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  1. 1. Learning Objective : Identify communication technology in relation to interpersonal communication. .
  2. 2. Introduction  . There is no doubt that with or without technology, we can still communicate. However, with technology, our interpersonal communication is totally different.  For instance, we can either choose to write letters to our friends, chat with them on the internet or the telephone. And today, we can also talk to them on mobile phones. In other words, it is up to us to choose how we want to communicate with them. In this topic, we will look at how communication technology affects interpersonal communication.
  3. 3. Communication technology affects interpersonal communication or relationships. In the contexts of distance, time, and space, where all the three factors have become more flexible. We will see how and why this is so. With the presence of technology, the perceptions of how communication could take place change. When we communicate using communication technology, the three factors no longer make any significant difference on the effectiveness of communication.
  4. 4. Communication Technology and Distance When we talk about relationships and distance, we cannot help but think about how communication takes place between people who are far away from each other. Many years ago, that would have been quite difficult to imagine. Distance did matter then in the sense that a fast communication could only take place between those who are located near each other.
  5. 5. But now, communication technology has enabled people around the world to communicate with each other. For example, we can share information with our friends in London through email and that information can be as accurate as when we share it with local friends. So today, distance is no longer a major obstacle to efficient and effective communication.
  6. 6. Communication Technology and Time In the past, time constraint was closely related to distance because if we wanted to communicate with those who are far away from us, we would need more time to convey our messages to the persons involved. Today however, as in the previous example, the use of e-mail, internet chat rooms, telephone, and so on, have allowed us to communicate faster in much lesser time. We can share ideas and information with different people in different places at the same time. In other words, we save time with the advent of communication technology.
  7. 7. Communication Technology and Space During the era of zero technology, space is taken into great consideration when someone wants to communicate with other communicators. The concept of space is related to culture, where different cultures regard space differently. Some cultures view that it is important to maintain one's space when talking or communicating with others. This happens when we are involved in interpersonal communication, where we communicate with other people face to face.
  8. 8. In using technological innovations, we can regard space as the distance between us and the computer or the telephone. For example; as tele-marketers, we can make sales with these technologies without seeing clients and making face to face contact. In such situations however, space is no longer an important factor because it does not matter how far away or close by we stand from our computer or telephone as long as we can make sales.
  9. 9. Conclusion Communication technology affects interpersonal communication through the aspects of distance, space and time. Also, it directly affects the way we think and communicate through many other ways that we may not realize. In addition, communication technology encourages conversations via the computer without consideration of the effects of non-verbal communication. So, through communication technology, people may not be able to precisely judge or evaluate us.
  10. 10. Small group communication and communication technology Learning Objective Identify communication technology in relation to small group communication.
  11. 11. Introduction Traditionally, individuals in small groups tend to interact in face to face situations. However, with the advent of communication technology, their communication processes are changing. Technology is not only transforming how small groups interact but are also redefining our concept of a small group despite the fact that some rather expensive forms of technology such as telephones and videoconferencing have been used for quiet some time.
  12. 12. Yet, new technologies, particularly those based on the internet, have made possible synchronous and asynchronous communication among small group members at relatively low costs thereby changing small group memberships, functions, and processes. This changes includes:
  13. 13. Several studies have found that groups interacting through communication technology produce higher quality decisions, unique solutions, and more creative ideas than face to face groups. This is because the technology maximizes participation of all group members due to the fact that people usually feel more at ease to throw ideas, criticisms, suggestions, and so on, when they do meet eye to eye with others.
  14. 14. Synchronous Technology
  15. 15. Asynchronous Technology Most list servers also provide archives of past messages as well as various options. Examples are Coollist, Listbot, eGroups, and Topica. Discussion boards are also asynchronous web-based facilities that let you post messages and read what others have posted. Providers of such service include Lycos, Yahoo, Excite, and MSN.
  16. 16. Conclusion We can see that recent technology is changing the way people communicate in small groups. Some conclusions can be drawn as to the impact of technology on small group communication. First, the internet is dramatically changing small group communication at relatively low costs. Secondly, communication on the internet requires communicators to know some netiquette. Thirdly, synchronous modes of communication occur in real time but may be removed in space. And finally, asynchronous modes of communication are removed in time and usually in space as well.
  17. 17. Public Communication and Communication Technology Learning Objective Identify communication technology in relation to public communication.
  18. 18. Introduction Many books on communication and technology will probably tell us that the earliest form of technology related to public speaking is writing. Well, depending on how we define technology, it can be argued that in ancient times, the only 'technology' a public speaker or operator used was controlled physical gestures and facial expressions. Real life objects were probably also used. However, the invention of writing was more significant because for ages the public was known to depend on the speaker as the reader of written words such as in a read speech
  19. 19. The Advent of Communication Technology Besides printed as well as more graphical materials, in more recent times, electronic inventions have begun to take centre stage as far as public communication technology is concerned. It would be difficult to imagine modern day public speech or oral presentation without some form of electronic visual aids such as the overhead or slide projector and the video player. Nowadays, the personal computer and the various audio/visual programs it controls through software appear to have become the ultimate technological tool in public communication.
