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Business communication 1 - Chap 3 -face to face meeting

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Chapter 3 - Face to Face Meeting

Chapter 3 - Face to Face Meeting

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  • Have you ever attended a meeting that did not have a clearly defined agenda, seemed to drag-on forever, rambled from topic-to-topic, and ended without any apparent result? We have all experienced this type of meeting and have come to abhor them. They can be tremendously frustrating to those who attend and can waste one of the most valuable resources of any organization – time . Some psychologists and students of human nature believe that meetings satisfy a tribal gathering instinct deeply ingrained in the human psyche. Others believe they add a social dimension, giving employees and members a sense of belonging to the organization. In any regard, meetings are a fact of life and in many cases necessary. However, ill prepared and ineffective meetings do not need to be the norm. Some psychologists and students of human nature believe that meetings satisfy a tribal gathering instinct deeply ingrained in the human psyche. Others believe they add a social dimension, giving employees and members a sense of belonging to the organization. In any regard, meetings are a fact of life and in many cases necessary. However, ill prepared and ineffective meetings do not need to be the norm.
  • Much of the content of this presentation is common sense … however … we have all sat through meetings where we have asked: why am I here? what is the purpose of this meeting? what was the outcome of that meeting?
  • Every time you call a meeting, you are allocating one of your most critical resources: time . Consider a one-hour meeting with 2 managers and 4 engineers in a for-profit environment: manager: $100.00/hour – $200.00 engineers: $ 60.00/hour – $240.00 Total – $440.00 In a not-for-profit or professional society environment, volunteers do not want their time wasted – ineffective meetings account for a significant proportion of the discontent in volunteer organizations. Also consider Opportunity Costs .
  • Every day 83 million people attend 11.5 million meetings.
  • As a leader in our professional society, it is your responsibility to ensure that our volunteer meetings are efficient and effective.
  • Our Flow of Energy defines how we receive the essential part of our stimulation. Do we receive it from within ourselves ( I ntroverted) or from external sources ( E xtraverted)? The topic of how we Take in Information deals with our preferred method of taking in and absorbing information. Do we trust our five senses ( S ensing) to take in information, or do we rely on our instincts (i N tuitive)? How we prefer to Make Decisions , refers to whether we are prone to decide things based on logic and objective consideration ( T hinking), or based on our personal, subjective value systems ( F eeling). The fourth preference is concerned with how we deal with the external world on a Day-to-day Basis . Are we organized and purposeful, and more comfortable with scheduled, structured environments ( J udging), or are we flexible and diverse, and more comfortable with open, casual environments ( P erceiving)?
  • Space matters. Like Goldilocks and the Three Bears, meeting space must be just right to provide comfort, visual focus, and interaction opportunities. Members must be able to easily see one another. The room should be a comfortable temperature, have adequate space for planners, notebooks, or laptops, and noise should be reduced so people can hear the discussion easily. If it is a large group, the meeting’s facilitator should consider standing.
  • Don’t Read to the Group. Within your organization, place more emphasis on processing information, than on giving information at your meetings. A meeting is not the place to read a memo, but instead it’s a place to discuss an issue to assure agreement or full understanding. Everyone contributes to a meeting’s success. It’s not just the facilitator/chairperson who is responsible for a good meeting, everyone must do their part. When possible, make sure the right people are at the meeting. If the material covered is not relevant to some people, arrange to have them excused from that portion of the meeting. Also make sure all meeting participants understand their responsibilities
  • Praise! Praise! Praise! Praise people twice as much as your criticize. Never let any good deed or action go unheralded in the group. Say thank you publicly at every meeting. Recognize the value of peoples contributions at the beginning or within the meeting. It’s cheap psychology, and it works wonders. One of the best ways to boost group morale and keep it high, is to notice peoples work and praise it regularly. Plan. Plan. Plan. Meeting design is the Number 1 mechanism for effective meetings. For each agenda item, make sure the group is clear about the goals, processes, and functions. Never, Never, Never attempt to compose, draft, or edit a report or document in committee!

Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION “Historically, face-to-facemeetings haveplayedanimportant roleinthesocial, andespeciallythepoliticallife, of Westernand non-Westernsocieties” (Schwartzman, 1989)  Better compared to computer mediated devices  Meeting is wasting time  Negative expression of associated business meeting
  • 2. METHOD  Face to face  Computer mediated (email, tele conferencing, video conferencing)
  • 3. IMPORTANTS OF FTF BUSINESS MEETING  Allow observing verbal & non verbal styles  Non synchronized time  Provide human contact among members  Help participants to develop transparency & trust among each other  Allow evaluating & judging  Develop strong social relationship  Forum for members
  • 4. BUSINESS ADVANTAGES OF FTF BUSINESS MEETING  Less usage of electronic communication devices  Bond teams together  Result in people feeling more inspired  Brings out best in people  Results breakthrough thinking  Build strong business relationship
  • 5. VALUE FOR BUSINESS MEETING  Prior to the meeting  Holding the meeting  After meeting
  • 6.  Efficient & productive compared to computer mediated devices  Develop social identities, relationship & norms  Occurs in real time  Develop transparency & trust  Able to know expression, feelings & ideas
  • 7. REFERENCES  The Hilton Family, ”Why Face to Face Business Meetings Matter” A White Paper by Professor Richard D. A rvey, Ph.d. Business School, National University Of Singapore.
  • 8. How to Run an Effective Meeting
  • 9. Preliminary Thoughts Who likes a meeting… • Without a clearly defined agenda • That seems to drag-on forever • That rambles from topic-to-topic • That ends without any apparent result? These types of meetings are • Frustrating • A waste of one of the most valuable resources of any organization – time.
  • 10. Outline • Meeting Management – A Leadership Responsibility • Why Effective Meetings? • Elements of an Effective Meeting • Types of Meetings • The Meeting – Before the Meeting  Agenda  Group Dynamics Personality Types – During the Meeting  Parliamentary Procedures  Meeting Room Arrangements  Roles: Chair, Secretary, Members in General  How to Deal with Disruptive Members – After the Meeting • Additional Thoughts
  • 11. Meeting Management – A Leadership Responsibility Many people are promoted, elevated, or elected into leadership positions without receiving any formal training or education on how to run an effective meeting. Seniority NumberofMeetings
  • 12. Why Effective Meetings? • Time: a critical resource • Opportunity Costs • For-profit environment, example: a one-hour meeting with 2 managers and 4 engineers: manager: $100.00/hour – $200.00 engineers: $ 60.00/hour – $240.00 Total – $440.00 • Not-for-profit or professional society environment • volunteers do not want their time wasted • ineffective meetings cause discontent
  • 13. Meetings • Characteristics of negative meetings† :  83% – drift from the subject  77% – poor preparation  74% – questionable effectiveness  68% – lack of listening  62% – verbose participants  60% – length  51% – lack of participation † From Achieving Effective Meetings – Not Easy But Possible, Bradford D. Smart in a survey of 635 executives.
  • 14. Effective Meetings • What people are looking for in effective meetings‡ :  88% – participation  66% – define the meeting’s purpose  62% – address each item on the agenda  59% – assign follow-up action  47% – record discussion  46% – invite essential personnel  36% – publish an agenda ‡ From GM Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA 1993
  • 15. Elements of an Effective Meeting Effective meetings don’t just happen • Require deliberate planning • Must be conducted in an effective and efficient manner • Responsibility of leader
  • 16. Types of Meetings • Formal or Informal – With agenda, rules of procedure, minutes or – Casual and relaxed - structure but nothing written • Planning – To prepare or evaluate a plan – To seek information • Reporting – Progress to date – Providing information or status reporting
  • 17. Types of Meetings • Administrative – Regular Staff Meetings – Monthly Executive Committee Meetings • Decision • Brainstorming • Combinations
  • 18. Before the Meeting • Define the purpose of the meeting. • Identify the participants. – Every invitee should have a role. – Identify a recorder or secretary. • Prepare an agenda in advance of the meeting. – Communicate the intent of each agenda item using labels such as (A) Action, (I) Information, (V) Vote. – Identify estimate of time allocated to the agenda item.
  • 19. Before the Meeting, cont’d • Prepare or identify background information. • Assign responsibilities for agenda items and communicate to those responsible. • Publish the agenda and identify background information to be reviewed. • Plan for breaks – lunch, coffee, etc.
  • 20. Before the Meeting • Think through the conduct of the meeting - Use a trusted member of your staff or deputy. • Consider logistics – Room – layout, seating, distractions, etc. – Support items – projector, white board, pens, etc.
