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Is soy the new panacea?

Is soy the new panacea?

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    Soy Linked In Final Soy Linked In Final Presentation Transcript

    • by Brenda Lee N.B. For social media viewers, this presentation has been edited with references removed ©January 2012 ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • What soy/soya is
      • Traditional and modern usage
      • Products from soy
      • How various industries uses it
      • Benefits and Concerns
      • Conclusion
      Brenda Lee ©2010
      • Popularly known as soya, technically soy. Why?
      • The soya bean is the seed of the leguminous soya bean plant
      • Used as a plant fertiliser
      • Soya food has only been widely consumed in Western countries since
      • the 1960's reference removed
      • Missionaries brought soya to Europe in the 17th century.
      • Soya was introduced in the USA in the early 19th century but soya farming in the USA only expanded dramatically after World War II, when production in China was devastated
      • World War II shortages created a demand for cheap source of protein.
      • reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
    • ©2010 Brenda Lee 86.6 3.5 4.7 7.3 16.2 44.0 56.0 9.9 Total in 2006 - 228.4 million tonnes reference removed
      • Uses of soy:
      • Pharmaceutical Industry
      • Chemical Industry
      • Food Industry
      • Animal Feeds
      • Popularity:
      • Very cheap
      • Numerous health effects
      • Rich source of protein
      • Associated with alleviation of famine in the world
      • There are growing concerns in relation to but not limited to:
      • Inhibitory allergens it produces
      • Genetically Modified products
      • Environmental impact
      • Phytoestrogens
      ©2010 Brenda Lee Traditionally, soy was used to produce foods like tofu, tempeh, soy sauce, miso and soy milk. However modern usage is in the form of mainly soy protein isolates and concentrates. It seems that soy in the West is a product of the industrial revolution.
      • What are the uses of soya?
      • What are the advantages and disadvantages?
      • Should we worry about soya in our foods?
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
    • ©2010 Brenda Lee Lubricants Building products Fungicides Pesticides Herbicides Pharmaceutics Pet food Cosmetics Furniture Paints Wallpapers Textiles Paper Candles Waxes Coatings Solvents Food Animal feed Diesel fuel Emulsifiers Adhesives Crayons SOYBEAN Cleaning products Engine oils reference removed
      • Raw seeds of soy beans have been reported to contain per
      • 100 g - 36 g protein, 20g fat, 9g fibre reference removed
      • Whole soybean products
      • - traditional soy foods
      • - roasted/baked beans, soy sprouts, waffles,
      • soy nut butter , full fat soy flour, sweets,
      • pie crust, instant milk drinks, pasta
      • Soybean protein products
      • - soy flour concentrates , isolates
      • Oil products
      • - refined soy oil
      • - glycerol
      • - lecithin
      • Soy Fibre (Okara, Soy Bran, Soy Isolate Fibre)
      • reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
    • Brenda Lee ©2010 Can you name any Scientists who developed compounds and products from soy ?
      • Scientist 1 – A Chemist, Inventor and Business Man
      • Born in 1899 in the USA
      • He developed compounds from soy-based products used in chemical industry
      • Made a millionaire out of soy?
      • Scientist 2 - An Agricultural Scientist
      • Born around 1864 the USA. Exact date believed not to be known
      • Developed numerous chemical and food products derived from soy
      • Known as the peanut man
      • Henry Ford met him
      • Made from fermented soybeans:
      • Soy sauce Miso Tempeh Natto
      • Made from unfermented soybeans:
      • Soy milk
      • Tofu Yuba
      • Toasted soy powder
      • Cooked /dried soybeans
      ©2010 Brenda Lee reference removed
      • Soy flour – 50% protein (made from roasted
      • soybeans ground into fine powder)
      • used in mixture with wheat flour in bakery
      • products,
      • Concentrates – 70% protein, isolates – 90% protein
      • Bland in flavor, used in bakery, meat products, cereals, noodles, baby food, coffee
      • whiteners, thickening agent for soups, sauces, desserts, snacks.
