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Chapter 10 & 11

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Graphic design and illustration
  • 2. • Graphic design – Visual presentation of information – the goal is communication of a specific message – Usually trying to sell something or give directions • Sometimes called commercial art – At SIU they call the degree a communications design
  • 3. Examples of things that are designed before production • Books • Book jackets • Newspapers • Magazines • Advertisements • Packaging • Websites • CD covers • Road signs • Logos • Television & film credits
  • 4. How old is graphic design art? • Since the beginning of civilization • Written languages • Symbols • Today’s graphic design is rooted in – Invention of the printing press, 15th century • Reproduction and distribution –Industrial Revolution, 18th-19th centuries Increased commercial applications – Prior, most products were local – After, mass manufacturing
  • 5. symbols • Most basic level of communication • Letters are symbols Ω Ж Φ Ш М • Even arrows had to be developed → Δ
  • 6. yin yang – dynamic balance of opposites, explains existence female/male being/nonbeing light/dark action/inaction opposites are mutually interdependent both are necessary to make the whole
  • 7. Symbols have no meaning in themselves, they are given meaning by society. The swastika dates back to Neolithic Europe, up to 5,700 yrs ago. Svastika = Sanskrit for good luck. India
  • 8. US Dept of Transportation, 1974 developed to communicate to international travelers by Cook and Shanosky Associates
  • 9. logos
  • 10. typography • The arrangement and appearance of letters • Calligraphy • Font, typeface • People began to pay special attention to this with the invention of movable type, 1450 • Sometimes designers will create their own lettering • Sometimes designers use a combination of typefaces
  • 11. Joan Dobkin, leaflet for Amnesty International, 1991 Textbook, pg 243
  • 12. layout • Blueprint for how an extended work such as a book or magazine should look – The way a page or a pair of pages are balanced • Using smaller and larger shapes • Using darker and lighter colors • Generally asymmetrical • Looking for a visual appeal
  • 13. posters/ads • Color lithography (19th century) brought about eye-catching posters – Color wasn’t practical in magazines or newspapers • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Flat simplified forms influenced by Japanese prints – Immediately collector’s items
  • 14. Toulouse-Lautrec
  • 15. Toulouse-Lautrec
  • 16. Constructivism – a graphic design art movement after the Russian Revolution of 1917 They had high hopes to create a new society, wanted to make art for the masses, not the elite. They used bold compositions. During the 1930s, the Soviet gov’t abolished independent artist groups, the gov’t demanded all art to be clear, easy to understand & realistic. Poster for the 1930 film "Earth" by the Stenberg brothers
  • 17. Milton Glaser, 1996
  • 18. illustration • An image created to accompany words – Books - Poems – Magazines - Newspapers • Illustration is a different kind of environment for artists – Tight deadlines – The work is usually thrown away • Illustrators usually find ways to work quickly but still create striking images
  • 19. Norman Rockwell did about 6 covers a year for The Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs. He did 322 covers for TSEP
  • 20. Rockwell’s last cover for the Post 1960, 1963
  • 21. Norman Rockwell, lithograph, 1942 Part of The Four Freedoms series.
  • 22. Norman Rockwell He also worked for the Boy Scouts, and he illustrated over 40 books. He produced over 4000 original works.
  • 23. Alan Lee
  • 24. John Howe
  • 25. Ted Nasmith
  • 26. End of chapter 10 • Except digital realms…….
