactile materials Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  94. 94. general classroom considerations reduce glare on materials Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  95. 95. general classroom considerations speak in normal tones Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  96. 96. general classroom considerations tell student when you leave the room Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  97. 97. general classroom considerations maintain high expectations Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
  98. 98. Presented By: Brent Daigle, Ph.D.
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