      • Texturised soy proteins
      • used in beef patties, sausages, pizza toppings, taco fillings, meatloaf mixes, frozen dinners, meatballs, soups, canned minced hams, meat pie fillings, hot snacks, vegetarian foods.
      • reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Glycerol
      • used in low-calories food as sugar substitute also thickening agent, solvent.
      • Oil
      • usually labeled “vegetable oil” ,
      • used in cooking, ingredient of margarine, mayonnaise , salad dressings.
      • Lecithin –used in bakery, production of candies, chocolate.
      • Source : reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Veggie burgers, nuggets, hot dogs, sausages, meat –like products
      • Milk, cream, cheese (cheddar, mozzarella), yoghurt (calcium fortified);
      • ice cream and other desserts
      • Source : reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Health: Disease prevention
      • Nutrition/Diet
      • Industry
      • Food Aid
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Treatment of menopause and osteoporosis
      • Oestrogen and progesterone are responsible for the healthy functioning of the reproductive system and other organs. Menopause and osteoporosis arises out of a decline of levels of these hormones.
      • Isoflavones are naturally occurring weak oestrogens are rich in soya. Studies show that consuming soya and isoflavones may reduce the symptoms brought about by the menopause (removed, 1997) . However, other studies have not shown any difference.
      ©2010 Brenda Lee www.source removed
      • Cancer
      • Studies have shown that experiments on rodents using isoflavones could reduce risk (removed, 1995). One study showed lower risk of breast cancer as reported by the participants when their diet was high in soy (removed, 1997).
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Soya could help to reduce cholesterol metabolism. A number of trial with (meta-analysis) observed 9.3% decrease in total cholesterol, a 12.9% decrease in LDL cholesterol. (removed,1995).
      • Other studies showing the effect of isoflavones have reported no significant effects.
      ©2010 Brenda Lee Above could help you to decrease your cholesterol levels Picture:www.reference removed
      • Vegans/Vegetarianism/Nutrient enriched
      • Consumers are more health conscious
      • Understanding relationship between adulterated/processed meat and diseases
      • Used in health food supplements/ Functional foods
      • Alternative/ Increases variety of food choices
      • Very rich source of protein – supplies all 9 amino acids, low fat, no cholesterol, easy to digest, versatile in the kitchen
      • Part of alternatives of healthier foods: low fat, reduced sugar, no salt
      • For those who are allergic to milk proteins
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Cheap,
      • Economical,
      • Versatile,
      • *********************
      • Functional characteristics!
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Controls viscosity in drinks – creamy or full-bodied
      • Provides an elastic gel texture – mouth feel effect
      • Increases the protein content of processed meat – major driver for functional soy protein ingredients. Used as a cheap filler, texture, gelation, fat and water binding (pizzas, patties, intuitional feeding)
      • As lecithin – emulsifying and stabilizing agent, reduces or prevents oxidation, crystallization, spattering control
      • Soy protein concentrates are preferred in milk replacer for baby animals
      • i.e calves, lambs, pigs
      • Bakery: better crumb structure, increases absorption, improves toasting characteristics, enhances crust colour. Increased percentage of protein incorporated into bread
      • Hydrogenated – oil is used to deep fry fast food
      • Spaghetti: increases absorption of spaghetti and promote firmness
      • (reference removed)
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Many children suffering from malnutrition in parts of Africa, Asia and America have been helped by missionaries providing them with protein supplements
      • Where a mother’s breast milk is insufficient and there is a shortage of high protein foods, soya infant formula is provided by Charities set up by Soy organisations such as the World Soy Foundation
      • Projects sponsored by WSF include school feeding programs, enterprise development and soy nutritional services
      • Soybean Organisations hope to change the lives of many
      • sources:www.reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • These two sisters were nursed back to health from Guatemala, using high protein soy foods
      • www. reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Environment
      • Socio-economical/Cost/Politics
      • Health
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Monsanto have produced a Round up Ready soya bean (RR) which is resistant to glycophosate herbicide.
