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Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition
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Research on Vocabulary Instruction and Acquisition

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  • “…vocabulary is the glue thatholds stories, ideas, and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.”Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/99, p. 339
  • “…vocabulary is the glue thatholds stories, ideas, and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.”Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/99, p. 339
  • “…vocabulary is the glue thatholds stories, ideas, and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.”Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/99, p. 339
  • “Words are the starting point. Without words, children can’t talk about people, places, or things, about actions, relations, or states.” In early primary grades, children must have access to the large number of high frequency words that occur in the English language.
  • “Words are the starting point. Without words, children can’t talk about people, places, or things, about actions, relations, or states.” In early primary grades, children must have access to the large number of high frequency words that occur in the English language.
  • “Words are the starting point. Without words, children can’t talk about people, places, or things, about actions, relations, or states.” In early primary grades, children must have access to the large number of high frequency words that occur in the English language.
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community.Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • Children with intact neural capacity who are raised by supportive adults in a oral language community, develop the language of that community. Children begin attaching meanings to oral words around their first birthday (Huttenlocher and Smiley, 1987;Nelson, 1973). This knowledge of words accelerates throughout a child’s early years (Bates, et al., 1988).Activity: 2 Place the word “Restaurant” in the top center of the white board and ask participants to brainstorm all of the types of restaurants they are familiar with. This may include words such as ethnic, fast food, fine dining, street vendor, etc. Next, place the words “Places to Eat” just right of the word “Restaurant” on the white board. Write “Restaurant” directly under this phrase. Restaurant is a place to eat. Have participants list other places to eat such as in the park, at mom’s, etc.Finally, just left of “Restaurant” place the word “Ethnic food” or another type of restaurant from the list, at the top left of the whiteboard.Now, discuss the varying knowledge we each have developed for some of these terms and concepts we have filed in our memories. For example, What are some different expectations that might apply when we go to a fast food vs. fine dining restaurant (i.e., how do you pay for food, how is food ordered, how do you behave while waiting for the food to be delivered to you, etc.)
  • We know that students arrive at school with varying levels of word knowledge.Students’ word knowledge or vocabularies are influenced by their life experiences and cultural backgrounds.Once in school, students acquire some of their vocabulary knowledge through teacher instruction, frequent interactions with a variety of texts, and participation in a variety of language activities. Teachers need to build on students’ oral vocabularies and extend their developing reading vocabularies.Several types of vocabulary have been identified:Listening vocabulary includes words students hear and understand.Speaking vocabulary includes words students use in everyday speech.Reading vocabulary includes words in print that students know.As students begin to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto their listening and speaking vocabularies. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand and can reproduce when writing.
  • We know that students arrive at school with varying levels of word knowledge.Students’ word knowledge or vocabularies are influenced by their life experiences and cultural backgrounds.Once in school, students acquire some of their vocabulary knowledge through teacher instruction, frequent interactions with a variety of texts, and participation in a variety of language activities. Teachers need to build on students’ oral vocabularies and extend their developing reading vocabularies.Several types of vocabulary have been identified:Listening vocabulary includes words students hear and understand.Speaking vocabulary includes words students use in everyday speech.Reading vocabulary includes words in print that students know.As students begin to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto their listening and speaking vocabularies. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand and can reproduce when writing.
  • We know that students arrive at school with varying levels of word knowledge.Students’ word knowledge or vocabularies are influenced by their life experiences and cultural backgrounds.Once in school, students acquire some of their vocabulary knowledge through teacher instruction, frequent interactions with a variety of texts, and participation in a variety of language activities. Teachers need to build on students’ oral vocabularies and extend their developing reading vocabularies.Several types of vocabulary have been identified:Listening vocabulary includes words students hear and understand.Speaking vocabulary includes words students use in everyday speech.Reading vocabulary includes words in print that students know.As students begin to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto their listening and speaking vocabularies. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand and can reproduce when writing.
  • We know that students arrive at school with varying levels of word knowledge.Students’ word knowledge or vocabularies are influenced by their life experiences and cultural backgrounds.Once in school, students acquire some of their vocabulary knowledge through teacher instruction, frequent interactions with a variety of texts, and participation in a variety of language activities. Teachers need to build on students’ oral vocabularies and extend their developing reading vocabularies.Several types of vocabulary have been identified:Listening vocabulary includes words students hear and understand.Speaking vocabulary includes words students use in everyday speech.Reading vocabulary includes words in print that students know.As students begin to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto their listening and speaking vocabularies. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand and can reproduce when writing.
  • The language patterns within homes of high and low SES families varies greatly. Children in high SES homes have access to a greater amount of oral and written language both within the home and in the community than low SES children.
