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A presentation for New Directions: Adult Learning at North Eastern University. The presentation is part one of four on the topic of nutrition for endurance athletes.

A presentation for New Directions: Adult Learning at North Eastern University. The presentation is part one of four on the topic of nutrition for endurance athletes.

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  • Foods are more than just calories, high nutrient foods also contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Low Nutrition Ice cream, Fried Foods, Pizza, Chips, Cookies, Cake, Muffins, Biscuits, High Nutrition: Fruits, Vegetables, Beans, Poultry, Fish, Butter, Olive oil, Meat/poultry/Fish, nuts and seeds
  • Today we are going to focus on carbohydrates. In the coming weeks we will discuss proteins, fats, and hydration.
  • If you have a hard copy of your food journal, circle all the carbohydrates that you can identify.
  • People who do many long workouts or who exercise and have a very physical job will need more carbohydrate than people who exercise less and/or have a sedentary job. Most people only need about 20-40% of their diet coming from carbs. This is contradictory to what most nutritionists and medical professionals recommend. The food guide pyramid recommends people consume greater than 60% of their intake from carbohydrate. But ask yourself, with these recommendations, are we as a nation getting healthier?
  • Most of your carbohydrates should come from the produce section. Yes wild or brown rice and quinoa are technically whole grains, but compared to a sweet potato or peach or Brussels sprout they pale in comparison to their vitamin/mineral/ and antioxidant content.
  • Steel cut oats contain one ingredient, so do old fashioned rolled oats. But Bob is not starting his day very well, since the apple cinnamon oatmeal contains several teaspoons worth of added sugar.
  • None of these are a real food. There is no such thing as a bread bush. The whole grain bread will probably have a little more fiber than the white bread, but for the most part, they are all heavily processed. Bread cravings are often a sign of unbalanced blood sugar, poor digestive health, and a lack of protein and fat in the diet. If you insist on eating bread, please choose a sprouted grain bread as they are more nutritionally dense and easier to digest.
  • Real: Broccoli Processed: French Fries (contain trans fats or damaged from frying) Every cell in your body has a ring of fat around it, you certainly don’t want that ring of fat being made from damaged fats.
  • Eat your fruit instead of drinking it. The whole fruit still contains the fiber, where as the juice has just as much sugar in it as the equivalent amount of soda.
  • Whole milk contains a perfect balance of Carbohydrate, Protein, and fat. Where as the chocolate milk is often reduced fat with lots of added sugar. It is no longer a balanced food.
  • When carbohydrates are digested, they break down into sugar (blood glucose). Carbohydrates include: Chips, pretzels, pasta, bread, bagels, cereal, candy, cookies… But they also include fruits and vegetables.
  • Insulin unlocks the receptor sites on cells, particularly in the brain and in muscles. Without insulin, glucose would continue to circulate in the blood stream. Energy is our metabolsim. We need energy to do everything from walking the dog, breathing, even growing our hair and nails.
  • Excess carbohydrate intake results in excess insulin production. The pancreas often makes too much insulin in response to processed carbohydrates.
  • Excess carbohydrates are often stored around the abdomen. Think-Beer Gut. But now it could be a cookie and popcorn belly. Inflammation comes in many different forms, some we can see and feel, others we cannot. More on this in the next couple slides.
  • Non-Starchy Vegetables are unlimited-so eat up! On rest days or easy workout days keep concentrated carbs to ½ cup at each meal or snack. Choose either a fruit or a starch. On more intense/long workout days, some meals or snacks may need to contain more carbohydrate. Up to 1 cup at meals, keep snacks at ½ cup.
  • Protein and Fat = Balanced blood sugar. When your blood sugars are balanced you should not experience cravings, anxiety, insomnia, and energy crashes. This is also when your body can produce Glucagon, the fat burning hormone.
