Deuteromycota
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Deuteromycota

Deuteromycota

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Deuteromycota Deuteromycota Presentation Transcript

  • Deuteromycota The Imperfect Fungi
    • Deuteromycota means “ second fungi .”
    • Deuteromycota was a formal phylum of kingdom Fungi. But, scientists have not yet observed Deuteromycota’s sexual reproductive cycle, one of the basis of the taxonomy of kingdom Fungi. Now, the term is only used informally to denote the species of fungi that reproduce asexually of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
    Deuteromycota
    • They are characterized by the production of septate mycelium and a sexual life cycle that is either unknown or absent.
    • They reproduce asexually by means of conidia (sing. = conidium). A conidium is an asexual spore that is not produced in a sporangium
    Deuteromycota
  • Deuteromycota Deuteromycota
    • There are four orders in phylum Deuteromycota:
      • Moniliales
      • Sphaeropsidales
      • Melanconiales
      • Mycelia Sterlia
    Deuteromycota
  • Moniliales
    • Conidiophores of Ulocladium
    Deuteromycota
    • In order Moniliales, conidia and conidiophores are produced in mycelium
    Moniliales Conidia of Alternaria tenuis are borne in chains
  • Sphaeropsidales Deuteromycota
    • Here, the conidia and conidiophores produced in pycnidia (sing. = picnidium)
    • A pycnidia is a fruiting body of variable shape and size in which conidia and conidiosphore are borne
    Sphaeropsidales Pycnidium of Chaetomella. Unlike most pycnidium, this one is bowl-shaped with many setae: dark, thick-walled hairs.
  • Melanconiales Deuteromycota
    • Fungi from order Melanconiales have acervuli (sing.=acervulus), a plate-like stroma on which conidia and conidiophores are borne.
    Melanconiales Acervulus of Pestalotia sp.
  • Mycelia Sterlia Deuteromycota
    • Mycelium is sterile, conidia not produced.
    • They have sclerotia (sing.= sclerotium). A sclerotium is a rounded structure composed of mass of hyphae, which is normally sterile. The sclerotia serves as a "resistant" stage which may give rise to mycelium, fruitbodies or stromata.
    Mycelia Sterlia
  • Parasexual cycle Deuteromycota
    • “ Parang sexual ”
    • A process in which plasmogamy, karyogamy, and haploidization takes place, but not in a particular place in the thallus nor at any specific period during its life cycle.
    • It was first discovered by Pontecarvo and Roper (1952) in Aspergillus nidulans .
    Parasexual Cycle
  • Parasexual cycle Deuteromycota
    • Formation of heterokaryotic mycelium
    • Heterokaryon formation refers to the condition by which genetically different nuclei are associated in a common cytoplasm.
    Parasexual Cycle
  • Parasexual cycle Deuteromycota
    • Occasional karyogamy Following initial fusion of hyphal cells, to form a genetically different cell, mitotic division perpetuates the cell and mycelium that is made up of genetically, different nuclei is formed.
    Parasexual Cycle
  • Parasexual cycle Deuteromycota
    • Haploidization
    • This haploidization is NOT meiosis. It is in fact, a series of errors in mitosis. A sequential loss of chromosomes will eventually give rise to a haploid nucleus.
    Parasexual Cycle
  • Trichophyton interdigidale
    • a.k.a. Athlete's Foot
    • They live on the bottom of people's feet thrives because of the warm moist skin caused by wearing socks and shoes all the time in our current society
    • This type of fungi grows faster because of lack of ventilation to the feet.
  • Trichophyton interdigidale
    • It causes Athlete's Foot along with many other organisms including Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum, and the human disease (ugly toenail fungus)‏
    • Can be extremely resistant to many treatments depending on the form of the Athlete's foot
  • Trichophyton interdigidale
    • How It Adapts
    • It can easily infect a human foot
    • It is possible that everyone will, at some point, get Athlete's foot
    • It is learning to resist many treatments and is slowly becoming immune to known treatments.
  • Trichophyton interdigidale
    • Economic/ Ecological Significance
    • It is painful and irritating
    • There is a need to find new and more effective treatment against Athlete's Foot
