MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Growth Needs Deficiency Needs
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Deficiency Needs have to be fulfilled first before Growth Needs can be achieved.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS The most basic needs found at the bottom of the pyramid e.g. food, water, sleep and warmth. All other needs are secondary until these Physiological needsare met. After the most basic needs are met, people can move on the the next tier of needs, which is Safety and Security. These are important for survival but not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of these can be having steady employment, safe neighbourhood etc. Social needs come in next. Examples are belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered such needs to be less basic than the Physiological and Security needs. Some examples can be friendships, romantic love as well as involvement in social/community/religious activities. Esteem needs increase in importance after the above 3 have been met. Examples are needs for things that reflect self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Self-Actualizing Needs are at the highest level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Such people who have attained it are self-aware, concerned with personal betterment of values and less concerned about the opinions of others.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Self-Actualization: “What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.” (Maslow, 1934)
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS When Self-Actualization has been achieved, Intrinsic Motivation occurs as a result.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY Internal/External: Succeed/Fail due to factors that are due to oneself (Internal) or due to factors from the surrounding (External)
ATTRIBUTION THEORY Stable/Unstable: A Stable cause means the same outcome will happen with the same behaviour. Unstable indicates that the outcome will be different.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY Controllable/Uncontrollable: Internal/External factors may be both Controllable or Uncontrollable.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY Cont’d: Controllable Internal factors for Andy may involve him trying harder. inversely, Uncontrollable Internal factors may be that he is a naturally slow learner.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY Cont’d: Controllable External factors might be the reduction of possible distractions. e.g the television inversely, Uncontrollable External factorsmay be the biasedness of Ms. Wong against him.
Cherry, K. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm Florida International University. (2007). Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation and Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://www2.fiu.edu/~cryan/motivation/intrinsic.htm Purdue University Calumet. (2003). Attribution Theory. Retrieved from http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy5/edpsy5_attribution.htm
Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach (Asian Edition). Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.