  • Take the total amount of carbohydrate and divide by 4 to find out how much sugar that food turns into in your body. Look at the total Carbohydrate and ignore the sugar. Sugar content on labels is not regulated by the FDA, but carbohydrate content is.
  • Have sugar models and food samples ready, let the group try and match the foods with the corresponding sugar model Full Fat Yogurt =12g carb = 3 tsp (sugar is from lactose naturally found in dairy) Low Fat yogrut = 34g carb = 8.5 tsp (contains added refined sugar) Raisin Bran = 80g carb = 20 tsp Sweet potato = 15g carb = 3.75 tsp Spinach = 1g carb = 0.25 tsp Brussels Sprouts= 40g carb = 10 tsp (15g fiber) White Bread = 12g carb = 3 tsp (1g fiber) Whole Grain Bread 12g carb = 3 tsp (2 g fiber) Brown Rice = 15g carb =3.75 tsp Banana = 15g carb = 3.75 tsp Pasta =100g carb = 25 tsp Bagel = 54g carb = 14.25 tsp (1g fiber) Peppers = 54g carb = 14.25 tsp (18g fiber) Power Bar = 44g carb = 11 tsp sugar (1g fiber) Gatorade = 21g carb = 5.25 tsp Juice =30 g carb = 7.5 tsp
  • -But not so much carbohydrate that they experience sugar crashes and bonk
  • The amount of carbohydrate you need can fluctuate depending upon your training load. You do not need to be exact with these numbers, but use them as a general guide. By focusing carb intake on leafy green vegetables it is easy to decrease total carb consumption. Examples of light training days include: an easy 5k-10k run, 10-15mile bike ride, 1 mile swim, 1 hour weight lifting session, Yoga. Moderate training days include longer runs/biking/swimming. Or playing soccor/lacross/basket ball for longer than 1 hour. Higher intensity training lasting greater than 1 hour. Heavy training days include long practices lasting greater than 1.5 hours. Or days with multiple workout sessions.
  • Non Starchy vegetables are unlimited, eat as many of them as you want! Limit starchy vegetables and fruit to ½ cup at meals and snacks on light to moderate workout days. On days you do heavier or extended training you may want to increase your starchy carbohydrate at 1-3 meals to 1 cup depending upon how you feel.
  • Eggs and bacon do not raise cholesterol, this is a myth that has been perpetuated for over 20 years. There is no research to back it up. Refined sugar and processed carbs however, create lots of inflammation in the body which leads to heart disease.
  • Yes, you can seriously eat 5 cups of salad. 2 cups or handfulls of lettuce or other leafy greens + 3 other handfuls of vegetables: cucumber, cauliflower, cherry tomatoes, broccoli, red onion, shredded carrot, zucchini, summer squash, sugar snap peas, asparagus…
  • Double the recipe and keep meatballs in the freezer for a quick weeknight meal. Grass Fed beef contains more magnessium, zinc, and omega 3 fatty acids than conventionally raised beef. These three nutrients are key to muscle recovery, immune function, and reducing inflammation.
  • High Fat: Fried Foods, Regular Salad Dressing, Meats with lots of Marbling, Cheese, Nuts Some people find they can eat anything before a hard workout, other people cannot. Find what works for you.
  • Bonking is essentially a major blood sugar crash, it’s when you hit the proverbial wall. When people constantly fuel their body with mostly carbohydrates, they are unable to tap into their fat stores for energy. By keeping blood sugars in balance during the day, and fueling properly before and during extended exercise, you can prevent a bonk. Decreasing carbohydrate intake allows the body to become more efficient at accessing fat stores which have the ability to supply the body with days worth of energy. Compared to the glycogen stored in muscles and the liver which can only supply a couple hours worth of energy.
