“Historically, face-to-facemeetings haveplayedanimportant
roleinthesocial, andespeciallythepoliticallife, of Westernand
Better compared to computer mediated
Meeting is wasting time
Negative expression of associated
Face to face
Computer mediated (email, tele
conferencing, video conferencing)
IMPORTANTS OF FTF
Allow observing verbal & non verbal
Non synchronized time
Provide human contact among members
Help participants to develop
transparency & trust among each other
Allow evaluating & judging
Develop strong social relationship
Forum for members
ADVANTAGES OF FTF
Less usage of electronic communication
Bond teams together
Result in people feeling more inspired
Brings out best in people
Results breakthrough thinking
Build strong business relationship
VALUE FOR BUSINESS
Prior to the meeting
Holding the meeting
Efficient & productive compared to
computer mediated devices
Develop social identities, relationship &
Occurs in real time
Develop transparency & trust
Able to know expression, feelings &
The Hilton Family, ”Why Face to Face
Business Meetings Matter” A White
Paper by Professor Richard D. A rvey,
Ph.d. Business School, National
University Of Singapore.
Who likes a meeting…
• Without a clearly defined agenda
• That seems to drag-on forever
• That rambles from topic-to-topic
• That ends without any apparent result?
These types of meetings are
• A waste of one of the most valuable resources
of any organization – time.
• Meeting Management – A Leadership Responsibility
• Why Effective Meetings?
• Elements of an Effective Meeting
• Types of Meetings
• The Meeting
– Before the Meeting
– During the Meeting
Meeting Room Arrangements
Roles: Chair, Secretary, Members in General
How to Deal with Disruptive Members
– After the Meeting
• Additional Thoughts
Meeting Management –
A Leadership Responsibility
Many people are promoted, elevated, or elected
into leadership positions without receiving any
formal training or education on how to run an
Why Effective Meetings?
• Time: a critical resource
• Opportunity Costs
• For-profit environment, example: a one-hour meeting with 2
managers and 4 engineers:
manager: $100.00/hour – $200.00
engineers: $ 60.00/hour – $240.00
Total – $440.00
• Not-for-profit or professional society environment
• volunteers do not want their time wasted
• ineffective meetings cause discontent
• Characteristics of negative meetings†
83% – drift from the subject
77% – poor preparation
74% – questionable effectiveness
68% – lack of listening
62% – verbose participants
60% – length
51% – lack of participation
From Achieving Effective Meetings – Not Easy But Possible, Bradford D. Smart in a survey of 635 executives.
• What people are looking for in effective
88% – participation
66% – define the meeting’s purpose
62% – address each item on the agenda
59% – assign follow-up action
47% – record discussion
46% – invite essential personnel
36% – publish an agenda
From GM Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA 1993
Elements of an Effective
Effective meetings don’t just happen
• Require deliberate planning
• Must be conducted in an effective and
• Responsibility of leader
Types of Meetings
• Formal or Informal
– With agenda, rules of procedure, minutes or
– Casual and relaxed - structure but nothing
– To prepare or evaluate a plan
– To seek information
– Progress to date
– Providing information or status reporting
Before the Meeting
• Define the purpose of the meeting.
• Identify the participants.
– Every invitee should have a role.
– Identify a recorder or secretary.
• Prepare an agenda in advance of the meeting.
– Communicate the intent of each agenda
item using labels such as (A) Action,
(I) Information, (V) Vote.
– Identify estimate of time allocated to the
Before the Meeting, cont’d
• Prepare or identify background information.
• Assign responsibilities for agenda items and
communicate to those responsible.
• Publish the agenda and identify background
information to be reviewed.
• Plan for breaks – lunch, coffee, etc.
Before the Meeting
• Think through the conduct of the meeting
- Use a trusted member of your staff or
• Consider logistics
– Room – layout, seating, distractions, etc.
– Support items – projector, white board,
• Attempt to identify & understand interpersonal dynamics of the group.
• If you will lead this group over an extended period, consider Myers- Briggs
Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument.
– Not definitive but allows you to better understand the members of
– Most scientists and engineers are introverts – prefer to sit-back,
listen and think-through their response.