  • 21. Group Dynamics • Attempt to identify & understand interpersonal dynamics of the group. • If you will lead this group over an extended period, consider Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument. – Not definitive but allows you to better understand the members of your meeting. – Most scientists and engineers are introverts – prefer to sit-back, listen and think-through their response. – Extroverts tend to develop their opinions and responses by talking out-loud. • 126 item Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – Instrument publisher, Consulting Psychologists Press (CPP, Inc.)
  • 22. Personality Types • Based on the well-known research of Carl Jung, Katharine C. Briggs, and Isabel Briggs Myers •Theory of Personality Types contends that: • An individual is either primarily Extraverted or Introverted • An individual is either primarily Sensing or iNtuitive • An individual is either primarily Thinking or Feeling • An individual is either primarily Judging or Perceiving •The possible combinations of the basic preferences form 16 different Personality Types. •Learning about other people's Personality Types help us understand the most effective way to communicate with them, and how they function best.
  • 23. MBTI Type Descriptions • Theory is that every individual has a primary mode of operation within four categories: 1. Our flow of energy 2. How we take in information 3. How we prefer to make decisions 4. The basic day-to-day lifestyle that we prefer • Within each of these categories, we "prefer" to be either: 1. Extraverted or Introverted 2. Sensing or iNtuitive 3. Thinking or Feeling 4. Judging or Perceiving
  • 24. MBTI Type Descriptions •Flow of Energy: how we receive the essential part of our stimulation. •Receive it from within ourselves (Introverted) •Receive external sources (Extraverted) •Take in Information: how we deal with taking in & absorbing information. • Trust five senses (Sensing) to take in information • Rely on our instincts (iNtuitive)
  • 25. MBTI Type Descriptions, cont’d • Make Decisions: decide things based on • logic and objective consideration (Thinking) • personal, subjective value systems (Feeling) • Day-to-day Basis: • Organized and purposeful. More comfortable with scheduled, structured environments (Judging), • Flexible and diverse, and more comfortable with open, casual environments (Perceiving)
  • 26. During the Meeting • Arrive early – Arrange the room if necessary – Know how to control the lighting and temperature in the room. – Distribute handouts. • Begin on time. • Introduce members if not familiar; introduce visitors. • Establish ground rules, if necessary. • Run the meeting.
  • 27. During the Meeting • Control interruptions – ask that cell phones and pagers be turned-off. • Identify and record results. • Assign responsibilities for follow-up – Action Registry. • End on time. • Thank participants for their input and reinforce the importance of outcomes on the organization.
  • 28. Meeting Room Space matters! • Members must be able to easily see one another. • Room should be comfortable temperature. • Adequate space for planners, notebooks, or laptops • People should be able to hear the discussion easily. • If it is a large group, the meeting’s facilitator should consider standing.
  • 29. Meeting Room Arrangements • Theater Style – Leader has great power by position. – Participation and interruption by audience is limited. • U-Shaped Style – Equality of membership. – No doubt of who the leader is. – Good visibility for visual aids. • Circle Style – Democratic: equality is stressed. – Great visibility by participants. – Obvious body language. – Excellent participation. X X
  • 30. Member Roles – The Chair • Prepare for the meeting. • Appoint secretary/minute taker if there is not a regular. • Conduct and control the meeting. – watch timing or assign someone to this responsibility – ensure all have an equal opportunity to speak – adjudicate as and when necessary – effect compromise on occasion
  • 31. The Chair • Close each item – Ensure action is clear – By whom and by when • Check that the minutes are produced accurately and in timely manner
  • 32. Member Roles – The Secretary • Ensure agenda and relevant papers are distributed in time with date, time and place of meeting. • Prepare and book the meeting space. • Have background papers and information for the chair. • Carry a copy of: (1) the constitution, (2) rules of procedure, (3) previous minutes. • Record names of attendees and apologies for absence - check quorum.
