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INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS- C.7

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INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS …

INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS

CHAPTER 7

Published in: Business, Technology

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  • 1. Public relations andPublic relations and communication technologycommunication technology  Concept of public relationsConcept of public relations Function of public relationsFunction of public relations
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction  In today's corporate world, nearly all companies andIn today's corporate world, nearly all companies and corporations have public relations departments. Thecorporations have public relations departments. The existence of a public relations department is important inexistence of a public relations department is important in ensuring the smooth operations of business in theensuring the smooth operations of business in the globalized world. It functions as the mouthpiece of theglobalized world. It functions as the mouthpiece of the organization and generally seems to be "telling theorganization and generally seems to be "telling the organization's side of the story"organization's side of the story"  What exactly is public relations and when actually theWhat exactly is public relations and when actually the world of public relations emerged? These are the areasworld of public relations emerged? These are the areas we are going to look at in this topic.we are going to look at in this topic.
  • 3. Definition of Public relationsDefinition of Public relations  Before World War I, public relations was definedBefore World War I, public relations was defined as the act of "inducing the public to haveas the act of "inducing the public to have understanding and good will" (Cutlip, Center andunderstanding and good will" (Cutlip, Center and Broom).Broom).  However, after the maturing of the publicHowever, after the maturing of the public relations concept, that is, after World War I, therelations concept, that is, after World War I, the definition of public relations included words suchdefinition of public relations included words such asas reciprocalreciprocal, mutual and relationship between, mutual and relationship between the organization and public.the organization and public.
  • 4. Historical BackgroundHistorical Background  Public relations is a concept that emerged fromPublic relations is a concept that emerged from powerful businesses as early as the 1900s.powerful businesses as early as the 1900s. During this time, companies used to employDuring this time, companies used to employ public relation officers to defend themselves andpublic relation officers to defend themselves and their monopolies against journalists andtheir monopolies against journalists and government regulations. One of the majorgovernment regulations. One of the major events that increased the role of public relationsevents that increased the role of public relations was when the United States took part in Worldwas when the United States took part in World War I. President Woodrow Wilson, the AmericanWar I. President Woodrow Wilson, the American president then, formed the Committee on Publicpresident then, formed the Committee on Public Information in order to persuade the AmericanInformation in order to persuade the American public to join the military.public to join the military.
  • 5.  If we analyze further, we can see that in the early years,If we analyze further, we can see that in the early years, the role of public relations mainly focused on publicitythe role of public relations mainly focused on publicity that was designed to persuade and influence the public.that was designed to persuade and influence the public. It was basically the tool of the corporations to safeguardIt was basically the tool of the corporations to safeguard their interests and maintain their image in the eyes of thetheir interests and maintain their image in the eyes of the public. This was referred to as the one-way concept ofpublic. This was referred to as the one-way concept of public relations.public relations.  Several decades later, following World War II, theSeveral decades later, following World War II, the domain of public relations expanded and evolved into adomain of public relations expanded and evolved into a two-way communication focusing on the relationshiptwo-way communication focusing on the relationship between the organization and the public. The two-waybetween the organization and the public. The two-way concept emphasizes on communication exchange,concept emphasizes on communication exchange, reciprocity and mutual understanding. It operates basedreciprocity and mutual understanding. It operates based on concepts such as organizational adjustment,on concepts such as organizational adjustment, counseling management and corrective action throughcounseling management and corrective action through public relations.public relations.