– Extroverts tend to develop their opinions and responses by
• 126 item Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
– Instrument publisher, Consulting Psychologists Press (CPP, Inc.)
• Based on the well-known research of Carl Jung, Katharine C. Briggs, and
Isabel Briggs Myers
•Theory of Personality Types contends that:
• An individual is either primarily Extraverted or Introverted
• An individual is either primarily Sensing or iNtuitive
• An individual is either primarily Thinking or Feeling
• An individual is either primarily Judging or Perceiving
•The possible combinations of the basic preferences form 16 different
•Learning about other people's Personality Types help us understand the
most effective way to communicate with them, and how they function best.
MBTI Type Descriptions
• Theory is that every individual has a primary mode of operation within four
1. Our flow of energy
2. How we take in information
3. How we prefer to make decisions
4. The basic day-to-day lifestyle that we prefer
• Within each of these categories, we "prefer" to be either:
1. Extraverted or Introverted
2. Sensing or iNtuitive
3. Thinking or Feeling
4. Judging or Perceiving
MBTI Type Descriptions
•Flow of Energy: how we receive the
essential part of our stimulation.
•Receive it from within ourselves (Introverted)
•Receive external sources (Extraverted)
•Take in Information: how we deal with
taking in & absorbing information.
• Trust five senses (Sensing) to take in
• Rely on our instincts (iNtuitive)
MBTI Type Descriptions,
• Make Decisions: decide things based on
• logic and objective consideration (Thinking)
• personal, subjective value systems (Feeling)
• Day-to-day Basis:
• Organized and purposeful. More comfortable with
scheduled, structured environments (Judging),
• Flexible and diverse, and more comfortable with
open, casual environments (Perceiving)
During the Meeting
• Arrive early
– Arrange the room if necessary
– Know how to control the lighting and
temperature in the room.
– Distribute handouts.
• Begin on time.
• Introduce members if not familiar;
• Establish ground rules, if necessary.
• Run the meeting.
During the Meeting
• Control interruptions – ask that cell phones
and pagers be turned-off.
• Identify and record results.
• Assign responsibilities for follow-up –
• End on time.
• Thank participants for their input and
reinforce the importance of outcomes on
• Members must be able to easily see one
• Room should be comfortable temperature.
• Adequate space for planners, notebooks, or
• People should be able to hear the discussion
• If it is a large group, the meeting’s facilitator
should consider standing.
Meeting Room Arrangements
• Theater Style
– Leader has great power by position.
– Participation and interruption by audience is limited.
• U-Shaped Style
– Equality of membership.
– No doubt of who the leader is.
– Good visibility for visual aids.
• Circle Style
– Democratic: equality is stressed.
– Great visibility by participants.
– Obvious body language.
– Excellent participation.
Member Roles – The Chair
• Prepare for the meeting.
• Appoint secretary/minute taker if there is
not a regular.
• Conduct and control the meeting.
– watch timing or assign someone to this
– ensure all have an equal opportunity to
– adjudicate as and when necessary
– effect compromise on occasion
• Close each item
– Ensure action is clear
– By whom and by when
• Check that the minutes are produced
accurately and in timely manner
Member Roles – The
• Ensure agenda and relevant papers are
distributed in time with date, time and place of
• Prepare and book the meeting space.
• Have background papers and information for the
• Carry a copy of: (1) the constitution, (2) rules of
procedure, (3) previous minutes.
• Record names of attendees and apologies for
absence - check quorum.
• Take notes of what is said and decided
– mixture of mnemonics and full transcript
– amount of detail depends on nature and purpose
– must be enough to enable accurate minutes
• Essential to have:
– gist of discussions
– exact words of proposals
– names of those proposing and seconding
– names of those responsible for future actions
• Write the minutes - preferably as soon as
Members in General
• People often react to other people - not to their ideas.