  • 33. The Secretary, • Take notes of what is said and decided Minimum necessary: – mixture of mnemonics and full transcript – amount of detail depends on nature and purpose of meeting – must be enough to enable accurate minutes • Essential to have: – gist of discussions – exact words of proposals – names of those proposing and seconding – names of those responsible for future actions • Write the minutes - preferably as soon as possible
  • 34. Members in General • People often react to other people - not to their ideas. • Chair must stress that effectiveness = disregard for personal or departmental allegiances. • Self perception - some see themselves as elder statesman, joker, voice of reason. Group Building Roles The Initiator Suggests new/different ideas/approaches The Opinion Giver States pertinent beliefs about the discussion or others' suggestions The Elaborator Builds on suggestions made by others
  • 35. Members in General – SupportiveMaintenance Roles The Tension Reliever Uses humor or calls for a break at appropriate moments The Compromiser Willing to yield when necessary for progress The Clarifier Offers rationales, probes for meaning, restates problems The Tester Raises questions to test if group is ready to come to a decision The Summarizer Tries to pull discussion together, reviews progress so far The Harmonizer Mediates differences of opinion, reconciles points of view The Encourager Praises and supports others in their contributions The Gate Keeper Keeps communications open, creates opportunities for participation
  • 36. Members in General – Disruptive Group Blocking Roles The Aggressor Deflates status of others, disagrees and criticizes The Blocker Stubbornly disagrees, cites unrelated material, returns to previous topics The Withdrawer Will not participate, private conversations, takes copious personal notes The Recognition Seeker Boasts and talks excessively The Topic Jumper Continually changes the subject The Dominator Tries to take over, asserts authority, manipulates the group The Special Pleader Draws attention to own concerns The Playboy/Girl Shows off, tells funny stories, nonchalant, cynical The Self-Confessor Talks irrelevantly of own feelings and insights The Devil's Advocate More devil than advocate! Based on HC Wedgewood's Fewer Camels, More Horses: Where Committees Go Wrong. Personnel, Vol 44, No 4, July-Aug 1967, pp62-87. Quoted in Pearce, Figgens & Golen. Principles of Communication. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1984, pp.
  • 37. Member Stereotypes Stereotypes You May Expect to Find in a Group The Chatterbox Talks continually, rarely on the topic, has little to contribute The Sleeper Uninterested in the proceedings, some can sleep with eyes open! The Destroyer Crushes any and every idea, can always find something wrong The Rationalist Makes worthwhile contributions, ideas are well thought- out The Trapper Waits for opportune moment to show error has been made – likes to trap the Chair The Know-All Tries to monopolize, but can have good ideas The Thinker Shy and slow to come forward, but is a great asset Based on Sadler and Tucker. Common Ground. South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1981. pg. 82.
  • 38. How to Deal with Disruptive Members • Make sure that all meeting participants understand their responsibilities. – All members were invited to the meeting for a reason – All members should feel free to contribute • Members who are silent – Begin meetings by engaging every member of the group •“Bill, haven’t you done this in your work? What was your experience?" •"Janet, you’ve been rather quiet to this point, do you have an opinion or an idea?" – Consider breaking larger group into smaller groups to develop input
  • 39. How to Deal with Disruptive Members • Members who are vocally dominant – Redirect discussion to other members "We all recognize your expertise in this area, but let’s hear from some others in case some new ideas emerge.“ "John has made his opinion clear; does anyone else have something they would like to add?" • Members who are negative – Probe the negativity to validate concerns – Redirect discussion to other members – If behavior persists, consider speaking off-line or excluding them from future meetings “Let’s not shoot down this idea prematurely; let’s give it some time for evaluation."
  • 40. After the Meeting • Publish the minutes promptly. • Identify responsibilities for action items. • Assess the meeting.
  • 41. Parliamentary Procedures • Robert’s Rules of Order – Parliamentary guide for running meetings. – First Edition February 1876 – Guiding principle, by General Henry Martyn Robert: “All shall be heard, but the majority shall decide” • For details, see “Meetings and Parliamentary Procedures – Simplified,” by Irving Engelson.
  • 42. Additional Thoughts •Don’t Read to the Group • Place more emphasis on processing information, than on giving information • A meeting is a place to discuss an issue to assure agreement or full understanding. •Everyone contributes to a meeting’s success. • Everyone must do their part. • When possible, make sure the right people are at the meeting. • If the material covered is not relevant to some people, arrange to have them excused from that portion of the meeting. • Make sure all meeting participants understand their responsibilities
  • 43. Additional Thoughts • Balance participation • Meetings will have people who are silent, vocally dominant, or negative. • The facilitator/chairperson as well as members of the group can redirect this unproductive behavior • Allow time for process and group development • Checking off agenda items in a rapid-fire process is not always productive. It may move the meeting along more quickly, but may leave you wondering ‘what happened?’ when it’s over.
  • 44. Final Thoughts • Praise! Praise! Praise! • Praise people twice as much as you criticize. • Never let any good deed or action go unheralded in the group. • Say thank you publicly at every meeting. • Recognize the value of peoples’ contributions at the beginning or within the meeting. • Plan. Plan. Plan. • Meeting design is the Number 1 mechanism for effective meetings. • For each agenda item, make sure the group is clear about the goals, processes, and functions. • Never, Never, Never attempt to compose, draft, or edit a report or document in committee!