  • For exercise lasting greater than 60 minutes try consuming between 15-30g of carbohydrate every 45minutes. 1 Gu packet contains approximately 25g carbohydrate from maltodextrin and fructose. Many athletes like using them since they are easily absorbed and typically do not cause digestive problems. If you feel that you need to use them for convenience, make sure to also have real foods with you as well. Dried Fruit: Papaya, Mango, Pineapple, Apricots, Dates, Prunes
  • Refueling will drastically decrease muscle soreness. If you are refueling between meals focus on smaller serving sizes and eat a meal within 2 hours, if you are refueling with a meal, stick with your normal serving sizes. Even-though fat helps stabilize blood sugars, too much can slow digestion and absorption of carbs and protein.
  • Sweet potato bites are excellent any time of the day. They are delicious cooked in with eggs at breakfast, tossed on a salad at lunch, or eaten dipped in melted peanut butter as a before bed snack.
  • If you do not like commercially prepared electrolyte drinks try making your own: Big Batch: 1 Quart water, 1 cup juice, 3/4tsp salt or 5 Tbs Synerplex Small Batch: 1 cup water, ¼ cup juice, 1/8tsp salt or 1-2 Tbs Synerplex OR…..: Disolve 1 to 1.5 Tbs honey in 1.25 cups of hot tea along with 1/8 th tsp salt. Chill prior to using in a fuel belt or drinking post run. Unless it’s cold outside and you want something warm.
  • For people exercising/competing the next morning for longer than 1 hour, 2 servings of concentrated carbs may be needed for optimal performance. Excess fiber can cause gas and bloating in some individuals the next day. Avoid Alcohol the night before since it leads to dehydration.
  • Here are a few online resources for food tracking/journaling. Do not worry about the total calories, as we will learn, calories don’t count. It’s where those calories come from that matters most. Use these options as you like and watch as the proportion of Carbohydrate, fat, and protein change over the coming weeks. You can use any of these options even without a smart phone. Over the coming weeks its also a good idea to to record how you are feeling. Do you have more or less energy during the day? Are you sleeping better? Are you recovering from workout faster or slower? If you are competing, how is your performance? Better? Are you bonking less? Many of these online apps have journal areas, make use of these and document your physical wellbeing there. Or use a calendar and simply rate yourself on a scale of 1-5 each day, with a 1= low energy and a 5= high energy. Being mindful in this way will help you connect what you eat to how you feel.
  • Dianne Schwarzbein discusses how unbalanced blood sugars increase chronic disease Gary Taubes delves into why carbs cause weight gain, and why we have been told to each so much of them. Ben Greenfield is a former body builder turned triathlete who runs a blog and fuels his body with real foods including lots of fats and protein.


  • 1. Food Is Fuel -Carbohydrate
  • 2. Please Fill out the pre-class survey. This will give you and your instructors a better idea as to what you know and at the end, what you learned.
  • 3. What Is a Calorie? • Calories are energy. They are like the gas in a car. • Some calories are of higher quality than others. • When we eat the right kinds of calories (food) in the right amount, our bodies will perform at their best.
  • 4. Where do calories come from? • Macronutrients – Carbohydrates – Protein – Fat – Alcohol Most foods contain a combination of the three major macronutrients. Are some foods more nutritious than others? Why?
  • 5. Carbohydrate • Sugar (small particles) • Starch (long chains) • Fiber (long chains, indigestible) Fruit Soda, Sweet Tea, Kool Aid Candy Potato, Corn, Peas Bread, Cereal, Grits Rice, Pasta, Beans Whole Grains Vegetables, Fruit Beans
  • 6. Food Journal • Looking at your three days of food journaling, can you identify the carbohydrates?
  • 7. Carbohydrate Cont. • 4 calories per gram • Used by the body for fuel • 20-60% of calories should come from carbs • Focus on Real carbs • Save bread/pasta/chips and sweets for every now and then.
  • 8. Real Carbs vs Processed Carbs • Real carbs are found in nature, you can pick them, grow them, harvest them. • Most of your carbohydrates should come from the produce section. • Processed carbs come in a box or bottle.