  • It is critically important to work towards minimizing vocabulary differences among children early enough to avoid long-term establishment of differences in vocabulary knowledge. Perhaps, even prior to school beginning. Early intervention in vocabulary is critical.However, there is currently little being done in vocabulary instruction.
  • The language patterns within homes of high and low SES families varies greatly. Children in high SES homes have access to a greater amount of oral and written language both within the home and in the community than low SES children.
  • If a child is not familiar with words orally or in text, comprehension will most likely not occur. Instruction should be devoted to developing word knowledge in children.Children learn many words through conversations and reading than through direct instruction. An estimated seven words per day (2,700 – 3,000 words per year) are learned by children throughout their school years.
  • Worksheets are ineffective in helping students use new words and concepts in their continued learning. Children must be actively engaged in their learning of words, in meaningful ways. Active involvement may include discussions around terms, word games and activities, wide reading, etc.
  • To have a clear picture of a word requires knowing what it means, how it is connected to other words, how to pronounce it and use it in writing, and where one might be exposed to the word. Children can gain elaborated word depth and breadth by learning conceptual associations to the word, by placing the word in appropriate contexts, and by relating the word to its definitions.It is not reasonable to expect young children to make any significant cognitive connection of a word to its dictionary definition.
  • To have a clear picture of a word requires knowing what it means, how it is connected to other words, how to pronounce it and use it in writing, and where one might be exposed to the word. Children can gain elaborated word depth and breadth by learning conceptual associations to the word, by placing the word in appropriate contexts, and by relating the word to its definitions.It is not reasonable to expect young children to make any significant cognitive connection of a word to its dictionary definition.
  • Children remember vocabulary better when words are connected to familiar experiences they have had. Children should be encouraged to discuss experiences from their life to connect words to experiences and encourage students word learning.
  • Explicit vocabulary instruction should address the use of definitions, context, and concept learning
  • Read the text to determine the nature of the context in which each of the selected Tier II or Tier III words appear. Directive ContextGives clues, hints, synonyms to determine an approximate word meaning in the context.Non-Directive ContextMentions the word without giving any clues to determine word meaning.Mis-Directive ContextGives clues that lead readers to false word meaning construction.
  • Read the text to determine the nature of the context in which each of the selected Tier II or Tier III words appear. Directive ContextGives clues, hints, synonyms to determine an approximate word meaning in the context.Non-Directive ContextMentions the word without giving any clues to determine word meaning.Mis-Directive ContextGives clues that lead readers to false word meaning construction.
  • Read the text to determine the nature of the context in which each of the selected Tier II or Tier III words appear. Directive ContextGives clues, hints, synonyms to determine an approximate word meaning in the context.Non-Directive ContextMentions the word without giving any clues to determine word meaning.Mis-Directive ContextGives clues that lead readers to false word meaning construction.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • Tier One Words- Consists of basic words and rarely require instructional attention in school and highly frequent in life: clock, baby, ball, happy, walk, run, etc.Tier Two Words - High frequency use for mature language users and found across a variety of knowledge domains: coincidence, absurd, industrious, fortunate, etc.Tier Three Words - Low frequency use and limited to specific knowledge domains: isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery, etc. Best learned when teaching specific content lessons such as geography, science, etc.Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press.
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • High literacy rates are a very recent phenomenon. Historically, reading has been reserved for the very few. (See Caleb Crain, “Twilight of the Books,” The New Yorker, December 24, 2007, for a discussion.)Digital technology is changing what counts as literacy. In fact, we now speak in the plural, of the new “literacies” (e.g. Don Leu, 2000, Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 3).Not everyone may be cut out to read extensively and well. This may be the natural order of humanity. (See Ursula K. LeGuin, Harpers Magazine, February, 2008.)
  • Nearly half of all Americans ages 18 to 24 read no books for pleasure.
  • Voluntary reading rates diminish from childhood to late adolescence.
  • BookstoresNewspapers
  • BookstoresNewspapers
  • BookstoresNewspapers
  • BookstoresNewspapers
  • Response to a Congressional mandate to help parents, teachers and policy makers identify the key skills and methods central to reading achievement.
  • Response to a Congressional mandate to help parents, teachers and policy makers identify the key skills and methods central to reading achievement.
  • Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
  • Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
  • Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
  • Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
  • Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension
  • The ability to notice, think about, and work with individual sounds in spoken words  listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.Phonemic awareness instruction helps children to learn to ReadSpell
  • The ability to notice, think about, and work with individual sounds in spoken words  listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.
