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for a report on Materials Engineering 10 at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, College of Engineering

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  • Fiberglass Sheet or Glass Fiber Epoxy Sheet can be easily Ordered with choice of all the various sizes & types from or visit www,electricalinsulations,net and select from a wide range of Fiberglass & Electrical Insulation Materials. Get Door Delivery any where in the World.
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  • Fiberglass tape can be easily Ordered with choice of all the various sizes & types from or visit www,electricalinsulations,net and select from a wide range of Fiberglass & Electrical Insulation Materials. Get Door Delivery any where in the World.
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  • Fiber sheet
  • Unsaturated acids/anhydridesMaleic anhydride – curing siteFumaric acidPhthalic acid – low cost, hardSaturated acids/anhydridesIsophthalic acid – improved strength and chemical resistanceAdipic acid – flexibility, toughness
  • Some common Resins and Unsaturated Acids:ResinsDiglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol AEpoxy NovolacCycloaliphatic EpoxyUnsaturated acidsAcrylic acidMethacrylic acidCrotonic acidCinnamic acid
  • Fiberglass

    1. 1. Fiberglass a.k.a. Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP)Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)
    2. 2. Source: History Ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians 1880 – Hermann are among the many civilizations Hammesfahr was awarded who produced small amounts of a patent for a fiberglass coarse glass fibers for decoration cloth interwoven with silk 1870 - John Player developed a method for mass-producing glass fibers with a steam jet process. It was used for insulation.
    3. 3. Source: History Carlton Ellis of Du Pont was awarded a 1942 – Owens-Corning were patent for polyester already producing fiberglas and resin. polyester airplane parts Present Dale Kleist, working for Corning 1937 – Ray Greene, working with Glass, accidentally discovered an easy Owens-Corning produced a method to create fiberglass: when a jet sailboat w/ polyester of compressed air hit molten glass. In resin/fiberglass composite 1936, the companies Corning Glass and Owens-Illinois patented the product “Fiberglas”
    4. 4. Present Age Application Tanks PoolWindow
    5. 5. Present Age Application Car door CowAcoustic wall RoofingSubmarine Hull Insulators
    6. 6. Present Age Application• Fiber sheets
    7. 7. Fiberglass• Composite material using resin as matrix and glass fiber as reinforcement
    8. 8. ReinforcementGLASS FIBER
    9. 9. Source: Glass Fiber • Properties – Mechanical Properties • similar to glass but different strength value – Chemical Stability • Susceptible to alkaline solutions and hot water – Thermal Properties • High heat resistance – Electrical Properties • insulator Return to Contents Next: Processing
    10. 10. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Raw Materials Batching Melting Fiberization Coating Drying Packaging Return to Contents Next: Raw Materials
    11. 11. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Raw Materials • Major • Others – Silica – Glass former – Calcined Alumina – Limestone – Borax – Soda Ash – Lowers mt. – Feldspar pt. w/ limestone – Magnesite – Waste glass – a.k.a. – Etc. cullet Return to Contents Next: Batching
    12. 12. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Batching • Batching - exact quantities of raw materials are mixed together before being melted. • Materials are added to lower the working temperature and add additional properties. • Some properties of other components: – Al2O3, CaO, MgO – alkali-resistant – B2O3 – increase Tmelting - Tcrystalline
    13. 13. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Batching • E-glass (Electrical resistance) – Contains Al2O3, CaO, MgO, and B2O3 • S-glass (Strength) – Contains Al2O3, MgO, and B2O3 and significantly more SiO2 • C-glass (Chemical resistant) – Large content of B2O3 • A-glass (Alkali resistant) – No content of B2O3 Return to Contents Next: Melting
    14. 14. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Melting • Common furnaces has three sections: – “Receiver” • The batch is melted and uniformly. Bubbles are also removed • High temperature ( 1400oC or 2552oF) – Refiner • High temperature ( 1370oC or 2500oF) – Forehearth – beneath this is are bushings
    15. 15. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Melting • Three approaches to melting – Indirect melt – a.k.a. marble remelt • Molten glass is sheared and rolled into marbles w/ diameter of 0.62 inch (15-16 mm), then cooled and packaged to a fiberization process. • Useful for outsourcing – Large-scale direct melt • 8000-100000 tons per year – Small-scale direct melt – a.k.a. paramelters • 150 to 200 metric tons per year Return to Contents Next: Fiberization
    16. 16. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Fiberization • Extrusion • Attenuation – Extruded through 200- – Drawing extruded 8000 bushings made of molten glass into Pt-Rh alloy filaments using high- – Bushings are heated speed winder (tangential electronically to speed of ~2miles/~3km maintain T per minute) ( 1204oC/2200oF) and – High-speed winding consequently, glass applies tension viscosity and thickness – Diameter 4 m to 34 m *Varying cooling process change the form of the fiber
    17. 17. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Fiberization Molten glass flowing through bushings Back to Glass Fiber Processing Next: Coating
    18. 18. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Coating • A.k.a. Sizing • 0.5-2% (w/w) • 3 common types: – Lubricants – Protect filaments from abrading and breaking – Binders – binds resin to glass fiber – Coupling agents – increase affinity for specific resins Back to Glass Fiber Processing Next: Drying
