Tone purpose
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  • 1. Tone and PurposeThe Indirect Ways That Writers Communicate
  • 2. Understanding theAuthor’s PurposeIn many textbooks, thewriter’s purpose is fairly clear.However, sometimes a writerwill express an opinionindirectly.Writers use tone, style andother features of language toachieve the results they want.
  • 3. Understanding Tone Refers to the author’s Examples attitude toward his/her Instructive subject. Sympathetic Think of how you interpret Persuasive Nostalgic the tone of a speaker’s voice Humorous Pay attention to word Angry choice, types and length of Insensitive sentences, description Naive Tone is important in determining the author’s purpose.
  • 4. Style and Intended AudienceStyle may be defined as thecharacteristics that make awriter unique.Depending upon whom thewriter is addressing, he willchange the level of language,method of presentation, andword choice.Writing may be academic,technical, formal, or informal.
  • 5. Language Objective Subjective factual Express attitudes, feelings & opinions Authors use language in special ways to help thereader understand and create a picture of a situation. Create Descriptions Making comparisons Using symbols
  • 6. Word Choice Connotative Denotative Meanings Meanings– Opposite of – Literal Meaning Denotation found in the– Implied Meaning dictionary– A Word’s Nuance— – Factual, exact ideas associated – No added meanings with the word’s usage– May be positive or negative
  • 7. Connotation positive vs. negative • Request, demand,• Crowd, mob, gang, command, appeal, audience, class, plead, claim, ask congregation • Gaudy, showy,• Slim, skinny, slender, flashy, tawdry, slight, wiry, scrawny glitzy, jazzy• Intelligent, brainy, • Glance, stare, look, nerdy, smart, gifted glimpse, peek,• Particular, picky, peer, examine, fussy, meticulous, gaze, scan precise, exacting • Take, snatch, grasp, filch, pocket, steal
  • 8. Figurative Language• Describes something that makes sense on an imaginative level but not on a factual or literal level.• Example: – Sam eats like a horse. – The wilted plants begged for water.
  • 9. Making Comparisons• Similes and metaphors• Compare one object or living thing with another• Questions to ask yourself – What two things is the author comparing? – Why did the author choose that comparison? What do they have in common?
  • 10. Figurative Language- Comparison S a m e a t s lik e a h o r s e ( s im ile )A h o r s e e a t s la r g e a m o u n t s o f fo o d . S a m e a t s la r g e a m o u n t s o f fo o d .• The purpose of figurative language is to paint a word picture—to help the reader visualize how something looks, feels, or smells • The red sun was pasted in the sky like a wafer. • I will speak daggers to her, but use none. • Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.
  • 11. Using Symbols• Symbols can be either pictures or objects that stand for ideas, people, concepts, or anything else the author decides.• Symbols are a communication shortcut —make ideas more understandable by connecting them with things the reader can see.• Common symbols: U.S. Flag (loyalty to country), Statue of Liberty (freedom), dove (peace), “golden arches” (McDonald’s), scales (law/justice)
  • 12. Typical Stem Items• Conclusions, generalizations, summary, comparisons, cause- effect, time relationships, author’s tone – Which of the following conclusions about X is supported by the passage? – Which word would the author most likely use to describe his subject? – The author implies that X and Y differ in what ways? – The author’s opinion about X is that
  • 13. Typical Stem Items• Application of one or more ideas – Based on the author’s description of X, how would a teacher using this plan arrange the student’s activities? – Based on the examples provided in the passage, how could the government best deter illegal immigration?
  • 14. Typical Stem Items• Figurative language – By the phrase, “a breath of fresh air” in lines 6-7, the author means that … – The use of the phrase “alien from another planet” to describe the sister is an example of what type of figurative language? – By saying “the room was like a sauna,” the author is indicating that …
  • 15. Review/Recall• What are inferences and why are they important for reading?• What do you do with inferences once you have made them?• Explain why the conclusions you draw about a reading selection can be tentative —why you can change you mind about how you understand them.• What are some things that might influence a change in how you understand a reading selection?