Learning to Learn


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What is the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful learner? Conventional wisdom often suggests the difference simply comes down to which students are “smarter” than others. Yet much educational research shows that the difference has more to do with the way students conceive of learning and with the processes and strategies students use to learn. Educational psychologists refer to the process of effective, strategic learning as self-regulated learning. This workshop will provide a basic overview of self-regulated learning and will present strategies to help student-athletes become self-regulated learners both in school and in their sports.

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  • Our goal, then, is to learn about SRL. Now, let’s make a plan to accomplish that goal. How are you, as individuals, going to learn throughout this presentation? Okay, you have some strategies. We’ll have come back to those later.
  • Active and systematic are the key words here. SRL linked to achievement outcomes despite individual differences .
  • Before you decided to attend this conference, you observed yourselves and realized you needed to learn more about student-athlete development. You then set a goal to attend the conference and read more about student-athlete development. As you’ve been reading and attending workshops, you’ve probably also been monitoring what you’re learning. And on the last day, I know you’re all going to be getting together and reflecting and figuring out how you can apply what you’ve learned. You have been actively and systematically engaging in a process of planning, controlling, and reflecting on your experiences in order to bring about a change in your knowledge and skills related to student-athlete development. Congratulations, you are all self-regulated learners.Phases are not necessarily hierarchically, or linearly structured; they are typically dynamic, reciprocal, and cyclical.
  • How often do students claim to know the material for an exam but then perform poorly? “I got this, I got this,” they often say. But they haven’t tested themselves.Use journals to record and observe behaviors and habits (e.g., finances, diet, and time time management).
  • Consider the difference between a multiple-choice exam and essay exam. Or consider the difference between the 100-meter dash and a marathon.SMART: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic TimelyWhat is an example of a SMART goal?E.g., What do you already know about learning?
  • Okay, we established a goal to learn more about SRL, and you all chose some strategies to use during this presentation. Are you learning? Are the strategies working? Do you need to change any strategies? Asking those questions is a major part of strategic implementation and monitoring.Have you ever made a plan but didn’t stick to it? Have you ever seen students do that?
  • Causal attributions lead to either a fixed or a growth mindset.Students need to make adaptive responses to success as well as failures. Example: student who recently earned A on paper.
  • Now that you’ve graded your quiz, which strategies will you keep and which will you change for the next presentation you attend?
  • Learning to Learn

    2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Explain the processes of self-regulated learning and how self-regulated learning applies to both school and sport. • List several strategies self-regulated learners use to successfully learn. • Describe several tools that can be used to teach self-regulated learning to students. • Apply insights from the research on self-regulated learning to common challenges with struggling student-athletes. • Develop new strategies to help student-athletes develop as self-regulated learners.
    3. 3. WHAT IS LEARNING? Learning is ―a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience and increases the potential for improved performance and future learning.‖ –from Ambrose et al. in How Learning Works
    4. 4. WHAT IS SELF-REGULATED LEARNING? • ―Learning is not something that happens to students, it is something that happens by students‖ –Barry Zimmerman • SRL is an active, systematic process of planning, controlling, and reflecting on one’s experiences to facilitate desired change
    5. 5. SELF-REGULATED LEARNING • Essentially, SRL is what we do before, during, and after learning. • Four Phases • Self-observation and Evaluation (Before) • Goal setting and Strategic Planning (Before) • Strategic Implementation and Monitoring (During) • Self-reflection (After) • The four phases create an ongoing feedback loop whereby self-reflection leads back to selfobservation, and the process starts all over again for the next learning experience.
    6. 6. SELF-OBSERVATION AND EVALUATION • Struggling students often don’t know what they don’t know—they have ―the illusion of knowing‖. • Observation and Self-testing • Students cannot change if they don’t recognize the need for change. They can’t regulate their behavior if they are unaware of it.
    7. 7. GOAL-SETTING AND STRATEGIC PLANNING • Task Analysis: a student must understand the distinctive features of each learning task in order to set goals and plan appropriately • SMART Goals • Activating Prior Knowledge
    8. 8. STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING • Have I implemented my plan? Am I reaching my goals? Are my strategies working? Do I need to make adjustments? • Self-recording: look for patterns • Self-testing • Metacognition
    9. 9. SELF-REFLECTION • Self-evaluation: compare performance to stated (SMART) goals • Adaptive/Defensive Responses: conclusions about how one will approach future experiences • adaptive response: maintains strategies that worked and makes adjustments to strategies that did not work • defensive response: feels helpless and avoids future tasks • Causal Attribution: link outcomes to effort and strategy use rather than innate ability/intelligence or luck
    10. 10. QUIZ • • • • What is self-regulated learning? What are the four phases of self-regulated learning? Name one aspect of each of the four phases. Who is the best Friday after-lunch speaker you’ve ever seen today?
    11. 11. PROMOTING SRL How can you promote SRL among your student-athletes? Identify some ways to promote SRL for both academics and athletics.
    12. 12. CONCLUSION ―Learning is not something that happens to students, it is something that happens by students‖ –Barry Zimmerman • SRL is an active, systematic process of planning, controlling, and reflecting on one’s experiences to facilitate desired change • Four Phases of SRL • Self-observation and Evaluation • Goal-setting and Strategic Planning • Strategic Implementation and Monitoring • Self-reflection •
    13. 13. REFERENCES • Cleary, T.M., Platten, P., & Nelson, A. (2008). Effectiveness of the self-regulation empowerment program with urban high school students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20, 70 – 107. • Dembo, M.H., & Seli, H. (2013). Motivation and learning strategies for college success: A focus on self-regulated learning (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.