Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 5
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 5

121
views

Published on

Management and Leadership …

Management and Leadership

Chapter 5

Published in: Education, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
121
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. COURSENOTES COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION COURSE CODE: EPB2033 PREPARED BY: TENGKU NOORAINUN TENGKU SHAHDAN
  • 2. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES TOPIC 5: Power and Politics in Schools (Textbook Chapter 6) 5.0 Introduction This topic will explain about power and politics in schools. The topic also covers the basic legitimate power that promotes commitment and compliance. Learners should be able to give example of: (a) power in schools; (b) politics are real in school. At the end of this topic, learners should be able to explain relationships of power and political games and how they are played in schools. 5.0.1 Overview • Power is a broad construct that includes both legitimate and illegitimate methods of ensuring compliance. Legitimate power is more likely to promote commitment and compliance, whereas illegitimate power produces conflict. • The classic definition of power is the ability to get others to do what you want them to do. Authority has a narrower scope than power. Weber (1947) defines authority as “the probability that certain specific commands (or all commands) from a given source will be obeyed by given group of persons.” • Organizations are created and controlled by legitimate authorities, who set goals, design structures, hire and manage employees, and monitor activities to ensure behaviour is consistent with the goals and objectives of the organization. 5.1 Key Contents 5.1.1 Sources of Authority: Legitimate Power • The basis of many student-teacher, teacher-administrator, or subordinate- superior relations is authority. The authenticity of the principal in dealing with teachers is a critical factor in the administrative process, enabling principals to generate teacher’s loyalty. Leader authenticity is strongly related to commanding trust and teacher’s loyalty (Hoffman, 1993). 5.1.2 Sources of Power (French and Raven 1968) • Reward power is the administrator’s ability to influence subordinates by rewarding their desirable behaviour. Leaders have power; they get others to comply with their directives. The strength of this kind of power depends on the attractiveness of the rewards and the extent of certainty that allocation of teaching assignments or developmental grants for teaching innovations. The rewards may be either explicit or implicit, but it is important that they are contingent on compliance with administrative directives. 2
  • 3. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES • Coercive power is an administrator’s ability to influence subordinates by punishing them for undesirable behaviour. The strength of coercive power depends on the severity of the punishment. An official reprimand to a teacher for consistently leaving school early may result in frequent absenteeism, refusal to provide extra help to students unless specified in the contract. • Legitimate power is the administrator’s ability to influence the behaviour of subordinates simply because of formal position. Every administrator is empowered by the organization to make decisions within a specific area of responsibility. • Referent power is an administrator’s ability to influence behaviour based on subordinates’ liking and identification with the administrator. Referent power depends on personal loyalty to the administrator that grows over a relatively long period of time. • Expert power is the administrator’s ability to influence subordinates’ behaviour on the basis of specialized knowledge and skill. Expert power is, however, much narrower in scope than referent power. Expertise itself is usually not enough to guarantee commitment of subordinates. 5.1.3 Power, Rationality, and Rationalization Power often defines reality because superiors specify what counts as knowledge. When the principal or superintendent explains, teachers are expected to listen and accept. Power is part of rationality because rationality is penetrated by power. Power often blurs the difference between rationality and rationalization: • Rationality is the application of evidence and reason to make decisions. • Rationalization is an attempt to make a decision seem rational after it has already been made. • Empowerment is the process by which administrators share power and help others use it in constructive ways to make decisions affecting themselves and their work (Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, 1994) 5.1.4 Politic in Schools Politics is individual or group behavior that is informal, parochial, typically divisive (causing people to be split into groups that disagree with each others), and above all illegitimate because decisions are made in the best interests of individuals or groups rather than the best interests of the organization (Mintzberg, 1983). Coalitions are groups of individuals who bargain in an effort to get resources distributed in their favor. Consequences of External Coalitions: Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 3