  • 6. Function of Public relationsFunction of Public relations  PublicityPublicity Most news and information in the media areMost news and information in the media are disseminated by public relation sources. However, due todisseminated by public relation sources. However, due to its non-paying nature, they have little or no control onits non-paying nature, they have little or no control on how or when the information is used. What is consideredhow or when the information is used. What is considered newsworthy to public relations officers will all depend onnewsworthy to public relations officers will all depend on how the editor and reporters use the information. It couldhow the editor and reporters use the information. It could be used as presented or changed according to thebe used as presented or changed according to the reporters' bias without identifying the source.reporters' bias without identifying the source. Nonetheless, in the eyes of the receiver whether reader,Nonetheless, in the eyes of the receiver whether reader, listener or viewer, the medium carrying the information islistener or viewer, the medium carrying the information is the source.the source.
  • 7.  AdvertisingAdvertising Advertising, on the other hand, gives the source controlAdvertising, on the other hand, gives the source control over placement. Where publicity to a certain extent isover placement. Where publicity to a certain extent is harder to control, advertising allows the source control ofharder to control, advertising allows the source control of the content, placement and timing by paying mediathe content, placement and timing by paying media advertising. By paying for the time and space in theadvertising. By paying for the time and space in the media, it allows sources control in the messages that willmedia, it allows sources control in the messages that will be placed to the public. Even though many associate thebe placed to the public. Even though many associate the role of advertising with marketing, it is not only limited torole of advertising with marketing, it is not only limited to that. Organizations may use this as a method to placethat. Organizations may use this as a method to place messages for non-marketable purposes.messages for non-marketable purposes.
  • 8.  Press AgencyPress Agency The use of press agency is to create newsworthy storiesThe use of press agency is to create newsworthy stories to gain media notice and attract the public's attention. Itto gain media notice and attract the public's attention. It plays an enormous role especially in the promotion ofplays an enormous role especially in the promotion of record companies, circuses, concerts or touristrecord companies, circuses, concerts or tourist attractions. It even plays a crucial role in politicalattractions. It even plays a crucial role in political campaigns and politically inclined conventions in order tocampaigns and politically inclined conventions in order to build recognition and attract the public's attention.build recognition and attract the public's attention.  Public AffairsPublic Affairs To a certain extent, many government agencies andTo a certain extent, many government agencies and some corporations use public affairs in place of publicsome corporations use public affairs in place of public relations. In corporations, public affairs would act asrelations. In corporations, public affairs would act as liaisons with government units. One observes activitiesliaisons with government units. One observes activities such as the installation of community programs,such as the installation of community programs, encouragement of political activism or offer of volunteerencouragement of political activism or offer of volunteer services for charitable and community developmentservices for charitable and community development organizations.organizations.
  • 9.  Issue ManagementIssue Management There are two main areas of Issue Management. First isThere are two main areas of Issue Management. First is the early identification of issues with potential impact tothe early identification of issues with potential impact to the organization. And the second is the strategicthe organization. And the second is the strategic response designed to mitigate the consequences. Thus,response designed to mitigate the consequences. Thus, one could say that this domain is the proactive processone could say that this domain is the proactive process of anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding toof anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that may affect the relationshippublic policy issues that may affect the relationship between the organization and public. Hence, we canbetween the organization and public. Hence, we can gather issue management as a method the publicgather issue management as a method the public relation officer use to identify and analyze certain issues.relation officer use to identify and analyze certain issues.  LobbyingLobbying Lobbying may be the more controversial, specialized andLobbying may be the more controversial, specialized and highly criticized part of public affairs and most viewhighly criticized part of public affairs and most view lobbying as part of manipulation especially inlobbying as part of manipulation especially in government. However, within Public Relations, lobbyinggovernment. However, within Public Relations, lobbying is seen as part of an effort to get the public to "take upis seen as part of an effort to get the public to "take up the cause" usually referred as "grassroots lobbying".the cause" usually referred as "grassroots lobbying". Public Relations primarily act as a credible advocate andPublic Relations primarily act as a credible advocate and reliable source, also designed primarily to persuade.reliable source, also designed primarily to persuade.
  • 10. - 5.6 - Impact of communication technology on Public Relations