  • 9. Real or Processed Potato Chips Potato Brown Rice Cakes Brown Rice Fruit Gummies Strawberries Spinach Pasta Spinach
  • 10. Real vs Processed
  • 11. Real vs. Processed • White Bread • Whole Wheat Bread • Whole Grain Bread
  • 12. Real vs. Processed
  • 13. Real vs. Processed • 100% Orange Juice • Fresh Orange
  • 14. Real vs. Processed • Whole Milk • Chocolate Milk
  • 15. Food Journal • Cross out the processed carbs and count how many real carbs vs processed carbs are in your diet. Which do you have more of? • What changes can you make to eat more real carbs?
  • 16. What do Carbs do?
  • 17. Insulin • When Blood sugars rise, the pancreas makes insulin. • Insulin acts like the key to pull glucose into cells for energy Club Metabolism
  • 18. Out of Balance • Too much glucose creates insulin overload
  • 19. Insulin Resistance • Cells tune out insulin and glucose, they lock him out of the club. • Insulin stores excess glucose as fat and creates inflammation Club Metabolism
  • 20. Blood Sugar Roller Coaster 10 AM Latte 3PM Cookie Ice cream Cereal Insulin Insulin Insulin Normal Blood Sugar
  • 21. Consequences of Unbalanced Blood Sugar Highs • Hypertension • High Cholesterol • Insomnia • Hormone Imbalance • Hot Flashes • Weight Gain • Osteoporosis Lows • Hunger • Cravings • Insomnia • Anxiety and Panic Attacks • Irritability • Fatigue • Weakness
  • 22. Serving Sizes • Non-starchy Vegetables-1 cup fresh, ½ cup cooked • Fruit-1 small or ½ cup • Starchy vegetables- ½ cup • Beans/Peas/Lentils- ½ cup • Rice/Quinoa/Oat meal- ½ cup
  • 23. Blood Sugar Roller Coaster 10 AM Latte 3PM Cookie Ice cream Cereal Insulin Insulin Insulin Protein + Fat = Balanced Blood Sugar = Glucaon production
  • 24. Carbs vs Sugar 4 grams of Carbohydrate turn into 1 tsp of sugar in your body.
  • 25. Sugar Sugar Everywhere 1 Cup Plain Full Fat Yogurt 1 Cup low fat Vanilla Yogurt 2 cup Raisin Bran ½ cup Sweet Potato 1 Cup Spinach 5 Cups Brussels Sprouts 1 Slice of White Bread 1 Slice of Whole Grain Bread ½ Cup brown Rice ½ banana 3 Cups Pasta 1 Bagel 9 Bell Peppers Power Bar 12 oz Gatorade 6 oz Grape Juice
  • 26. Muscles • Muscles use Glycogen for energy. • Glycogen: how muscles store glucose (blood sugar). • Intense exercise day after day will deplete glycogen stores. Overtime this can affect performance. • Endurance athletes and people doing intense exercise need to focus on eating enough carbohydrate to fuel muscles.
