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Chapter 10 050213 124802

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Management and Leadership …

Management and Leadership

Chapter 10

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  • 1. Educational Administration Chapter 10 Communication in Schools
  • 2. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Four Recommends for Educational Administrators • Communication is difficult to isolate from other administrative processes • Not all school problems involve miscommunication • Communication reveals, hides, as well as eliminates problems. • Communication is a process that evokes action but is far from the substance of good administration
  • 3. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Key Terms • Communication – sharing ideas or attitudes in ways that produce a degree of understanding between two or more people. • Message – the verbal or non-verbal cues or symbols that each communicator conveys. • Channel – the vehicle, medium, or form in which a message travels. • Sender – the person or generalized source sending a message • Receiver – the destination of the message or the individual or deciphers it. • Transmission – the actual sending and receiving of messages through designated channels or media. • Encoding – using cognitive structures and processes to convert the intended message into symbolic form by the sender. • Decoding – using cognitive structures and processes to retranslate the message by the receiver. • Feedback – the message sent in response to the initial message; information that enables corrections (Ch. 1). • Communication effects – the outcomes of the message exchange process.
  • 4. Educational Administration Communication in Schools SenderSender (source,(source, speaker,speaker, communicator)communicator) ReceiverReceiver (reader,(reader, listener,listener, communicator)communicator) EncodingEncoding DecodingDecoding MessageMessage In ChannelIn Channel FeedbackFeedback General Model of Communication
  • 5. Educational Administration Communication in Schools One-way communication • Unilateral - initiated by the sender and terminated by the receiver • Common examples in schools • Classroom lecture • Exhortation by the principal • PA announcements • Administrative directive • Advantages • Emphasizes the skills of the sender and encourages administrators and teachers to think through, accurately articulate, and provide clarity to their ideas • Imply strong linkages between communication behavior and action
  • 6. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Two-way communication • Reciprocal (given and receive in return)– all participants in the process initiate and receive messages • Common forms in schools • Conversation • Inquiry • Debate • Instruction (Socratic Method)
  • 7. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Individual Communication Competence • Sending Skills • Use appropriate direct language • Avoid jargon (technical or specialized words) and complex concepts • Information must be clear and complete • Build on or reorganize receiver’s cognitive schema • Minimize noise from the physical or psychological environment • Use multiple and appropriate channels of media • Use face-to-face communication and redundancy when communicating complex messages
  • 8. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Individual Communication Competence • Receiving Skills (Listening Skills) • Attending • Eye contact, receptive body language, focus • Questioning • Encouraging • Verbal and non-verbal cues • Paraphrasing • Reflecting feeling • Summarizing
  • 9. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Individual Communication Competence • Feedback Skills- Sending and receiving skills that convey knowledge of results or effects of previous communications and behaviors. • Can be verbal or non-verbal • Asking questioning, describing behavior, paraphrasing • Information should be helpful to the recipient • Specific rather than general • Recent rather than old • Directed toward behavior the person could change • Timely, the more immediate the better
  • 10. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Channels of Communication • Verbal symbols • Human speech – direct, face to face conversation or electronic exchanges via telephone, radio, television, video conferencing • Written media – memos, letters, faxes, electronic mail and bulletin boards, instant messaging, newspapers. • Non-verbal symbols • Body language or gestures – facial expressions, posture, hand and arm movements • Physical items or artifacts with symbolic value – office furnishings, clothing, and jewelry • Space – Territoriality and personal space • Touching and hugging • Time • Intonation, accents, pitch, intensity, rate of speech
  • 11. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Sources in Communication Processes: Senders and Receivers • Credibility • Believability, identity and reputation of the sender • Sender’s expertness and trustworthiness • Trust and confidence the receiver has in the words and actions of the sender • Cognitive Capacities • Psychological characteristics limit individual communication • Communication skills • Knowledge of subject • Personality • Motivation factors (attitudes, values, interests, expectations)
  • 12. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Communicating in Context • Noise - Contextual, physical, cultural, environmental distractions that interfere with the communication process • Examples in schools • Closed organizational climates • Punishment-centered bureaucratic structures • Cultural or gender differences • Authoritarian leadership • Teacher militancy • Demographic prejudice • Outdated or obscure technology
  • 13. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Information Communicators Media Context Does the language or symbols convey the information? Can it be understood by both sender and receiver? What is the content and effect of the communication? Who is speaking to whom? What roles do they occupy? What methods/media are being used? What is the context in which the communication is taking place? What factors are creating noise that might block or distort the message?
  • 14. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Informal communication networks Advantages of “the grapevine” • Active informal networks are indicative of a school’s culture and provide vital feedback to leaders • Informal channels may satisfy social or affiliation needs not met by formal channels • Grapevines fill an information void and provide outlets when formal information channels are clogged • Informal networks provide meaning for activities within the school
  • 15. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Directional “chain of command” Five types of communication from superior to subordinate (Downward) • Instructions about specific tasks • Rationale about why the task needs to be done and how it relates to other tasks • Information about organizational procedures and practices • Feedback about the performance levels of individuals • Information regarding the organization’s goals
  • 16. Educational Administration Communication in Schools Directional “chain of command” Four types of communication from lower to upper levels of hierarchy (Upward) • Routine operational messages • Reports on problems • Suggestions for improvement • Information on how subordinates feel about each other and the job
  • 17. Observe a meeting conducted by a school principal or department chair. Take notes or tape and transcribe what the leader said during the session. What do you think the meanings of the leader’s main messages were? Do the verbal and nonverbal messages complement each other? Meet with the leader and check whether you accurately interpreted the intended meaning, finally, evaluate how clearly you believe the leader communicated with the attendees? Tutorial Activities Educational Administration