  20. 20. Communication Technology and Enhanced Visual Presentation Aids Communication technology helps enhance the ideas contained in the publicly spoken message in terms of product (audio-visual aids) and process (techniques of presentation). As in the case of small group communication technology, speech media for public communication comprise both synchronous and asynchronous media. The former includes public address systems that basically involve sound amplification, live television, and closed circuit systems. On the other hand, the latter concerns played back audio and/or video materials and streaming media.
  21. 21. As mentioned earlier, presentation aids comprise supporting materials ranging from simple printed pictures, charts or texts for the slide or overhead projector to more sophisticated audio/visual aids that employ computer technology such as the LCD projector that uses PowerBook, PowerPoint, or Freelance technologies.
  22. 22. Communication Technology as a Medium and Aid As a medium technology such as radio broadcasting, communication technology has turned public speaking from a direct medium to an indirect medium. Even the extensive public address microphone does this especially when parts of a very large audience cannot actually see the speaker.
  23. 23. Again, we must remember that public, as well as mass communication media can be synchronous or asynchronous. In other words, if it is possible to speak face to image through teleconferencing or video- conferencing equipment to individuals or small groups, it is indeed so in the case of speaking to large audiences in real time. Who has not listened to and seen live telecasts of important speeches on television or as recorded or archived audio/visual materials? Surely, most if not all of us have. So, communication technology has provided public communication with a very powerful medium and aid. That is why today's public communication does not carry the same
  24. 24. Advances in communication technology have actually changed the way audiences respond to public speaking. Some say that people have learned to expect powerful arguments and logic in publicly presented speeches. They are used to listening to the narrative style of speaking that seems to have become the norm. This means that together with the visual technology that appeals more to the human senses, speakers have in some ways abandoned logos (logic) in favour of pathos (emotional appeal) and ethos (credibility). Nevertheless, a more positive development has been that the chance to speak indirectly to an audience via technology has helped some people reduce or eliminate their fear of public speaking.
  25. 25. Conclusion As in all other spheres of human life, technological advances have indeed influenced and continue to impact upon traditional activities such as speaking in public to relatively large audiences. Right from the ancient classical times to the present, technology has in some ways served to convert public speeches as a direct medium of public or mass communication to an indirect medium. In addition, it has also generally helped to make public communication a more effective experience for the speaker as well as the listeners.
  26. 26. Ideology, Power and Communication Technology At the end of the section, learners should be able to identify the relationship among ideology, power and communication technology. Definition of ideology and power Learning Objective Identify the definition of ideology and power.
  27. 27. Introduction Perhaps many of us have heard of the term ideology and power and often relate them to politics. But how do ideology and power relate to communication technology? With the emergence of sophisticated communication technology that cuts across boundaries of many cuts across boundaries of many nations, is it possible that communication technology be used or abused to disseminate ideology or propaganda and consequently influence people to achieve or maintain power of those holding it? Before we look into this issue, let us first look at the meaning of ideology and power.
  28. 28. Ideology defined Ideology as defined by Merriam Webster dictionary is "a body of beliefs". The American Heritage Dictionary elaborates the definition a little further by stating it as "the body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture”.
  29. 29. Basically, ideology stems from the work of Karl Marx that explains how cultures are structured in ways that enable the group holding power to have the maximum control with the minimum of conflict with the members of the society. The structuring of culture is meant to ensure the people to believe that the current order or system of the society is acceptable or legitimate. The structuring may not be done deliberately but subtly by working on the values, worldview and symbol systems of the society.
  30. 30. The process of legitimization of the current order in the society is usually managed through the widespread teaching of ideas using ideological instruments such as religious bodies, the family, and other cultural forms. This is also known as propaganda and the aim is to influence the attitudes and behavior of members to legitimize the current order of their society. Of course, the channel mostly utilized to achieve the objective is the mass media, namely the print and electronic media. Books, newspapers, magazines, television and films, along with the standard messages of institutions such as governments, schools, and the religious bodies, provide the teaching of the ideology. This clearly demonstrates how media through communication technology can be so powerful in determining power in a society.
  31. 31. Power defined Since ideology is an important element to achieve power or to ensure that the group holding it maintains the power, lets us now see the significance of power and how it relates to communication technology. There are many definitions of power provided by the dictionaries but for the purpose of understanding the relationship between power, ideology and the communication technology, we may define power as "the ability of a person or a group of people to bring about the desired outcomes through influence and persuasion."
  32. 32. Information Power Ability to assemble information that can be used to support the position we want to take or outcomes we desire. Expert Power Power accorded to people who are seen as having achieved mastery of specific information such as the professional people. (doctors, Resource Control Power that belongs to people who have control on tangible and intangible resources such as money, media, equipment, time, human capital, critical services and supplies.
  33. 33. Legitimate Power Power derived from occupying a particular job title, office or position in an organization al hierarchy. Personal Sources Power Personal qualities of a person that contribute to a power base such as personal attractivenes s, integrity, persistence and emotion.
