Site Verification - Protocols & Tools for Complex Metering Installations

155 views
135 views

Published on

Over much of the 20th century, utilities, regulators and customers each relied upon lab and field meter testing efforts which were primarily focused upon the accuracy of the watt-hour meter and demand register.

This focus is now changing with overwhelming deployment of electronic meters and significant deployment of AMR and AMI meters throughout the installed base in North America.

The focus has now shifted to the metering installation as a whole and not the accuracy of the meter.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
155
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Site Verification - Protocols & Tools for Complex Metering Installations

  1. 1. Site Verification – Protocols & Tools for Complex Metering Installations November 6, 2013 Notes from the Field Prepared by Tom Lawton,TESCO 10/02/2012 for the Southeastern Electricity Metering Association (SEMA) Slide 1
  2. 2. Premise • Over much of the 20th century, utilities, regulators and customers each relied upon lab and field meter testing efforts which were primarily focused upon the accuracy of the watt-hour meter and demand register. • This focus is now changing with overwhelming deployment of electronic meters and significant deployment of AMR and AMI meters throughout the installed base in North America. • The focus has now shifted to the metering installation as a whole and not the accuracy of the meter.
  3. 3. Field Testing Common Features and Common Sources of Concern Electro Mechanical meters were subject to registration errors caused by mechanical issues with moving parts resulting in either the loss of revenue to the utility or over billing for the customer. Some of the more common problems were: • • • • Friction wear Gear mesh misalignment Retarding magnet failure Timing motors
  4. 4. Electronic Meters – new failure modes require new testing and inspection methods Electronic meters fail as do electro mechanical meters but differently • Their overall life expectancy is not nearly the same • Failure modes include drift (unexpected) • Failure modes include catastrophic (expected) • Failure modes include non-catastrophic but significant measurement error modes • Failure modes can include non-measurement issues which render the meter ineffective or inaccurate for billing purposes.
  5. 5. Traditional Non-Meter Related problems Any metering site has always had a number of issues that could also cause metering inaccuracies, billing inaccuracies, safety concerns or some combination of all three. Residential metering sites; • Traditionally utilities trained their meter readers to look for any abnormal conditions that might reflect a failing or failed meter, cut seals, tampering, or a dangerous condition. Some meter readers were better than others, but most were excellent lines of defense against bad metering and unsafe conditions. • Second line of traditional defense were trouble calls to the residence. • In an AMI environment we are going to have to rely on trouble calls, information gleaned from the data gathered (or not gathered) and the Random Sample program used by the utility – regardless of whether the testing is being done in the shop or the field.
  6. 6. Traditional Non-Meter Related problems (cont) Issues at Transformer Rated sites; • The monthly meter read and if there was a demand, the demand reset allowed the utility to see these sites every month. • The resources used for this are traditionally better trained and more likely to note an issue. • Utilities also tended to have an annual or periodic inspection program already in place. • As personnel cut backs became rampant in the industry many of these programs were cut back (less frequent) or eliminated, or just chronically behind.
  7. 7. Best Practices • Residential vs Commercial • Self-Contained vs Transformer Rated • Follow the money and be as proactive as possible
  8. 8. Data Base, Protocols, and Field Tool for Performing these checks • • • • • • • • • Data Base tool must be able to record all data from the field. This tool must be easy to use with a variety of platforms This tool must be updateable by meter operations Site verification protocols should be a living set of documents Different protocols should be developed for different types of meters and different types of metering sites. All data about the site should be available for the operator in the field All new data should be recorded without over writing pre-existing data (as expected, as found, as left) Protocols should also be check lists. Pull down menus are preferred Data can come back to system of record either live or in batch mode
  9. 9. Potential Site Check List • Verify the meter number • Record the GPS location of the site or verify the location • Take a picture of the site • Verify Access information and add any new information as required • Verify protocol to be used for this site
  10. 10. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Perform a visual safety inspection of the site. – utility equipment – Customer equipment
  11. 11. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Things to look for include – intact down ground on pole – properly attached enclosure – unwanted voltage on enclosure – proper trimming and site tidiness (absence of discarded seals, etc.)
  12. 12. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Visually inspect for energy diversions (intentional and not). This includes broken or missing wires, jumpers, open test switch, unconnected wires and foreign objects on meters or other metering equipment. Broken or missing wires can seriously cause the under measurement of energy. A simple broken wire on a CT or VT can cause the loss of 1/3 to 1/2 of the registration on either 3 element or 2 element metering, respectively.
  13. 13. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Perform and record the test result • Visually check lightning arrestors and transformers for damage or leaks. • Check for proper grounding and bonding of metering equipment. Poor grounding and bonding practices may result in inaccurate measurements that go undetected for long periods of time. Implementing a single point ground policy and practice can reduce or eliminate this type of issue.
  14. 14. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Verify service voltage. Stuck regulator or seasonal capacitor can impact service voltage. • Verify condition of metering control wire. This includes looking for cracks in insulation, broken wires, loose connections, etc. • Compare the test switch wiring with the wiring at the CTs and VTs. Verify CTs and VTs not cross wired. Be sure CTs are grounded in one location (test switch) only. • Check for bad test switch by examining voltage at the top and bottom of the switch. Also verify amps using amp probe on both sides of the test switch. Verify neutral connection to cabinet (voltage). • Check rotation by closing in one phase at a time at the test switch and observing the phase meter for forward rotation. If forward rotation is not observed measurements may be significantly impacted as the phases are most likely cancelling each other out. • Test meter for accuracy. Verify demand if applicable with observed load. If meter is performing compensation (line and/or transformer losses) the compensation should be verified either through direct testing at the is generally a very small percentage of • Loss compensation site or by examining recorded pulse data. the overall measurement and would not be caught under utilities normal high/low checks. However, the small percentages when applied to large loads or generation can really add up over time. Billing adjustments can easily be in the $million range if not caught early.
  15. 15. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Verify metering vectors. Traditionally this has been done using instruments such as a circuit analyzer. Many solid state meters today can provide vector diagrams along with volt/amp/pf and values using meter manufacturer software or meter displays. Many of these desired values are programmed into the meters Alternate/Utility display. Examining these values can provide much information about the metering integrity. It may also assist in determining if unbalanced loads are present and if CTs are sized properly. The vendor software generally has the ability to capture both diagnostic and vector information electronically. These electronic records should be kept in the meter shop for future comparisons. • If metering is providing pulses/EOI pulse to customers, SCADA systems or other meters for totalization they also should be verified vs. the known load on the meter. • Verify meter information including meter multiplier (rework it), serial number, dials/decimals, Mp, Ke, Primary Kh, Kr and Rate. Errors in this type of information can also cause a adverse impact on measured/reported values. • Verify CT shunts are all opened.
  16. 16. Potential Site Check List (cont) • Burden test CTs and voltage check PTs. • Ratio Test the CT’s and PT’s • Record results. Review previous results and perform a review all the way back through the billing.
  17. 17. Shop Testing • Accuracy Testing • Meter Communications Performance • Software & Firmware Verification • Setting Verification • Functional Testing • Disconnect/Reconnect Functionality and as left setting
  18. 18. Testing Frequency & Cost • • • • • • • Tools (hardware and software) Personnel Frequency Test Report Analyze Learn, Share, Adapt
  19. 19. Questions and Discussion Tom Lawton TESCO – The Eastern Specialty Company Bristol, PA 215-688-0298 (cell) 1-800-762-8211 This presentation can also be found under Meter Conferences and Schools on the TESCO web site: www.tesco-advent.com

×