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Mineralized tissues (1)
 

Mineralized tissues (1)

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    Mineralized tissues (1) Mineralized tissues (1) Presentation Transcript

    • MINERALIZED TISSUES
    • MESENCHYMEFIBROBLAST SCLEROBLAST MYOBLASTFIBROCYTE MYOCYTESODONTOBLAST CHONDROBLAST OSTEOBLASTDENTIN CHONDROCYTES OSTEOCYTESTEETH CARTILAGES BONE
    • ➲Osteology – study of structure, function and composition of bonesChondrology - study of structure, function and composition of cartilges Function Of Bones Support Protection Movement Mineral storage Hemopoeisis/hematopoiesis Leverage for locomotion
    • Gross Anatomy of BonesI. Compact Bones  Long Bones Diaphysis -tubular part Epiphyses -bone ends Epiphyseal Plate
    • • Blood Vessel -with nutrient arteries and veins• Medullary cavity -marrow cavity of bones Membrane Periosteum -covers the entire outer surface of each bone except in epiphyses Endosteum - innermost covering of bones
    • Chemical Composition of Bones1. Organic components Collagen fibers CHON Polyssacharides2. Inorganic components calcium phosphate calcium carbonate Hydroxypatite ions
    • Microscopic anatomy of bones
    • The haversian system
    • Bone DevelopmentOSSIFICATION – process of bone development1. Intramembranous ossification - direct bone development of membrane bones2.Endochondral ossification - development of bones preceeded by cartilages
    • Classification of Bones1. Long Bones Ex. femur, humerus2. Short Bones Ex. trapezoid3. Flat Bones Ex. Sternum, ribs4. Irregular Bones Ex. Hip bones, vertebrae
    • TYPES OF BONES : (OSTEOGENESIS)1. Compact Bone (Lamellar Bone) - hard bone matrix – CaCO3,CaPO4,OH) - long bones2. Spongy Bone (Cancelous Bone) - consist of bony trabecullae and bone marrow - trabeculae – beams,bars,rods - irregularly arranged lamellae without haversian canals
    • BONE MARROW Occupies cavities between trabellae Yellow marrow – a reticulum of connective tissue fibers that support blood vessels, nerve fibers, adipose tissues Red Marrow – (Hemopoietic Bone) - site of RBC and Some type of WBC production- ex. Flat bones
    • 3.ACELLAR BONES (ASPIDIN)  Bones formed in scales of modern fishes  No canaliculi  Ex. Scales of fishes,cementum of teeth 4. MEMBRANE BONE formed by blastema (mesenchymal cells w/c differentiates into tissues) Develop through ossification Bone deposited directly within the membranous blastema without being preceeded by cartilages (intramembranous) May be compact or spongy,lamellar or non-lamellar, no haversian canals Ex. Lower jaw, skull, pectoral girdles,dentin, dermal bones of teleost,apodans
    • 5. Replacement Bones Arise from pre-existing cartilages Soft bones Endochondral ossification Ex. Fontannels, tetrapod bones with cartilaginous diaphysis and 2 epiphysis, epiphyseal plate
    • II. Cartilage- specialized connective tissue in which fibersare laid down along the lines of stress in long,parallel arrays firm and flexible chondrocytes - cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix -CHONDRIFICATION – chondroblast- chondrocytes 17
    • Cartilage 18
    • TYPES OF CARTILAGESBASIS HYALINE ELASTIC FIBRO- CARTILAGE1.Matrix Fine collagenous Collagenous Dense fibers ,elastic collagenous fibers2. Function Cover and Flexible Withstand protect strength tension & bones,support compression3. Location Joints, Ears,nose, Vertebral trachea,costal larynx,audi- discs,pubic ribs tory canal sysmphysis
    • 4. THE CALCIFIED CARTILAGE The cartilages replaced by bones Ex. Jaw, fins of sharks, fontannels of the fetal human skull
    • III. DENTIN Developed from the odontoblast Odontoblast are not trapped in lacunae during osteogenesis – retreat as dentin deposits Canaliculi – dentibal tubules Ex. Enameloid of placoid scales, dentin of the teeth
    • IV. ENAMEL Developed from ameloblasts Teeth – important for digestion
    • V. BONE REMODELING PRESKELETAL MESENCHYMAL BLASTEMACARTILAGESRESORPTION OF Ca Membrane BoneReplacement Bones CONTINUAL RESORPTION AND REMODELING
    • PARATHORMONE AND CALCITONIN The hormones that influence or regulates the withdrawal of calcium to maintain calcification OSTEOBLAST – developing bone cells OSTEOCLAST – bone destructing cells OSTEOCYTES – bone-building cells
    • VI. CONNECTIVE TISSUES OF BONES1. TENDON3. LIGAMENTS5. CARTILAGES
    • Phases of Healing of Fractures Hematoma Formation Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation Body Callus Formation Bone Remodeling
    • FRACTURE HEALING HEMATOMA CARTILAGINOUS BONY REMODELINGNORMAL FORMATION CALLUS CALLUS BONE & CARTILAGI- NOUS MEMBRANE
    • The Articular SystemJoints/articulation -places where the rigid elements of the skeleton meet. TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION: 1. Synarthroses -fixed or immovable joints 2. Amphiarthroses -slightly movable joints 3. Diarthroses -freely movable joints
    • TYPES OF JOINTS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE:1. FIBROUS JOINTS a. structures -minimal connected tissue b. syndesmoses -connected by ligaments c. gamphoses -peg-in-socket joint
    • 2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS a. synchondrosis -hyaline cartilage b.symphyses -fibrocartilage3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS -most movable joints of the body -diarthoroses
    • Features of Synovial joints1. Articular cartilage2. Joint cavity/ synovial cavity3. Articular Capsule 2 LAYERS: a. fibrous capsule -strengthens joint so that bones are not pulled apart b. synovial membrane -cover enternal joint surfaces4. Synovial fluid -a filtrate of blood which contains glycoproteins5. Reinforgang ligaments -thickened parts of fibrous capsule itself
    • SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
    • Types of Synovial joints1. Plane joints -nonaxial joint2. Hinge joints -uniaxial joint(flexible)3. Pivot joints - rotatory, uniaxial joint4. Condyloid joints - biaxial joint5. Ball and Socket joints -multiaxial joint
    • HETEROTROPIC BONES OS CORDIS OS CLITORIDIS OS BACULUM ROSTRUM