      • Increase of deforestation. The Amazon basin has seen some of the greatest changes in recent times, with huge swaths of the rainforest being felled to grow soya beans.
      • New diseases and an increase of tolerant weeds have been identified in Argentina (removed et al, 2004)
      • Cases of toxic clouds affecting health and damaging crops of neighbouring communities (removed, 2004)
            • http://www .reference removed
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Dumping surpluses of GM soya on poor nations; substituting their traditional diets. Such foods are often presented as charity.
      • Increase of soya production had put many small farmers out of business, creating dependence on multinationals/corporations.
      • In 15yrs Argentine dairy farms decreased 50%, from 30,000 in 1988 to 15,000 in 2003
      • Europe and US is looking to Africa to provide the land where soya will be grown to be used as the new bio fuel. This may lead to rising grain prices, displacement of rural communities and hence greater food insecurity
      ©2010 Brenda Lee Source: reference removed Area of Soybean Cultivation, Brazil, U.S., and World
      • A case study of Argentina claims that soya threatens food sovereignty in that country. Soya replaced the production of food staples, which was exported and which led to an increase of the prices.
      • www.reference removed
      • There’s been forced eviction of families: unaware that their land is for sale. They generally end up in city slums
      ©2010 Brenda Lee http://reference removed The yellow strip above shows deforestation in the Amazon forest www.reference removed
      • Their purpose:
        • Isoflavones
        • Oxalates (and stones) reduced little by cooking
        • Phytates (and minerals)
        • Considerably higher than mung beans and chickpeas
        • Lectins (haemagglutins)
          • Poor growth, pancreatic enlargement, digestive distress, destroys cells in pancreas
        • Protease inhibitors
        • Saponins (soap and damage to intestines, cholesterol)
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • High oestrogen content in Soya Infant formulas
        • There is growing concern about the level of isoflavones in soya infant formulas as these compounds act in similar way to hormones. On average infants receive 38mg. This is far too high on a body-weight basis compared to average intake in Asia.
        • The Food Standards Agency advices that soya should only be given to babies in exceptional circumstances after examining clinical trials on animals and case studies on various groups in the population. (removed, 2003)
        • According to a report in New Scientist magazine, male rats exposed to high levels of genistein an (isoflavones) in the womb grew up to have larger prostate glands and smaller testes.
        • Studies on monkeys given infant formula had reduced testosterone levels compared to the ones given dairy formula (removed, 2002)
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • Effect of thyroid
        • Soy contain goitrogens that can block the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Cooking and processing methods does not remove isoflavones – only solvent extraction. There’s been an increase of thyroid disorders in the US and Europe. Around 1980, British government researchers pointed out that soy-consuming vegans were at risk. (reference removed)
      • Effect on Reproductive system
        • Studies have shown reduced levels of reproductivity in animals such as the cheetah and the quail.
        • There’s been a decline in sperm count, motility and quality stated by Dr Sharpe head of Medical Research Council. Studied the decline in male fertility over a period as well as the effects of soya milk in young male monkeys. Observed that the soya interferes with testosterone levels.
      ©2010 Brenda Lee
      • There appears to be conflicting information in regards to the benefits of soya which can be attributed to vested interests. The United Soybean Organisation has invested millions into medical research. It is stated that Protein Technologies International helped fund the Food and Drug Association's (FDA) cholesterol lowering heart health claim (reference removed)
      • Scientists have been unable to prove the health benefits of soy. There has been and are ambiguous health claims. We are yet to discover the impact on health which is currently a main concern. Research statistics suggest bias.
      • Soya, is it the new panacea? It appears that soya is indeed the universal remedy to global issues. However research is still on going.
      ©2010 Brenda Lee