  • Recognize which words in a set of words begin with the same soundIsolating and saying the first or last sound in a wordCombining, or blending the separate sounds in a word to say the wordBreaking, or segmenting a word into its separate sounds
  • Phoneme isolation: which requires recognizing the individual sounds in words, for example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word paste" (/p/).
  • Phoneme identity: which requires recognizing the common sound in different words, for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy and bell" (/b/).
  • Phoneme substitution: in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/k/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
  • Oral segmenting: The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
  • Oral blending: The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
  • Sound deletion: The teacher says word, for example, "bill," has students repeat it, and then instructs students to repeat the word without a sound.
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Should begin in kindergarten or first grade Should be taught systematically Should include teaching letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships
  • Approximately two years of phonics instruction is sufficient for most students
  • Approximately two years of phonics instruction is sufficient for most students
  • Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. They have strategies to "fix" problems in their understanding as the problems arise. Research shows that instruction, even in the early grades, can help students become better at monitoring their comprehension.Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:Be aware of what they do understandIdentify what they do not understandUse appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension
  • Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. They have strategies to "fix" problems in their understanding as the problems arise. Research shows that instruction, even in the early grades, can help students become better at monitoring their comprehension.Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:Be aware of what they do understandIdentify what they do not understandUse appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension
  • Metacognition can be defined as "thinking about thinking." Good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading. Before reading, they might clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text. During reading, they might monitor their understanding, adjusting their reading speed to fit the difficulty of the text and "fixing" any comprehension problems they have. After reading, they check their understanding of what they read.Students may use several comprehension monitoring strategies:Identify where the difficulty occurs"I don't understand the second paragraph on page 76."Identify what the difficulty is"I don't get what the author means when she says, 'Arriving in America was a milestone in my grandmother's life.'"Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words"Oh, so the author means that coming to America was a very important event in her grandmother's life."Look back through the text"The author talked about Mr. McBride in Chapter 2, but I don't remember much about him. Maybe if I reread that chapter, I can figure out why he's acting this way now."Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty"The text says, 'The groundwater may form a stream or pond or create a wetland. People can also bring groundwater to the surface.' Hmm, I don't understand how people can do that… Oh, the next section is called 'Wells.' I'll read this section to see if it tells how they do it."
  • Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.Regardless of the label, graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts. Graphic organizers help students read and understand textbooks and picture books.Graphic organizers can:Help students focus on text structure "differences between fiction and nonfiction" as they readProvide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a textHelp students write well-organized summaries of a textVenn diagram embedded!
  • Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.Regardless of the label, graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts. Graphic organizers help students read and understand textbooks and picture books.Graphic organizers can:Help students focus on text structure "differences between fiction and nonfiction" as they readProvide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a textHelp students write well-organized summaries of a textVenn diagram embedded!
  • Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.Regardless of the label, graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts. Graphic organizers help students read and understand textbooks and picture books.Graphic organizers can:Help students focus on text structure "differences between fiction and nonfiction" as they readProvide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a textHelp students write well-organized summaries of a textVenn diagram embedded!
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Use scribbles, letters, letter-like forms, numbers.Show no understanding of phoneme-grapheme (letter-sound) relationships.Show a preference for uppercase letters.Write from left-to-right, right-to-left, top-to-bottom, or randomly on the page.Know that the print carries the message.
  • Develop interest in print: Read aloud daily, create a print-rich environment, spend time with books.Encourage children to write. Use LEA and teacher/student modeling.Teach letter names with letter forms.Introduce concepts and terms: letter, beginning/ending sounds, word, sentence.Begin developing understanding of letter sounds, concept of rhyming.Discuss and model directionality.Discuss spelling with children & family members.Find an appreciative audience.
  • Sometimes have not developed directionality: write from left to right, top to bottom.Use letters to represent sounds.Use abbreviated 1, 2, 3 letter spellings; omit some important letters in words.Use letter-name strategy for spelling.
  • Encourage attempts at writing.Continue to develop phoneme-grapheme correspondence.Do LEA, asking for help with spelling.Model writing.Read daily.Brainstorm words (& spelling) to make word banks prior to writing (sometimes).Encourage children to write by representing sounds in the order they hear them. Display words used frequently in writing. Let children see what other children write.Discuss developmental spelling with children and family members.
  • Select letters on basis of sound alone.Spelling represents all essential sound features.Spelling is readable (more or less).
  • Read daily.Model writing and encourage children to write.Develop awareness of correct spelling, emphasizing visual features of words.Expose children to word families, spelling patterns, word structure.Teach students how to study a word
  • Include a vowel in each syllable. Apply many spelling rules; may overgeneralize.Spelling resembles English spelling.Spelling is easily read.