  • 45. Summary • The techniques described in this presentation can be applied to any type of meeting you encounter. • Consider compiling your own list of successful techniques based on specific meetings. • Effective meetings are the result of deliberate planning.
  • 46. References H. C. Wedgewood, “Fewer Camels, More Horses: Where Committees Go Wrong,” Personnel, Vol. 44, No. 4, July-Aug 1967. A. Jay, “How to Run a Meeting,” Harvard Business Review, March-April 1976, pp. 43-57. Sadler and Tucker, Common Ground, South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1981. Pearce, Figgens & Golen, Principles of Communication, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1984. B. L. Shoop, “How to run an Effective Meeting,” Focal Point, Optical Society of America, October 1996. Reprinted in IEEE CrossTalk, Vol. XXXIV, No. 8, January 1998.
  • 47. MEETING DOCUMENTATIONS -Ensures the success of a meeting. A.Notice B.Agenda C.Chairman’s Agenda D.Minutes
  • 48. NOTICE  Announces an upcoming meeting & states the type, date, & time of the meeting. It may be written a part of an agenda / separately.  Eg 1: RJTE MASTER GALLERY SDN BHD A meeting of the Creative Resources Department will be held in the main meeting room on Friday, 4 March 2004 at 9a.m.
  • 49. Cont… Eg 2 ANGELIC SDN BHD (Co. No. 611786388- A) NOTICE OF 3RD ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING Notice is hereby given that the 3rd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of Angelic Sdn Bhd will be held at the Registered Ofice, No. 85- 88, Plaza Seri Serdang, 43300, Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan; on 27 April 2010 (Wednesday) at 2 p.m.
  • 50. AGENDA  Is a list of topics to be discussed at a meeting. Small & informal meetings do not require an agenda. However, a meeting involving a lot of people or covering lot of issues will need an agenda in advance.
  • 51. Purpose of an Agenda: 1. Facilitates the meeting 2. Helps participants to prepare for the meeting 3. Keeps participants on track once the meeting starts 4. Structures a meeting so that time is not wasted 5. Provides opportunities for discussion
  • 52. 2 Parts of Agenda: Ordinary Business & Special Business Ordinary Business: Items that appear on every meeting. At the Beginning 1. Apologies for Absence 2. Minutes of Last Meeting 3. Matters Arising
  • 53. Cont…  At the end  1. Any other business  2. Date of next meeting
  • 54. Cont… Special Business: Special matters to be discussed at specific meetings. They are placed after the items of Ordinary Reports.  1. Chairperson’s Report  2. Open House  3. Facilities  4. Fund raising projects
  • 55. Eg: 1. Confirmation Minutes of Meeting 2. Matters Arising 3. Academic Programs 4. Teaching Assignments 5. Examination Matters 6. External Examination Report 7. Other Matters 8. Date of next meeting
  • 56. CHAIRMAN’S AGENDA  -contains extra notes to help the Chairperson conduct the meeting efficiently. Only the Chairperson receives the agenda. The Chairperson writes his notes on the space at the right hand side of the agenda. These notes will be referred to the secretary when preparing the minutes.
  • 57. Minutes  Provides a formal documentation that records what happened during the meeting. The accuracy is important for those who attended the meeting as well as those who were absent. It is written in Reported Speech from the 3rd person POV.
  • 58. Purpose of Minutes 1. To remind participants of what happened at the last meeting 2. To inform those absent about the results of the meeting 3. To provide a basis of discussion for the next meeting 4. To provide a permanent record of the meeting for future reference 5. To provide an objectives & adequate record in the case of any legal significance
  • 59. Types of Meeting 1. Verbatim Minutes - Every word is recorded - In parliaments of courts 2. Action Minutes - Only decision are recorded 3. Narrative Minutes - Record all information
  • 60. 3 easy ways to write minutes: 1. Look at the agenda 2. Write notes on the agenda during the meeting 3. Refer to the agenda & the notes to write your minutes after the meeting
  • 61. 3 Section in Writing Minutes: 1. TOP: similar to the top of the notice of meeting except for the tenses used. 2. MIDDLE: resembles the Agenda in the Notice of Meeting. The Agenda & the middle of the Minutes share the same structures. 3. BOTTOM: Signature of secretary and Chairperson & dates