    • Affect footwear design
    • Affect foot care industry
  • Penicillium roquefortii
    • Penicillium roquefortii is used in the manufacture of blue cheeses e.g. Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, Danish Blue etc.
    • During the fermentation process, fungus spores are injected into the curd. Growth of the fungus gives a pleasant tang to the final product. The blue in the blue-cheese is caused by the blue pigment in the spores (conidia) of the fungus. So, when you eat blue cheese you are consuming millions of spores. Yumm…
  • Penicillium roquefortii
    • Penicillium roquefortii is a common fungus that can be isolated from many sources--mostly organic or humus sources. This fungus is a saprobic organism belonging to the fungi imperfecti classification.
  • Penicillium roquefortii
    • Economic/Ecological Significance
    • Industrial uses: flavorings, proteases, antibacterial agents, polysaccharides, and, most well known, blue cheeses.
    • In general, P. roquefortii is safe to use as flavorings and for cheese. This fungi does, however, produce many mycotoxins. These mycotoxins are strong, but not stable. The FDA says that blue cheese is safe for human consumption, and does not really pose a threat to humans, unless the person has an allergy to the mycotoxins.
  • Monilinia fructigena
    • Monilinia establishes infections in apple orchards, typically through wounds caused by insects or man.
    • Fruit that has fallen and is left on the ground is the source of infection for the next season. It shrinks and mummifies over winter but can produce spores the following season.
    Left: infected with Monilinia fructigena Right: perfectly healthy apple
  • Monilinia fructigena
    • Characteristics
    • The fungi causes the apple and fruits to rot when it invades the apple tissues and kills them by releasing enzymes.
    • The principal enzymes involved in this are pectic enzymes - those that break down the gel-like pectic compounds that cement the apple cells (or other plant cells) together.
    • There are several forms of these enzymes, but the major one is polygalacturonase (PG), which splits the long pectin chains into smaller units of galacturonic acid.
  • Monilinia fructigena
    • Maturing plant tissues generate ethylene, and ethylene is a ripening agent. [In fact, bananas are shipped while green, to preserve them in good condition, and then are treated with ethylene to induce ripening before they are sold.]
    • A single rotten fruit can lead to a chain reaction.
    • The damage caused by fruit-rotting fungi in even a single fruit in a package leads to the generation of ethylene and thus to the premature ripening of the other fruit.
    • Discovery in the control of this fungi could help reduce cost in the export or import of apple and other fruits
  • Many Thanks to…
    • http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Deuteromycota/Deuteromycota.htm
    • http://science.jrank.org/pages/2895/Fungi-Deuteromycota-imperfect-fungi.html
    • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
    • dit.dru.ac.th
    • www.lip-sas.fr
    • Nematophagous Fungi: Guide by Philip Jacobs, BRIC-Version (http://www.biological-research.com/philip-jacobs%20BRIC/ar-dact.htm)
    • http://www.mycolog.com/CHAP4a.htm
  • And Thanks to…
    • http://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/research/groups/jdeacon/microbes/applerot.htm
    • http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/Mycology/UsesOf_Fungi/industrialProduction/foodProcessing.shtml
    • http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/~mushroom/English/Species/penicilliumroquefortii.html
    • http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/pp318/profiles/deuteromycetes/deutero.htm
    • http://www.cababstractsplus.org/google/abstract.asp?AcNo=20056401109
    • http://web.umr.edu/~microbio/BIO221_1998/P_roquefortii.html
    • http://www.cs.cuc.edu/~tfutcher/Deuteromycota.html
    • Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for February 1998, http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/feb98.html
    • http://lynx6663.tripod.com/deuteromycota.html
  • Presented by
    • Group 10
    • Ernest Nathan L. Nogales
    • Jess Ramirez
    • Lennart Panton
    • Group 5
    • Athena Aherrera
    • Mai Dealino
    • Rocelle Mendoza
  •