  • 11.  Technological change has had major impactsTechnological change has had major impacts upon the modes of transmission, processing andupon the modes of transmission, processing and storage of information. It applies conceptsstorage of information. It applies concepts relating to information policy and the socialrelating to information policy and the social construction of technology to a range of issuesconstruction of technology to a range of issues and practical problems, both in Malaysia andand practical problems, both in Malaysia and internationally. Since we are dealing with ainternationally. Since we are dealing with a diverse community, this requires a sophisticateddiverse community, this requires a sophisticated communication process especially when we arecommunication process especially when we are embarking on efficient and effective publicembarking on efficient and effective public relations activities. Communication technologyrelations activities. Communication technology will definitely provides a steady stream ofwill definitely provides a steady stream of information to the masses.information to the masses.
  • 12. ““CT” and public relationsCT” and public relations  Communication technology using the definition given byCommunication technology using the definition given by Rogers (1991) looks at it as "the equipment within theRogers (1991) looks at it as "the equipment within the organization that will allow individuals to collect, processorganization that will allow individuals to collect, process and exchange information with others". It further makesand exchange information with others". It further makes communication more efficient by making communicationcommunication more efficient by making communication activities faster through the factor of time and space.activities faster through the factor of time and space. Starting from the initial development of print, technologyStarting from the initial development of print, technology advancement in the era of telecommunication throughadvancement in the era of telecommunication through radio, television even the internet has played a vital roleradio, television even the internet has played a vital role in Public Relations.in Public Relations.
  • 13.  Since Public Relations means finding ways andSince Public Relations means finding ways and means to attract attention, communicationmeans to attract attention, communication technology is a definite means. By using suchtechnology is a definite means. By using such technology, the ability to incorporate thesetechnology, the ability to incorporate these technologies as a tool within Public Relations willtechnologies as a tool within Public Relations will mean higher and effective means ofmean higher and effective means of communicating to a wider scope of listeners orcommunicating to a wider scope of listeners or viewers.viewers.  With such acclaims, today's practitioners ofWith such acclaims, today's practitioners of Public Relations not only find themselves with aPublic Relations not only find themselves with a large variety of tools to choose from, theselarge variety of tools to choose from, these technologies also makes delivering andtechnologies also makes delivering and monitoring the impact on their target audiencesmonitoring the impact on their target audiences faster and easier.faster and easier.
  • 14.  Nowadays, we can find many examples of newNowadays, we can find many examples of new technology. Intranet and Internet has madetechnology. Intranet and Internet has made communication even more effective then before.communication even more effective then before. Their interconnectedness has been argued toTheir interconnectedness has been argued to represent a paradigm shift within corporaterepresent a paradigm shift within corporate communication. The e-mail, for instance, hascommunication. The e-mail, for instance, has become a vital part of communicating withinbecome a vital part of communicating within organizations. Also, teleconferencing hasorganizations. Also, teleconferencing has advanced the possibilities of meetings andadvanced the possibilities of meetings and speeches. Teleconferencing is able to reachspeeches. Teleconferencing is able to reach people at many locations all at the same time.people at many locations all at the same time. Key speakers that are not able to travel mayKey speakers that are not able to travel may participate by teleconferencing. Another newparticipate by teleconferencing. Another new technology, Close Circuit Television (CCTV),technology, Close Circuit Television (CCTV), makes it possible to telecast live or by videotapemakes it possible to telecast live or by videotape and film simultaneously.and film simultaneously.
  • 15. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION  We have mentioned some of the many changesWe have mentioned some of the many changes that have made an impact onto Public Relations.that have made an impact onto Public Relations. One thing is certain, the future of technology andOne thing is certain, the future of technology and Public Relations are closely tied to each other.Public Relations are closely tied to each other. One could see that the basic structure ofOne could see that the basic structure of business will not change, however, practitionersbusiness will not change, however, practitioners of Public Relations will face challenges withof Public Relations will face challenges with technological change. Due to developments intechnological change. Due to developments in technology, Public Relations have given atechnology, Public Relations have given a diverse and changing scope and also impact thediverse and changing scope and also impact the way one practices public relations.way one practices public relations.
  • 16. THE ENDTHE END