  • 27. Chapter 11 Sculpture and Installation
  • 28. Sculpture Maman, Louise Bourgeois, 1999, Bronze, steel and marble, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • 29. Sculpture • Sculpture is 3D, the third dimension is depth • One of the most ancient art forms – Still very exciting today • New materials – Metal, wood, stone – fiberglass, fabric, actual light, flowers • Installation – incorporates the entire exhibit space
  • 30. 4 basic methods for making sculpture • Modeling  Additive process • Assembling  Additive process • Carving  Subtractive process • Casting  Liquid is poured into a mold to harden
  • 31. Modeling • The most direct sculpture method • Most common material is clay • The pliable material is shaped and formed with hands and tools – Pinching, smoothing – Gouging, scratching, making textures • More material can be added • While kept wet, clay can be worked and reworked indefinitely
  • 32. Ife head, terracotta, Africa, probably 12-14th centuries
  • 33. Olmec baby-face figurine, hollow, whiteware ceramics Mesoamerica, 1400-400BCE
  • 34. Venus of Dolní Věstonice, clay, before 25,000 BCE
  • 35. Casting • Very indirect method of forming sculpture – Sometimes an artist never touches the finished work • Bronze is the most common association with casting – the metal can be superheated until it flows easily to be poured into a mold – It hardens to extreme durability
  • 36. Somaskanda (Shiva and his wife Uma) 12th century, Chola dynasty, Bronze
  • 37. Ife, bronze casting from Yoruba, 13th century
  • 38. lost-wax casting • 5000 year history • Simple and ingenious • Textbook, pg 254 • http://www.andresteadsculpture.com/casting.php • Sometimes sculptures are cast in pieces and then assembled, welded together over an armature • Usually the mold is reusable & multiples are made • The sculptures are not solid • Other materials besides metal can be used for finished cast artworks: fiberglass, resin,
  • 39. Vaquero, Luis Jimenez, Modeled 1980, cast 1990. Height 16’7” Acrylic, urethane, fiberglass, steel armature.
  • 40. The Thinker, Rodin, 1879-89
  • 41. The Burghers of Calais, Rodin, 1884
  • 42. carving • More aggressive than modeling, more direct than casting • Sculptor begins with a block of material – Wood, stone, plaster • Jade is too hard to be carved, can only be shaped through abrasion • Basalt – a volcanic stone used by the Olmec – The grain must be considered when carving
  • 43. Dagger with horse head pommel. India, Mughal dynasty, 17th century. Blade: Damascus steel inlaid with gold; hilt: jade with carved decoration, inlaid with gold and semi-precious stones.
  • 44. Colossal head of La Venta, Mexico, Olmec, 700 BCE
  • 45. Olowe of Ise, Bowl with figures, early 20th century, wood, pigment, height 25”
  • 46. Olowe of Ise
  • 47. “The Dying Gaul” marble, 3rd cen BCE, a roman copy of Hellenistic bronze
  • 48. Michelangelo’s Pieta
  • 49. assembling • Assemblage - Individual parts can be placed on or near each other • Construction – the pieces are joined together • Sometimes the parts are called “found objects”
  • 50. Joseph Cornell, 1945
  • 51. Joseph Cornell, 1936
  • 52. Joseph Cornell, 1943
  • 53. Meret Oppenheim, Object, 1936 gazelle fur covered teacup, saucer & spoon
  • 54. Alexander Calder
  • 55. Alice Aycock, "The Uncertainty of Ground State Fluctuations," installation view in Clayton, Missouri (2007)
  • 56. John Kearney, chromed car bumpers www.cedarhurst.org
  • 57. John Kearney
  • 58. Sculpture • Low relief – the subject projects very slightly from the background – A coin, carved doors, an Egyptian tomb wall • High relief – the subject projects much more boldly from the background – Projects at least half its depth • sculpture “in the round” – the viewer can walk completely around the sculpture, the view from all sides is interesting – Sometimes there is still a front and back
  • 59. Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters. Sometimes called sunken relief or intaglio
  • 60. Roman frieze
  • 61. Lapith fighting a centaur, Parthenon, ca. 447–433 BC
  • 62. Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise
  • 63. Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, detail
  • 64. Ghiberti, 1401
  • 65. earthwork • Art made for a specific place usually using the materials found on the site
  • 66. Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970 - present
  • 67. Spiral Jetty
  • 68. Serpent Mound, Ohio, 1070, overall length 1300’
  • 69. Serpent Mound
  • 70. Nazca Lines, Peru, 200BCE-700CE
  • 71. Nazca lines The lines are shallow designs made in the ground by removing the ubiquitous reddish pebbles and uncovering the whitish ground beneath.
  • 72. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, pg 275 http://www.christojeanneclaude.net/# The Umbrellas, Japan, 1991
  • 73. The Umbrellas, California
  • 74. Reichstag, Berlin, Germany
  • 75. Wrapped Reichstag, 1995
  • 76. Valley Curtain, Colorado, 1972
  • 77. Running Fence, Sonoma, California, 1976
  • 78. Jeff Koons, Puppy, 1992+, live flowering plants, earth, geotextile, internal irrigation system
  • 79. End of chapter