  • Provide correct model of spelling.Have students identify misspelled words by circling them.Provide writing resources and teach students to use them independently.Provide a spelling program. Study affixes, root words, and homophones.Provide word-sorting activities.Extend use of personal word banks.Encourage use of mnemonics.Emphasize importance of dictionary spelling for public sharing.Model writing and encourage children to write. Let students see what others write.Read daily.
  • Have internalized the alphabetic principle.Have learned basic spelling words.Spell words according to adult stTeach students to spell multi-syllable words that contain common word parts (-tion, -able, inter-).Provide spelling instruction: increase spelling awareness & correct misspelled words.Keep spelling notebooks or personal dictionaries.Develop proofreading skills. andards.Develop responsibility for identifying & correcting own spelling. Encourage use of various strategies when spelling.Provide quality writing experiences.Continue to model and share writing.Read daily.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Vocabulary<br />Reading Comprehension<br />Spelling <br />
    • 2. cloviscrawfish<br />
    • 3. cloviscrawfish<br />
    • 4. vocabulary instruction<br />the glue of comprehension<br />
    • 5. vocabulary instruction<br />starting point<br />
    • 6. vocabulary instruction<br />how should we teach?<br />
    • 7. vocabulary instruction<br />high frequency<br />
    • 8. vocabulary instruction<br />lexicon<br />(how we know/use words)<br />
    • 9. vocabulary instruction<br />language of community<br />
    • 10. vocabulary instruction<br />attach meaning age 1<br />
    • 11. vocabulary instruction<br />restaurant<br />
    • 12. vocabulary instruction<br />restaurant<br />places to eat<br />
    • 13. vocabulary instruction<br />restaurant<br />ethnic food<br />places to eat<br />
    • 14. vocabulary instruction<br />vocabulary types<br />listening<br />
    • 15. vocabulary instruction<br />vocabulary types<br />speaking<br />
    • 16. vocabulary instruction<br />vocabulary types<br />reading<br />
    • 17. vocabulary instruction<br />vocabulary types<br />writing<br />
    • 18. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />who has the vocabulary?<br />
    • 19. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />vocabulary hard to reverse<br />
    • 20. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />schools &amp; vocabulary<br />
    • 21. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />word knowledge is essential to comprehension<br />
    • 22. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />MUST be active (to learn)<br />
    • 23. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />multiple exposure <br />
    • 24. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />copy dictionary? no !<br />
    • 25. vocabulary instruction<br />from the research<br />connect 2 p. experience<br />
    • 26. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />2000 – 3000 words a year<br />
    • 27. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />explicitly &amp; incidentally<br />
    • 28. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />repetition &amp; m. exposure<br />
    • 29. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />active engage vocabulary tasks<br />
    • 30. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />directive context<br />
    • 31. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />(non)directive context<br />
    • 32. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />(mis)directive context<br />
    • 33. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />good mixture (10?)<br />
    • 34. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />tier I words<br />
    • 35. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />tier II words<br />
    • 36. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />What are the Tier II words in this passage? <br />
    • 37. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />tier III words<br />
    • 38. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />What are the tier III words in this passage? <br />
    • 39. vocabulary instruction<br />
    • 40. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />so now what?<br />
    • 41. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />so now what?<br />(pick your 10)<br />
    • 42. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />differentiated instruction<br />
    • 43. vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />asteroid<br />Examples<br />Context Use<br />Attributes<br />
    • 44. Definitions<br />Use Word in Context<br />Dictionary Look Up<br />Find and Read it in the Book/Story<br />Student Friendly<br />Vocabulary Word<br />Context Clue from Reading<br />Write the Word in a Sentence<br />Examples<br />Category/Class/Part of Speech<br />Characteristics<br />Conceptual Understanding<br />vocabulary instruction<br />teaching vocabulary<br />
    • 45. reading instruction<br />“Vocabulary knowledge is a significant and constant predictor of overall reading comprehension irrespective of grade level”<br />Yonanoff, Duesberry, Alonzeo &amp; Tindal, 2005<br />
    • 46. reading instruction<br />Is lifelong reading a worthy goal?<br />
    • 47. reading instruction<br />some people say no (??) <br />
    • 48. reading instruction<br />high literacy rate is new<br />
    • 49. reading instruction<br />high literacy rate is new<br />(historically reserved for the few)<br />
    • 50. reading instruction<br />digital technology changes what counts as literacy<br />
    • 51. reading instruction<br />natural order? (literacy is not for everyone)<br />
    • 52. reading instruction<br />I … want to question the assumption … that books are on the way out. I think they’re here to stay. It’s just that not that many people ever did read them. Why should we think everybody ought to now?<br />Ursula K. LeGuin<br />“Staying Awake: Notes on the Alleged Decline of Reading”<br />Harpers Magazine<br />February, 2008<br />
    • 53. reading instruction<br />½ (18-24)don’t read <br />
    • 54. reading instruction<br />childhood to adolescence<br />
    • 55. reading instruction<br />business of reading<br />
    • 56.
