CANDY MAKING IS AN EXACT SCIENCE AND RECIPES INCLUDETHE USE OF CRYSTALLINE (SUCROSE) AND OTHER SUGARS ASITS MAIN INGREDIENT. IN ALL CASES, EACH TYPE OF SUGAR-BASED CANDY PRETTY MUCH STARTS OUT THE SAME.CRYSTALLINE SUGAR AND SOMETIMES CORN SYRUP AREDISSOLVED IN A LIQUID, USUALLY WATER TO MAKE A SUGARSOLUTION, WHICH IS THEN HEATED AND BOILED INTO A LIQUID,SUGAR SYRUP. THIS IS DONE TO A CERTAIN TEMPERATURE,CONCENTRATION (DENSITY) AND COLOR DEPENDING ON THERECIPE. FLAVORING, CREAM, CHOCOLATE, NUTS OR OTHERINGREDIENTS CAN BE ADDED, EITHER BEFORE, DURING ORAFTER COOKING, SOME SERVING AS WHAT IT CALLEDINTERFERING AGENTS, SUCH AS LEMON JUICE, BUTTER, CREAM,ETC. PLUS, THE SOLUTION MAY BE STIRRED AT PRE-DETERMINED TIMES, COOLED AND SHAPED IN A CERTAIN WAY,RESULTING IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CANDY AND TEXTURES.
tir over heat until Imbibing cake layers. Simple sugar syrup dissolved212 degrees F Water Boils at 212 degrees F at sea level. Thread Stage Thread: At this relatively low temperature, there is still a lot of water left in the syrup. 215 F–235 F Syrup, fruit liqueur /108 C–118 Csugar concentration: 80% and some icings The liquid sugar may be pulled into brittle threads between the fingers. Or, take a small amount of the syrup onto a spoon, and drop it from about 2-inches above the pot. Let it drip into the pan. If it spins a long thread, like a spider web, its done. Jelly, candy, fruit liqueur making and Pearl: 220 - 222 degrees F - The thread formed by some icings pulling the liquid sugar may be stretched. When a cool metal spoon is dipped into the syrup and then raised, the syrup runs off in drops which merge to form a sheet. Delicate sugar candy and syrup Blow or Soufflé: 230 - 235 degrees F - Boiling sugar creates small bubbles resembling snowflakes. The syrup spins a 2- inch thread when dropped from a spoon
Fudge, Fondant, pralines, Soft-Ball Stage pâte â bombe or 235 F–240 F /118 C–120 C Italian meringue, Soft ball: A small amount of syrup dropped into chilledsugar concentration: 85% peppermint creams and classic water forms a soft, flexible ball, but flattens like a pancake after a few buttercreams moments in your hand. Firm-Ball Stage 245 F–250 F /123 C–125 C Caramel candiessugar concentration: 87% Firm ball: Forms a firm ball that will not flatten when removed from water, but remains malleable and will flatten when squeezed. Hard-Ball Stage Hard ball: At this stage, the syrup will form thick, "ropy" threads as it drips from the 250 F–265 F Nougat, marshmallows, gummies, spoon. The sugar concentration is rather high now, which means there’s less and less moisture in the sugar syrup. /125 C–133 C divinity, and rock candysugar concentration: 92% Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a hard ball which holds its shape on removal. The ball will be hard, but you can still change its shape by squashing it. Soft-Crack Stage 270 F–290 F Soft Crack: As the syrup reached soft-crack stage, the bubbles on top will /135 C–145 C Taffysugar concentration: 95% Syrup dropped become smaller, thicker, and closer together. At this stage, the moisture content is low. into ice water separates into hard but pliable threads. They will bend slightly before breaking.
Hard-Crack Stage 300 F–310 F Hard Crack: The hard-crack stage is the highest /150 C–155 C Butterscotch, brittlessugar concentration: temperature you are likely to see specified in a candy recipe. At these temperatures, there is 99% Syrup dropped into ice water almost no water left in the syrup. separates into hard, brittle threads that break when bent.Hard-Crack Stage 320 F–335 F Hard candies, toffee /160 C–168 C
CARAMELIZING If you heat a sugar syrup to temperatures higher than any of the candy stages, you will be on your way to creating SUGAR: caramelized sugar (the brown liquid stage)—a rich addition to many desserts. 330 - 360 FAbove 330 F, the From flan to caramel Caramel: Syrup goes from clear to brown as its temperature rises. It sugar syrup is cages, etc. no longer boils, but begins to break down and caramelize. more than 99% sucrose. Light caramel for Caramel - Light Brown: The liquefied sugar turns brown. Now the liquefied 340 F syrups, color and sugar turns brown in color due to carmelization. The sugar is beginning to break down and form many complex compounds that contribute to a richer flavor. /170 C flavor Caramelized sugar is used for dessert decorations and can also be used to give a candy coating to nuts. 355 - 360 F Spun sugar, sugar Caramel - Medium Brown: The liquefied sugar darkens. /178–180 C cages 375 - 380 F Coloring agent for Caramel - Dark Brown: The liquefied sugar darkens further. /188–190 C sauces. 410 F None Black Jack: The liquefied sugar turns black and then decomposes. /205 C
Always make candy on a cool, dry day.Because candy is made from sugar, and it pulls inmoisture from the air, rain and humidity, thecooking time can increase substantially. It alsomay never set up at all -- the candy will absorbwater from the air and turn into syrup. (Caramelsyrup can be made, however).
THE FACT THAT SUGAR SOLIDIFIES INTOCRYSTALS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT IN CANDYMAKING. THERE ARE BASICALLY TWOCATEGORIES OF CANDIES - CRYSTALLINE(CANDIES WHICH CONTAIN CRYSTALS IN THEIRFINISHED FORM, SUCH AS FUDGE ANDFONDANT), AND NONCRYSTALLINE (CANDIESWHICH DO NOT CONTAIN CRYSTALS, SUCH ASLOLLIPOPS, TAFFY, AND CARAMELS). RECIPEINGREDIENTS AND PROCEDURES FORNONCRYSTALLINE CANDIES ARE SPECIFICALLYDESIGNED TO PREVENT THE FORMATION OFSUGAR CRYSTALS, BECAUSE THEY GIVE THERESULTING CANDY A GRAINY TEXTURE.