• Chair must stress that effectiveness = disregard for personal or departmental
• Self perception - some see themselves as elder statesman, joker, voice of
Group Building Roles
The Initiator Suggests new/different ideas/approaches
The Opinion Giver States pertinent beliefs about the discussion or
The Elaborator Builds on suggestions made by others
Members in General –
Uses humor or calls for a break at appropriate moments
The Compromiser Willing to yield when necessary for progress
The Clarifier Offers rationales, probes for meaning, restates problems
The Tester Raises questions to test if group is ready to come to a
The Summarizer Tries to pull discussion together, reviews progress so far
The Harmonizer Mediates differences of opinion, reconciles points of view
The Encourager Praises and supports others in their contributions
The Gate Keeper Keeps communications open, creates opportunities for
Members in General – Disruptive
Group Blocking Roles
The Aggressor Deflates status of others, disagrees and criticizes
The Blocker Stubbornly disagrees, cites unrelated material, returns to previous
The Withdrawer Will not participate, private conversations, takes copious personal
The Recognition Seeker Boasts and talks excessively
The Topic Jumper Continually changes the subject
The Dominator Tries to take over, asserts authority, manipulates the group
The Special Pleader Draws attention to own concerns
The Playboy/Girl Shows off, tells funny stories, nonchalant, cynical
The Self-Confessor Talks irrelevantly of own feelings and insights
The Devil's Advocate More devil than advocate!
Based on HC Wedgewood's Fewer Camels, More Horses: Where Committees Go Wrong. Personnel, Vol 44, No 4, July-Aug
1967, pp62-87. Quoted in Pearce, Figgens & Golen. Principles of Communication. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1984, pp.
Stereotypes You May Expect to Find in a Group
The Chatterbox Talks continually, rarely on the topic, has little to
The Sleeper Uninterested in the proceedings, some can sleep with
The Destroyer Crushes any and every idea, can always find something
The Rationalist Makes worthwhile contributions, ideas are well thought-
The Trapper Waits for opportune moment to show error has been
made – likes to trap the Chair
The Know-All Tries to monopolize, but can have good ideas
The Thinker Shy and slow to come forward, but is a great asset
Based on Sadler and Tucker. Common Ground. South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1981.
How to Deal with Disruptive
• Make sure that all meeting participants understand
– All members were invited to the meeting for a reason
– All members should feel free to contribute
• Members who are silent
– Begin meetings by engaging every member of the group
•“Bill, haven’t you done this in your work? What was your experience?"
•"Janet, you’ve been rather quiet to this point, do you have an opinion or
– Consider breaking larger group into smaller groups to develop input
How to Deal with Disruptive
• Members who are vocally dominant
– Redirect discussion to other members
"We all recognize your expertise in this area, but let’s hear from
some others in case some new ideas emerge.“
"John has made his opinion clear; does anyone else have
something they would like to add?"
• Members who are negative
– Probe the negativity to validate concerns
– Redirect discussion to other members
– If behavior persists, consider speaking off-line or
excluding them from future meetings
“Let’s not shoot down this idea prematurely; let’s give it some
time for evaluation."
After the Meeting
• Publish the minutes promptly.
• Identify responsibilities for action
• Assess the meeting.
• Robert’s Rules of Order
– Parliamentary guide for running meetings.
– First Edition February 1876
– Guiding principle, by General Henry Martyn
“All shall be heard, but the majority shall
• For details, see “Meetings and Parliamentary
Procedures – Simplified,” by Irving Engelson.
•Don’t Read to the Group
• Place more emphasis on processing information, than on giving
• A meeting is a place to discuss an issue to assure agreement or full
•Everyone contributes to a meeting’s success.
• Everyone must do their part.
• When possible, make sure the right people are at the meeting.
• If the material covered is not relevant to some people, arrange to have
them excused from that portion of the meeting.
• Make sure all meeting participants understand their responsibilities
• Balance participation
• Meetings will have people who are silent, vocally
dominant, or negative.
• The facilitator/chairperson as well as members of
the group can redirect this unproductive behavior
• Allow time for process and group development
• Checking off agenda items in a rapid-fire process
is not always productive. It may move the meeting
along more quickly, but may leave you wondering
‘what happened?’ when it’s over.
• Praise! Praise! Praise!
• Praise people twice as much as you criticize.
• Never let any good deed or action go unheralded in the group.
