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AED106 Motivational Theories

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  • 1. Motivational theories
    How do they apply in our Scenario?
  • 2. “Motivationis the force that energizes and directs a behaviour towards a goal”
    (Tan, 2011; Baron, 1992; Schunk, 1990; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008)
    What is motivation?
  • 3.
    • Extrinsic/Intrinsic Motivation
    • 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • 5. Attribution Theory
    3 MOTIVATION LEARNING THEORIES
  • 6. Internal desire to perform a task well as it provides pleasure to do so, or it may be the morally right thing to do.
    NOT due to any reward from performing the task.
    INTRINSIC
    MOTIVATION
  • 7. EXTRINSIC
    MOTIVATION
    Perform a task due to external factors. e.g. monetary reward, good grades
  • 8. Next:
    MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  • 9. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    Growth Needs
    Deficiency
    Needs
  • 10. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    Deficiency Needs have to be fulfilled first before Growth Needs can be achieved.
  • 11. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    The most basic needs found at the bottom of the pyramid e.g. food, water, sleep and warmth. All other needs are secondary until these Physiological needsare met.
    After the most basic needs are met, people can move on the the next tier of needs, which is Safety and Security. These are important for survival but not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of these can be having steady employment, safe neighbourhood etc.
    Social needs come in next. Examples are belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered such needs to be less basic than the Physiological and Security needs. Some examples can be friendships, romantic love as well as involvement in social/community/religious activities.
    Esteem needs increase in importance after the above 3 have been met. Examples are needs for things that reflect self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment.
  • 12. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    Self-Actualizing Needs are at the highest level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Such people who have attained it are self-aware, concerned with personal betterment of values and less concerned about the opinions of others.
  • 13. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    Self-Actualization:
    “What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.”
    (Maslow, 1934)
  • 14. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    When Self-Actualization has been achieved, Intrinsic Motivation occurs as a result.
  • 15. Next:
    THE ATTRIBUTON THEORY
  • 16. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Attribution:
    To explain something by indicating a cause.
  • 17. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    3 Characteristics of the causes of Success/Failure:
    • Internal/External
    • 18. Stable/Unstable
    • 19. Controllable/Uncontrollable
  • ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Internal/External:
    Succeed/Fail due to factors that are due to oneself (Internal) or due to factors from the surrounding (External)
  • 20. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Stable/Unstable:
    A Stable cause means the same outcome will happen with the same behaviour. Unstable indicates that the outcome will be different.
  • 21. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Controllable/Uncontrollable:
    Internal/External factors may be both Controllable or Uncontrollable.
  • 22. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Cont’d:
    Controllable Internal factors for Andy may involve him trying harder.
    inversely,
    Uncontrollable Internal factors may be that he is a naturally slow learner.
  • 23. ATTRIBUTION THEORY
    Cont’d:
    Controllable External factors might be the reduction of possible distractions. e.g the television
    inversely,
    Uncontrollable External factorsmay be the biasedness of Ms. Wong against him.
  • 24. REFERENCES
    Electronic Articles
     
    Cherry, K. (2011). Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
    Florida International University. (2007). Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation and Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://www2.fiu.edu/~cryan/motivation/intrinsic.htm
    Purdue University Calumet. (2003). Attribution Theory. Retrieved from http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy5/edpsy5_attribution.htm
     
    Books
     
    Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach (Asian Edition). Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.