  • 4. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES • A dominated external coalition weakens internal coalitions. • A divided external coalition politicizes internal coalitions. • A passive external coalition strengthens internal coalitions, often at the level of central administration. 5.1.5 The Power Game Participants in any system have three basic options: • Leave: find another place – exit. • Stay and play: try to change the system – voice. • Stay and be a soldier and contribute as expected: be a loyal member – loyalty. Those members who leave the organization cease to be influencers: those who are loyal choose not to participate as active influencers; but those who choose to stay and speak out become players in the power game. Power players must also have the will to play, which means they must be willing to expend the energy to be successful, as well as the skill to act strategically and tactically when necessary. Politics is a fact of organization life. Conflict is not necessarily bad; it sometimes calls attention to problems in the legitimate systems of control. Successful politics requires organizational member s to bargain, negotiate, jockey for position, and engage in myriad of political games, strategies, and tactics to influence the goals and decisions of their organization. Political Tactic Purpose • Ingratiating • Networking • Managing information • Managing impression • Coalition building • Scapegoat • Increasing indispensability • Spinning the truth Gain favors by doing favors Gain influence by courting influential’s Manipulate information to your advantage Create a positive image by appearance Band together with others to achieve goals Shift the blame to others for bad outcomes Make yourself indispensable to the organisation Put the best face on the facts Figure 5.0 Summaries of Political Tactics • Ingratiating is a tactic used to gain the goodwill of another through doing favors, being attentive, and giving favours. Help a colleague or superior and the person feels obliged to return the favour or repay the positive action. • Networking is the process of forming relationships with influential people. Such people may or may not be in important positions. Teachers who have close, friendly relations with the teachers’ union representative or principal usually have access to important information. 4
  • 5. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES • Information management is a tactic individuals use to control others or build their own status. The techniques used to spread the information can enhance one’s position in both the formal and informal organizations. • Impression management is a simple tactic that almost everyone uses from time to time to create a favourable image. The tactic includes dressing and behaving appropriately. • Coalition building is the process of individuals banding together to achieve common goals. • Scapegoat is blaming and attacking others when things go wrong or badly. Principals often try to blame teachers when their something goes wrong in schools. • Increasing indispensability is a tactic by which individuals or units make themselves necessary to the organization. For example, they specialize in critical areas that requires specialize knowledge such as computers and finance. 5.2 Conflict Management Conflict can be a source of positive change. Further, conflict can be used to balance power, to improve communication, and to develop a foundation to manage differences (Putman, 1997). Kenneth Thomas (1976) provides a useful typology for examining five conflict- management styles. Figure shows the five conflict-management styles that result. • An avoiding style is both unassertive and uncooperative. • A compromising style is a balance between the needs of the organization and those of the individual. The focus is more on negotiating, looking for the middle ground, trade-offs and searching for solutions that are satisfactory or acceptable to both parties. • The used of competitive styles creates win-lose situations. Power is used to achieve submission – to win. • The accommodating style is unassertive and cooperative. The administrator gives in to the demands of the subordinates; it is a submissive and compliant approach. • The collaborating style is assertive and cooperative; this is a problem solving approach. Problems and conflicts are seen as challenges. Differences are confronted and ideas and information are shared. 5.3 Summary Power is a basic element of organizational life. It can be legitimate and willingly accepted by subordinates. In brief, there are two general forms of legitimate power – formal and informal authority – and two kinds of illegitimate power – coercive and political. Political power is typically illegitimate because it substitutes personal agendas for organizational ones. 5.4 Tutorial Activities 5.4.1 Activity 1 Version: 01 Date: 18/03/2011 5
  • 6. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Describe the people in your school who have power. What is the source of their power? Who are the individuals who have informal power? Why do they have such power? How do the power holders relate to each other? 5.5 REFERENCES Wayne K. H, & Cecil G. M. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory, Research, and Practice. Eight Edition -International Edition. New York: McGraw – Hill Companies. 6
  • 7. COURSE: EPB2033: MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION FACULTY: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Describe the people in your school who have power. What is the source of their power? Who are the individuals who have informal power? Why do they have such power? How do the power holders relate to each other? 5.5 REFERENCES Wayne K. H, & Cecil G. M. (2008). Educational Administration: Theory, Research, and Practice. Eight Edition -International Edition. New York: McGraw – Hill Companies. 6