B.F. Skinner “Give me a child and I'll shape him into anything.”
Growing Up Born on March 20, 1904 to a lawyer and a housewife in a small town in Pennsylvania. He got his BA from Hamilton College in English, after that he wrote for a newspaper but finally decided to go to Harvard for more schooling.
Operant Conditioning :a behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behavior in the future. Skinner box
Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement : Reinforcement is given every time the animal gives the desired response. • Intermittent reinforcement : Reinforcement is given only part of the times the animal gives the desired response. • Fixed ratio reinforcement : Reinforcement is given on a regular ratio, such as every fifth time the desired behavior is produced. • Variable (random) fixed reinforcement: Reinforcement is given for a predetermined proportion of responses, but randomly instead of on a fixed schedule. • Interval reinforcement: Reinforcement is given after a predetermined period of time. • Fixed interval reinforcement : Reinforcement is given on a regular schedule, such as every five minutes. • Variable interval reinforcement : Reinforcement is given after random amounts of time have passed.
Gambling In gambling you don’t win very often, if at all, yet people still play for the chance that maybe the next lever pull, toss of the dice, or number will lead to their victory.
Shaping Involves first reinforcing a behavior only vaguely similar to the one desired. Once that is established, you look out for variations that come a little closer to what you want, and so on, until you have the animal performing a behavior that would never show up in ordinary life
Reinforcement Remove from a Situation After a Response: Pleasant = Punishment - Decrease the probability of the same response occurring again (Example: punishing a teenager by taking away his cell phone or car keys.) Noxious = Negative Reinforcement - Removing or decreasing an unpleasant or painful situation after a desirable response is produced. Increases the probability of the same response occurring again (Example: time off for good behavior) Add to a Situation After a Response: Pleasant = Positive Reinforcement- Reward. Increases the probability of the same response occurring again. (Example: praise, monetary reward, food) Noxious = Punishment- Administering a painful or unpleasant reinforcer after an unwanted response. Decreases the probability of the same response occurring again.(Examples: corporal punishment, electrical shocks, yelling)
“Skinner addressed the applications of behaviorism to educational practice. He believed that the goal of education was to train learners in survival skills for self and society. The role of the teacher was to reinforce behaviors that contributed to survival skills, and extinguish behaviors that did not. Behaviorist views have shaped much of contemporary education in children and adult learning” Skinners philosophy and discovery not only affect education but it affect us daily in our everyday lives.