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Chapter 1 050213 124046


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Management and Leadership …

Management and Leadership

Chapter 1

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  • 1. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Chapter 1Chapter 1 The School As AThe School As A Social SystemSocial System
  • 2. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 WHAT is system? Managing Systems System - a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole Closed system - a system that is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment Open system - dramatically interact with their environment
  • 3. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 WHAT is the organization? Organization Deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose Characteristics of an organization distinct purpose deliberate structure people Today’s organizations have adopted: flexible work arrangements open communications greater responsiveness to changes
  • 4. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Key Properties of Open Systems Inputs --people, materials, and resources from the outside Transformation -- the process transforming inputs into something of value by the system. Outputs --the byproduct of the transformation. Feedback -- how the system communicates to its parts and the environment. Boundaries -- systems are differentiated from their environments. Environment -- is anything outside the system.
  • 5. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Open System with Feedback Loops ThroughputThroughput [Transformation][Transformation] InputsInputs OutputsOutputs People Materials Finances Products Services Feedback EnvironmentEnvironment Performance
  • 6. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Social Systems Model: Key Assumptions • Social systems are open systems. • Social systems consists of interdependent parts, which interact with each other and the environment. • Social systems are goal oriented. • Social systems are peopled. • Social systems have structure. • Social systems are political. • Social systems have cultures. • Social systems have norms. • Social systems are conceptual and relative. • All formal organizations are social systems, BUT not all social systems are organizations.
  • 7. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Key Elements of the School as a Social System Schools are social systems with the following key parts: Structure : roles are expectations of positions that are arranged in a hierarchy. Individual: the individual is a key unit in any social system; regardless of position, people bring with them individual needs, beliefs, and a cognitive understandings of the job. Culture : represents the unwritten feeling part of the organizations: its shared values Politics : informal power relations that develop spontaneously. Core : the teaching-learning process is the technical core of schools. Environment: everything outside the organization; source of inputs. Outputs : the products of the organizations, e. g. educated students. Feedback : communication that monitors behavior. Effectiveness: the congruence between expected and actual outcomes.
  • 8. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Internal Elements of the System Transformation ProcessTransformation Process Structural SystemStructural System (Bureaucratic Expectations)(Bureaucratic Expectations) Cultural SystemCultural System (Shared Orientations)(Shared Orientations) Political SystemPolitical System (Power Relations)(Power Relations) Individual SystemIndividual System (Cognition and Motivation)(Cognition and Motivation) Learning Learning Teaching Teaching OutputsOutputsInputsInputs EnvironmentEnvironment
  • 9. © Hoy, 2008, © Hoy 2003 Social System Model for Schools Transformation ProcessTransformation Process Structural SystemStructural System (Bureaucratic Expectations)(Bureaucratic Expectations) CulturalCultural SystemSystem (Shared(Shared Orientations)Orientations) PoliticalPolitical SystemSystem (Power(Power Relations)Relations) Individual SystemIndividual System (Cognition and Motivation)(Cognition and Motivation) Learning Learning Teaching Teaching OutputsOutputsInputsInputs Environmental constraints Human and capital resources Mission and board policy Materials and methods Achievement Job satisfaction Absenteeism Dropout rate Overall quality Discrepancy between Actual and Expected Performance EnvironmentEnvironment
  • 10. Interview your friend using the social-systems model described in this chapter. Ask about school- community relations (environmental opportunities and constraints) and the perceived effectiveness of his or her school. Analyze the answer based on the followings: •The structure of the school •The teaching and learning system •The culture of the school Tutorial activitiesTutorial activities © Hoy, 2008,