    19. 19. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Drying Sized filaments are collected The strand is wound onto a drum Dried in an oven
    20. 20. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Drying • Collection of sized filaments – Strands • produce twine-like strands – Winders • produce balls or “doffs” • Used in attenuation – Creel • produce multi-end products Back to Glass Fiber Processing Next: Packaging
    21. 21. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Packaging • Continuous-filament – Rolled in drums and formed into yarns • Staple-fiber – while cooling, jets of air break filaments into lengths of 8-15 inches
    22. 22. Source: Glass Fiber Processing Packaging • Chopped fiber – Yarns are chopped into short, uniform lengths • Glass wool – Cooling involves a downward jet of (hot) air, making the fibers fall randomly onto a conveyor belt, forming a fleecy mass Back to Glass Fiber Processing Next: Resins
    23. 23. MatrixRESINS
    24. 24. Resins• Three major types of resin: Polyester, Epoxy, and Vinyl, all of which are thermosets. Return to Contents Next: Properties
    25. 25. Source: Resin Properties • Polyester – Permeable to moisture – Stable – For light-weight objects – Cure time ~20-30 min. – Lower cost than epoxy
    26. 26. Source: Resin Properties • Epoxy – Moisture resistant – Superior reliability, properties, and lifespan – Withstands more extreme conditions (acid, heat) – Can bond dissimilar materials – High tensile strength – More flexible – Variable cure time
    27. 27. Source: Resin Properties • Vinyl – Combined properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy – Easy to handle at room T – Better chemical resistance – Greater corrosion resistance – Greater cure rate control – Cheaper than epoxy, but more costly than polyesters Return to Contents Next: Processing
    28. 28. Resin Processing• Essentially polymerization in a large scale Raw Materials Processing Polymerization Return to Contents Purification Next: Raw Materials
    29. 29. Resin Processing Raw MaterialsPolyester Epoxy• Glycols • Alkaline catalyst(amine or – Propylene glycol – low NaOH) cost, balanced properties • Bisphenol A – Bisphenol A/PG – good chemical resistance, high heat • Epichlorohydrin deflection T • Solvent• Acids/anhydrides • Water – Unsaturated acids/anhydrides – Saturated acids/anhydrides Source: Source: ester%20resins.pdf manufacturing-process.html
    30. 30. Source: Resin Processing Raw Materials • Vinyl esters – There are various ways to produce vinyl esters, usually of resins and unsaturated acids • Addition products of epoxide resin and ethylenically unsaturated monocarboxylic acids • Glycidyl methacrylate + multifunctional phenol (e.g. Bisphenol-A) Return to Contents Next: Polymerization
    31. 31. Resin Processing PolymerizationSource: Source: Polyester Epoxy
    32. 32. Source: Resin Processing Polymerization • Vinyl Return to Contents Next: Purification
    33. 33. Resin Processing Purification• Evaporators and phase separators in the processes separate the final resin from unreacted reactants and unwanted brine. Return to Contents Next: Application
    34. 34. Resins Application to Glass FibersSource:;wap2 Polyester Epoxy • Hardening catalyst (methyl • Varying hardening catalyst ethyl ketone peroxide, or type and ratio, depending MEKP) with a very low ratio on type of epoxy (common (few drops per ounce of ratios are 1:1, 3:1, 4:1) resin) • Mixed with some wax - wax rises as resin cures • Open surface must be facing up • Wax is removed afterwards • Exothermic Source:;wap2
    35. 35. Resins Application to Glass Fibers• Vinyl Esters – Ideally catalyzed by triphenylphosphine, but can cure by itself – Requires diluents (e.g. styrene) • Usually composed of 40-50 wt. % styrene Return to Contents Next: Fiberglass
    36. 36. Combining the resin and glass fiberFIBERGLASS
    37. 37. Source:
    38. 38. Fiberglass – the ComboStrength: High Tensile and Compressive strength Strength: ElasticWeakness: Shear Weakness: Low stiffness
    39. 39. Source: Fiberglass • Common types of fiberglass products – Roving • long and narrow bundle
    40. 40. Source: Fiberglass • Common types of fiberglass products – Chopped Strand Mat • Short strands piled randomly  isotropic strength • Least expensive • Versatile • Soaks up the most resin  waterproof
    41. 41. Source: Fiberglass • Common types of fiberglass products – Cloth • cross-hatch pattern  bidirectional strength • Requires least amount of resin • Not waterproof • More expensive than mats • Great strength but low stiffness
    42. 42. Source: Fiberglass • Common types of fiberglass products – Woven Roving • bidirectional interweaving of rovings, thicker than cloth • For large applications • Uses large strands
    43. 43. Source: Fiberglass • Common types of fiberglass products – Pultruted • Pultrusion process: Roving is pulled through a resin to saturate glass. A die shapes the fibers while heat is applied to set the fibers and resin. Finished pieces are cut to desired size. Return to Contents
    44. 44. Source: Fiberglass Processing Molding Plug Mold release agent Gelcoat Lay-up Cure Removal from mold Finish
    45. 45. Source;wap2 Fiberglass Processing Molding • Plug – Object with desired shape – Can be formed with foams, wood, plaster, etc. • Mold – Supports glass fibers during resin curing • Mold release agent – E.g. Polyvinyl alcohol • Gelcoat – Pigmented resin, harder, more durable finish – Followed by a coating of a fiberglass
    46. 46. Source: Fiberglass Processing Molding • Lay-up – Hand lay-up • Hand pressure/vacuum/rollers used to ensure even resin application – Spray lay-up • Resin and reinforcements are sprayed onto the vertical mold – Vacuum bag • Fiber and resin are sucked to conform to the mold using a vacuum
    47. 47. Source: Fiberglass Processing Molding • Cure – Longer curing time = greater shrinkage • Removal from mold • Finish Return to Contents
    48. 48. Fiberglass End
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