• Say thank you publicly at every meeting.
• Recognize the value of peoples’ contributions at the beginning or within the
• Plan. Plan. Plan.
• Meeting design is the Number 1 mechanism for effective meetings.
• For each agenda item, make sure the group is clear about the goals,
processes, and functions.
• Never, Never, Never attempt to compose, draft, or edit a report or document in
• The techniques described in this presentation
can be applied to any type of meeting you
• Consider compiling your own list of successful
techniques based on specific meetings.
• Effective meetings are the result of deliberate
H. C. Wedgewood, “Fewer Camels, More Horses: Where Committees Go
Wrong,” Personnel, Vol. 44, No. 4, July-Aug 1967.
A. Jay, “How to Run a Meeting,” Harvard Business Review, March-April 1976,
Sadler and Tucker, Common Ground, South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1981.
Pearce, Figgens & Golen, Principles of Communication, New York, John Wiley
& Sons, 1984.
B. L. Shoop, “How to run an Effective Meeting,” Focal Point, Optical Society of
America, October 1996. Reprinted in IEEE CrossTalk, Vol. XXXIV, No. 8,
-Ensures the success of a meeting.
Announces an upcoming meeting & states
the type, date, & time of the meeting. It
may be written a part of an agenda /
RJTE MASTER GALLERY SDN BHD
A meeting of the Creative Resources Department will be held in the main
meeting room on Friday, 4 March 2004 at 9a.m.
ANGELIC SDN BHD (Co. No. 611786388-
NOTICE OF 3RD
Notice is hereby given that the 3rd
General Meeting (AGM) of Angelic Sdn Bhd
will be held at the Registered Ofice, No. 85-
88, Plaza Seri Serdang, 43300, Seri
Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan; on 27
April 2010 (Wednesday) at 2 p.m.
Is a list of topics to be discussed at a
meeting. Small & informal meetings do not
require an agenda. However, a meeting
involving a lot of people or covering lot of
issues will need an agenda in advance.
Purpose of an Agenda:
1. Facilitates the meeting
2. Helps participants to prepare for the
3. Keeps participants on track once the
4. Structures a meeting so that time is not
5. Provides opportunities for discussion
2 Parts of Agenda: Ordinary
Business & Special Business
Ordinary Business: Items that appear on
At the Beginning
1. Apologies for Absence
2. Minutes of Last Meeting
3. Matters Arising
At the end
1. Any other business
2. Date of next meeting
Cont… Special Business: Special matters to be
discussed at specific meetings. They are
placed after the items of Ordinary Reports.
1. Chairperson’s Report
2. Open House
4. Fund raising projects
1. Confirmation Minutes of Meeting
2. Matters Arising
3. Academic Programs
4. Teaching Assignments
5. Examination Matters
6. External Examination Report
7. Other Matters
8. Date of next meeting
-contains extra notes to help the
Chairperson conduct the meeting
efficiently. Only the Chairperson receives
the agenda. The Chairperson writes his
notes on the space at the right hand side
of the agenda. These notes will be
referred to the secretary when preparing
Provides a formal documentation that
records what happened during the meeting.
The accuracy is important for those who
attended the meeting as well as those who
were absent. It is written in Reported Speech
from the 3rd
Purpose of Minutes
1. To remind participants of what happened at
the last meeting
2. To inform those absent about the results of
3. To provide a basis of discussion for the next
4. To provide a permanent record of the
meeting for future reference
5. To provide an objectives & adequate record
in the case of any legal significance
Types of Meeting
1. Verbatim Minutes
- Every word is recorded
- In parliaments of courts
2. Action Minutes
- Only decision are recorded
3. Narrative Minutes
- Record all information
3 easy ways to write
1. Look at the agenda
2. Write notes on the agenda during the
3. Refer to the agenda & the notes to write
your minutes after the meeting
3 Section in Writing
1. TOP: similar to the top of the notice of
meeting except for the tenses used.
2. MIDDLE: resembles the Agenda in the
Notice of Meeting. The Agenda & the
middle of the Minutes share the same
3. BOTTOM: Signature of secretary and
Chairperson & dates