PSY 200- EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Prof. Frick Class 5 Ch. 3 Continued
Chapter 3, Continued:Understanding others and moral development What is Moral Development? • Learning about right and wrong while at the same time seeking out our own identity and forming an image of ourselves • Understanding the “significant others” around us • Learning how to interpret what others are thinking and feeling
Theory of Mind• By age 2 or 3, children begin to develop the understanding that other people are people too, with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions.• This understanding is called a Theory of Mind. (Why is my brother crying? Why is my Mom angry? Why is everyone so excited??)
Theory of Mind• Children need a theory of mind to make sense of other peoples behavior. Around age 2, children develop a sense of intention (ie. "I wanna have a cookie.") Children also begin to learn at this age that other people have intentions of their own.
Why a “theory” of mind?• The mind is not directly observable• Mental states are the cause of a person’s behavior• Develops over time; social interaction and experience plays a role in its development• Empathy is part of a Theory of Mind- being able to put yourself “in someone else’s shoes”• Scientists study ToM in different populations- human, animal, adults, children, normal and abnormal.
• Perspective-Taking Ability: With a developing theory of mind, children are increasingly able to understand that other people have different feelings and experiences, and therefore may have a different viewpoint or perspective. • (Think back to Piagets Stages- where does the perspective-taking ability come into play??) • The “False Belief Test”
Distributive Justice- Group Discussion• Organ Transplants: • How do we go about allocating a future for people who will die without a transplant? How do we go about denying it? What if the recipient is a child? A convicted felon? • When so many are waiting for their shot at a life worth living, is it fair to grant multiple organs or multiple transplants to a person whose chance for survival is slim to none?• Immigration: • As Americans, how far should our benevolence extend beyond our borders? • Are we responsible for seeing that the needy who come to America for help receive their chance, or are we morally responsible to assist only our own citizens?
• Distributive Justice- One of the earliest developmental conflicts in moral reasoning- beliefs about how to divide materials or priveleges fairly among members of a group. • John Rawls- Distributive Justice and the “Original Position” • Suppose I told you that I was going to give you an assignment. It could be anything from writing a paper to digging ditches. You, however, get to decide how much the assignment should count toward your grade. What percentage of your grade should depend on this assignment?
Moral Development- Moral Dilemmas• Along with an advanced theory of mind and ability to take perspective comes a sense of right and wrong.• A man’s wife is dying. There is one drug that could save her, but it is extremely expensive, and the scientist that invented it, and the pharmacy that carries it, will not sell it at a low enough price for the man to afford. The man becomes so desperate that he considers stealing the drug for his wife. What should he do, and why?
KOHLBERGS THEORY OF Moral Reasoning• LEVEL 1: Pre-conventional Moral Reasoning- Judgement is based on personal needs andperceptions • Stage 1: Avoid punishment- A good or bad action is determined by physical consequences • Stage 2: Personal gain- Getting what one wants/needs. (You scratch my back, Ill scratch yours)
KOHLBERGS THEORY OF Moral Reasoning•LEVEL 2: Conventional Stages- Judgementis based on others approval, familyexpectations, traditional values, the laws ofsociety, and loyalty to country. 3: Good boy/Nice girl- Good=Nice.• StageA focus on what pleases, aids, and isapproved by others. 4: Law & order- Laws are absolute-• StageAuthority must be respected and socialorder maintained.
KOHLBERGS THEORY OF Moral Reasoning Post-conventional Stages-• Level 3: Conventions are useful but changeable too- based on abstract principles like justice and mercy• Stage 5: Social contract- Personal rights/Consensus- good is determined bysocially-agreed-upon standards of individual rights.• Stage6: Universal ethical principles- Good and Right are matters of individual conscience and involve abstract concepts of justice, human dignity, and equality.
ACTIVE CONSTRUCTION OF MORAL JUDGEMENTSAge 5-6- Based on equality (ie "Kendra got more than I did!!")At this stage, rules simply exist, are absolute, and connot bechanged. Piaget called it Moral Realism.•Age 6-7- Based on merit- those who perform better get more.•Age 8+- Based on benevolence- some students may get moretime or resources because they might have special needs• Teen- Adult: Last stage is Morality of Cooperation- Stage ofdevelopment where children realize that people make rulesand people can change them
MORAL AND CONVENTIONAL DOMAINS• Moral Domain- Issues of right and wrong, fairness, justice • What are some examples of school rules that fall within the moral domain?• Conventional Domain- Rules needed to maintain order- people in charge make the rules • What are some examples of school rules that fall within the conventional domain?
CREATING A MORAL ATMOSHPERE INYOUR CLASSROOM: • Responses to moral problems: • when an act is inherently hurtful or unjust, emphasize the harm done to others; "John, that really hurt Jamal." • Encourage perspective-taking: "Chris, how would you feel is someone stole from you?"
CREATING A MORAL ATMOSHPERE INYOUR CLASSROOM: • Responses to conventional problems: • Restate the rule- "Lisa, you are not allowed out of your seat during announcements." • Command- "Russell, stop swearing!"
MORAL TRANGRESSION ACTIVITY• put the strips in order of most to least morally offensive, according to our cultural and societal standards.• One group member should writedown the order of the letters asthey appear on each moraltransgression.
DIVERSITY and CONVERGENCES (p.105)• Diversity: • Some cultures more traditional • Traditions/customs change fast in modern cultures • Self concepts – different patterns boys/girls • Identity – racial differences• Convergences • All individuals are influenced by social/cultural contexts • Peer rejection is harmful to all students
Mr. Bedley’s Classroom: Observation 2• How are Mr. Bedley’s students using their Theory of Mind, Moral Reasoning, and concepts of Distributive Justice in this clip?