Theme 1 By: Maria Vassilakis History 141 Professor Arguello September 28, 2011
Background Reading: The Americas in the 19th Century In the late 18th and 19th centuries, almost all of the land got their independence from European colonial powers. American’s had to struggle in order to build “states and societies.” At that point there was a lot of migration, a lot of economic growth, also civil war and violence. As America gained their independence from Britain, the U.S.’s government expanded westward. Latin America was very “fragmented” in which individual states experienced problems in their society.
19th century continued… Westward expansion brought setters in the Native Indian land and they fought for their land, which eventually pushed them into reservations. It also created intension in Mexico and Texas. The push and the American Civil War pushed Canada “toward political autonomy.” Latin American leaders had little knowledge on how to run a government and looked to the U.S., as an example. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 provided “universal suffrage, state-supported education, minimum wages and maximum hours.”
The Little Ice Age In early September, during the 14-19th century targeted man kind. In 1653, priests would set out to kill “the monster,” that engulfed their villages. They would sprinkle holy water in hopes that God would make it go away. There were huge famines that lead to the French Revolution and continued with 1,300 devastating effects. Between 1371-1791, 101 famines alone were devastated. Several proposals have been made that might have caused the ice age, such as, “low solar radiation, volcanic activity, or changes in the ocean circulation.” The Black Death also caused decreased agricultural activity, Art became popular in depicting the devastating harsh winter that took place.
Frontiers of the Americas “In 1801, America is looking bleak.” Foreign powers came forth from the Spanish, the French, and even the British empire. In the 19th century, America expanded westward to 17 states and doubled to half the size, which is known as the Louisiana Purchase. It cost 15 million dollars. The Louisiana Purchase was one of Thomas Jefferson’s greatest achievements. July 14th, 1789, began the American Revolution in hopes to defeat the British.
Frontier continued… The Haitian Revolution took place between 1791-1804. It eliminated slavery and gave birth to the Haitian Republic. Haiti was under French colonial rule. “The African population on the island began to hear of the agitation for independence by the rich European planters.” One of the most successful black commanders was, Toussaint L’Ouverture, who was a former slave himself. The last battle of the Haitian Revolution took place in 1803. January 1, 1804, Haiti declared it’s independence and became a free republic. “The Haitian Revolution was influential in slave rebellions in the United States and British colonies.”
Crossroads of Freedom Slavery had been the root of all evil and the cause of the civil war. The southern states had separated from the rest of the U.S., and created a Union which wouldn’t succeed. September 17, 1862, marks the most bloodiest war ever taken place in the Maryland village of Sharpsburg. After the battle there was still strife which led to the battle of Gettysburg. George B. McClellan was a well known commander and was a young man when he led the army,
Crossroads continued… The confederate southern states were Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina to name a several. Thomas J. Jackson was the most “renowned commander in the South and the most feared in the North.” And Robert E. Lee was his successor. “Americans were the world’s preeminent newspaper-reading people, with by far the largest per capita circulation of any country.” The Seven Day Battle took place on June 25 to July 1, 1862. Slave labor was so high in demand that the Confederate armies would draft the black slaves first to the white people.
Crossroads continued… Disease became widespread on the Virginia Peninsula, and wiped out a lot of the men from malaria, typhoid, and dysentery. The First Battle of Bull Run took place on July 21, 1861, which didn’t take so well. The Second Battle of the Bull Run was worse than the first. Abraham Lincoln did not like McClellan and it was well documented by his private secretary, calling McClellan “a little crazy.” The Army of Northern Virginia looked unkempt and looked poor rather than real soldiers.
Crossroads continued… The Battle of Antietam took place on September 17, 1862, and was the first major battle of the American civil war. The Army of Northern Virginia was destroyed at Antietam. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued during the civil war and declared to free the slaves, which freed 50,000 of them. The democrats thought the Proclamation was unconstitutional. “No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam.”