    • 57. 2007<br />How often do you read for fun, on your own time?<br />Grade 4 Grade 8<br />
    • 58. 2007<br />How often do you read for fun, on your own time?<br />Grade 4 Grade 8<br />
    • 59. 2007<br />How often do you read for fun, on your own time?<br />Grade 4 Grade 8<br />
    • 60. reading instruction<br />it is important ! <br />(why)<br />
    • 61. reading instruction<br />what should we do?<br />
    • 62. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />congressional mandate<br />
    • 63. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />5 components of reading<br />
    • 64. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />(1)phonemic awareness<br />
    • 65. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />(2)phonics<br />
    • 66. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />(3)fluency<br />
    • 67. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />(4)vocabulary<br />
    • 68. reading instruction<br />National Reading Panel<br />(5)comprehension<br />
    • 69. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness<br />
    • 70. reading instruction<br />cat <br />
    • 71. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness<br />instructional strategies<br />
    • 72. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />phoneme isolation <br />
    • 73. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />phoneme identity<br />
    • 74. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />phoneme substitution<br />
    • 75. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />oral segmenting<br />
    • 76. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />oral blending<br />
    • 77.
    • 78. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />sound deletion<br />
    • 79. reading instruction<br />phonemic awareness strategies<br />less than 10 min a day!<br />
    • 80. reading instruction<br />PHONICS<br />
    • 81. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />begin in k – 1st grade<br />
    • 82. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />taught systematically<br />
    • 83. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />include letter shapes<br />
    • 84. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />include letter names<br />
    • 85. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />include phonemic awareness<br />
    • 86. reading instruction<br />phonic instruction<br />major letter-sound relationships<br />
    • 87. reading instruction<br />phonics instruction<br />how long? 2 yrs<br />
    • 88. reading instruction<br />FLUENCY<br />
    • 89. reading instruction<br />fluency<br />bridges word recognition and comprehension<br />
    • 90. reading instruction<br />fluency<br />students who score low on fluency score low on comprehension<br />
    • 91. reading instruction<br />fluency<br />we neglect fluency in instruction !<br />
    • 92. reading instruction<br />vocabulary<br />(enough said  )<br />
    • 93. reading instruction<br />comprehension<br />comprehension<br />
    • 94. reading instruction<br />comprehension<br />it is the reason for reading<br />
    • 95. reading instruction<br />comprehension<br />must teach strategies!<br />
    • 96. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />monitor comprehension<br />
    • 97. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />monitor comprehension<br />
    • 98. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />metacognition strategies<br />
    • 99. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />graphic organizers<br />
    • 100. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />graphic organizers<br />
    • 101. reading instruction<br />Comprehension strategies<br />graphic organizers<br />
    • 102. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />
    • 103. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />scribbles<br />letter &amp; number like<br />
    • 104. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />no letter-sound understanding<br />
    • 105. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />UPPERCASE LETTERS<br />
    • 106. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />Write up-down-side-left<br />
    • 107. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />know print has meaning<br />
    • 108.
    • 109.
    • 110.
    • 111.
    • 112. spelling instruction<br />pre-communicative spelling<br />teaching strategies<br />
    • 113. spelling instruction<br />semi-phonetic spelling<br />
    • 114.
    • 115.
    • 116.
    • 117.
    • 118. spelling instruction<br />semi-phonetic spelling<br />teaching strategies<br />
    • 119. spelling instruction<br />phonetic spelling<br />
    • 120.
    • 121.
    • 122.
    • 123.
    • 124.
    • 125.
    • 126.
    • 127. spelling instruction<br />semi-phonetic spelling<br />strategies<br />
    • 128. spelling instruction<br />transitional spelling<br />
    • 129.
    • 130.
    • 131.
    • 132. 132<br />
    • 133. 133<br />
    • 134. spelling instruction<br />transitional spelling<br />strategies<br />
    • 135. spelling instruction<br />correct spelling<br />

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