  34. 34. How then can we relate power to communication technology? We understand that propaganda or ideology can be disseminated through the mass media by means of communication technology. Therefore, based on the suggestion of Lewicki, Saunders and Minton (1997), we may gather that the person or groups of people who control or own the media and communication technology are also people having information power and resource power. In a nation, this assumes that they are powerful people who are able to control the dissemination of information specifically propaganda and ideology and directly influence the mass of people in the country.
  35. 35. The correlation between power and control of information flow explains why in many countries the government has full control on the ownership of media and communication technology. This is to ensure the media and the communication technology is used justly. For example, the Malaysian government introduces regulations and acts to prevent the media and the communication technology from falling into the hands of irresponsible person or group of people who have intentions of personal gains that may result in chaos or disharmony among the people in the country.
  36. 36. Conclusion Ideology, power and communication technology are very much interrelated. Power is obtained and sustained through the dissemination of ideology or propaganda. The media with the support of communication technology help the desired messages to reach and influence the people. Thus, people who own the media and the communication technology are people who have the power to control and determine the outcome they desire. Communication Technology PowerIdeology
  37. 37. The influence on technology on communication Learning objective Describe the influence communication technology in the communication process in today’s world.
  38. 38. Introduction Imagine living in a world without the radio, television, telephone, computers, and all other communication technologies. Our imaginations may take us back to the way people lived a hundred years ago. We may have difficulties adapting to such an environment as we are used to live in a world of instant communication, where information we send and receive is equivalent to the speed of light. Undoubtedly, the emergence of communication technology such as computers has tremendously changed the way we live today. The influence of communication technology is too obvious on various disciplines. Let us look at the influences brought about by communication technology in our lives.
  39. 39. Nowadays, computers seem to be changing our mode of learning and teaching. Some higher learning institutions have adopted new methods of learning for the students via the internet, which is also known as e-learning. Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR) is a pioneer in this effort. A good example is the online distant learning Students from any part of the country no longer need to go to classrooms for full-time lectures. Instead, they may interact online with their instructors and other students from their homes regardless of the distance. The Influence On Education
  40. 40. New communication technologies have improved the quantity, quality, and productivity in workplaces. The telephone, facsimile machine, radio, television, and internet not only help in increased productivity but also provide vast opportunities in the business world. The Influence On Business And Economy
  41. 41. Today, the capability of technology has transformed the internet into a new marketplace for business people. We call it E-Commerce. Work and business transactions are now very common via the internet. Shopping is also becoming very convenient. We only need to go online to buy things instead of driving to the store. It seems that the need for space to sell products is no longer urgent. Advertising industry too is also booming via the internet, which creates economic opportunities to many advertisers.
  42. 42. With the advancement of communication technology especially the computer technology, many governments in the world including Malaysia have adopted the systematic paperless electronic administration. The government and private agencies are well interconnected. This enables work and business transactions to be conducted efficiently, effectively, and economically online. For example, if we want to pay taxes to the government, we may do so at any authorized bank without having to go to the Inland Revenue Department. The Influence On Government
  43. 43. The internet has also been known to be the venue for disseminating false information by irresponsible people causing harm or social disharmony. Hence, the government has to intervene by imposing policies, regulations, and a cyber law to prevent harmful information from undermining the beliefs and values of the society. Although the freedom of speech and expression is legal, the regulations and law imposed may deter irresponsible people to take advantage of the technology for personal gains.
  44. 44. • McLuhan's concepts of the Global Village and Popular Culture are becoming a reality and they prove that communication technology have a profound impact on our society. For one, researches have demonstrated that the television is capable of reinforcing behaviors already existing in an individual. Unfortunately , heavy exposure to the television is often associated with violence. Apart from violence, the television is also blamed for cultivating distorted perceptions of the world we live in hence making the world seems more the way the television portrays it than it is in real life (Bittner, 1996). A study also discovered that people might be addicted to the internet and that addicts are usually found to display aggressive communication behaviors, lack of social skills and interactions, and other negative conducts. The harmful influences include gambling, deviant teaching, illegal sex and so on. The Influence On The Society
  45. 45. Communication technology has also made countries well connected to each other in order to cope with the process of globalization. Especially with the arrival of information and communication technology (ICT) and knowledge economy (an economy based on the manipulation and management of knowledge), we see the process of globalization multiplying in speed and effects. Nowadays, it is possible for us to understand and learn about the cultures, geography, politics, and economy of other countries just by browsing the internet. The Impact On Globalization
  46. 46. Conclusion The impact of communication technology has reached a point, where we need to reconsider the application of conventional workplace settings and social environments we have today. It seems that communication technology has changed the way we do our work and the need to adopt new approaches is inevitable. Nonetheless, although communication may bring more good than harm to many people, we must be aware that technology may also bring about harmful effects. Thus, it is our responsibility to ensure that the technology is not abused or misused. Communication Technology GOOD BAD