  • 27. How Much Per Day? • 50-120g non exercise or very light training days • 90-120g on moderate training days • 150-200+g on heavy training/competition days
  • 28. Serving Sizes • 1 cup non Starchy Vegetable = 5g • ½ cup Starchy Vegetable or Fruit = 15g
  • 29. Balanced Breakfast 2 cups cereal + 1 cup milk + 6 oz Orange Juice = 114g carbohydrate = 28.5 tsp sugar 2 Eggs + 2 slices nitrate free bacon + ½ cup hash- browns + 1 cup spinach + 1 Tbs Butter = 17g carbohydrate = 4.25 tsp sugar
  • 30. Balanced Lunch • Sub Sandwich + Chips + Cookie + Diet coke= 104 g carb = 26 tsp sugar • 5 cup Large Salad + Leftover Grilled Salmon + Caesar dressing + apple + Unsweet Iced Tea= 40g carb = 10 tsp sugar
  • 31. Balanced Supper • 3 cups pasta + 1 cup marinara sauce + bread stick + Side Salad with fat free dressing= 150g carbohydrate = 37.5 tsp sugar • 2 meatballs + 1/2 cup marinara sauce + 2 cups steamed broccoli + side salad with olive oil vinaigrette= 35g carbohydrate = 8.75 tsp sugar
  • 32. Meat Balls • 2# ground grass fed beef • 1 cup cooked brown rice • ½ cup cream • 1 egg beaten • Dash of salt and pepper • 1 Tbs dried basil 1.Combine ingredients in a large bowl. 2.Roll into 12 meat balls 3.Place in a lightly greased casserole dish and bake at 350 F for 20-30 minutes. 4.Serves 6-8
  • 33. Fuel Before Exercise • Easy to digest • fruit, oatmeal, glass of milk, sweet potato • Avoid large meals and high fiber foods • A small apple with 2 Tbs peanut butter can digest with in 1-2 hours, a full meal can take between 3-8 hours to empty from the stomach. • Everyone is different
  • 34. I Bonked. Athletes can experience a sugar crash in the middle of their workouts or even worse, the middle of a race or major competition. -Fatigue -Muscle Weakness -Nausea -Lightheadedness -Lack of motivation
  • 35. Fuel During Exercise • For exercise lasting more than 70 minutes people need to take in carbohydrate after the first 45 minutes and approximately every 15-45 minutes after that. • Distance runners/bikers, soccer, football, basketball, lacrosse, hiking, multiple events in one day. • Prepackaged foods/drinks work well, but so do: large pieces of dried fruit, watered down juice, bananas, honey
  • 36. Refueling • After strenuous or extended workouts (60 minutes or mores) it is important to refuel the body. • Very important for people who workout 2X day or have very active jobs and exercise. • Carbohydrates are needed to restock muscle’s glycogen stores. Protein is needed to help repair muscle damage. • 30-60 minute window after exercise
  • 37. Refueling after Exercise • Focus on carbohydrates with a little protein. – oatmeal + Milk – Sweet potato + Steak – Dried Fruit and + Nitrate Free Deli Meat – Berries + Yogurt – Rice + Chicken + salsa – Fruit Smoothie • 1 cup frozen fruit + 1 scoop protein powder + ¼ cup canned coconut milk + ½ cup water or ice
  • 38. Sweet Potato Bites • 2 sweet potatoes cut into 1 inch chunks • 2 Tbs melted coconut oil • 1 Tsp Cinnamon 1. Preheat oven to 375. 2. Mix ingredients together in a bowl and pour onto a lightly greased cookie sheet. (use extra coconut oil) 3. Bake 20-30 minutes until tender. Stir ½ way through cooking time. Serves 2-4.
  • 39. Sports Drinks •Will hinder weight loss efforts •People exercising longer than 60 minutes. •Many contain artificial colors and flavorings which have been shown to be neurotoxic. •Convenient since they contain carbs and electrolytes •Salt encourages people to continue drinking fluids and makes water absorb faster in the body
  • 40. AM Workouts • Eat a balanced dinner the night before with 1-2 servings concentrated carbs – ½ Baked Potato – ½ -1 cup brown rice – ½-1 cup roasted beets • May limit high fiber – Beans, lentils – Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage
  • 41. Goals • Choose more real carbohydrates • Load up on leafy green carbohydrates • Measure starchy carbohydrates(potato/rice/beans/fruit) aim for ½ cup at meals and snacks. • Track diet for at least 3 days. Notice any changes? How do you Feel?
  • 42. Online Food Tracking (great for smart phones)
  • 43. Want more info? • The Schwarzbein Principle-Diana Schwarzbein • Why We Get Fat, and What to do About it-Gary Taubes •
  • 44. Next Week • Answer Questions • Review Food Journal • Topic: Protein
  • 45. Questions?