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Art Appreciation    Chapter 7     Painting
painting terms• Pigment – powdered color• Vehicle – a liquid that holds pigment together• Binder – helps the paint to stic...
Painting media•   Encaustic•   Fresco•   Tempera•   Oil•   Watercolor•   Gouache•   Acrylic•   Mixed media
Encaustic• Sometimes called hot wax painting• Pigment is mixed with wax and resin, usually applied to  wood panels• The pa...
Fayum mummy     portrait,Young Woman with a   Gold Pectoral,   Roman Egypt,    2nd century
Fayum mummy   portrait
Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-55,encaustic on fabric mounted on plywood with               other materials
Flag, detail
Fresco• Pigment is mixed with water and applied to plaster, usually a wall• True fresco is applied to wet lime plaster   –...
Fresco of a Roman woman from       Pompeii, c. 50 CE
Detroit Industry, North Wall, 1932-33         Diego Rivera, Fresco
Creation ofAdam, Michelangelo, 1508-12
The School of Athens, Raphael, 1510-11, fresco
Tempera• Sometimes called egg tempera• The vehicle for it is an emulsion; can be  oil, fat, wax, resin, casein, but most f...
Christina’s World, 1948, Andrew Wyeth,      tempera on a gessoed panel
Long Limb, 1999, Andrew Wyeth,            tempera
Turkey Pond, 1944, Andrew Wyeth,        tempera on panel
War Series: Beachhead, 1947, JacobLawrence, egg tempera on composition board
oil• Pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil• Jan Van Eyck was one of the first artists to understand the  possib...
Portrait of a Man in a Turban, Jan VanEyck, 1433, tempera and oil on panel
Arnolfini Double Portrait, Jan Van Eyck,         1434, oil on oak panel
Starry Night, Vincent VanGogh, 1889, oil on canvas
StarryNight, detailImpasto –A techniquewhere paint isapplied so thickthat it looks likefrosting on acake
StarryNight, detail
Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci,1503-05, oil on cottonwood panel
Sfumato – a way of layering glazes of oilpaints to produce a translucent, smoky effect
Mona Lisa, detail
Mona Lisa, detail, atmospheric perspective
Lady at her Toilette, BertheMorisot, 1875, oil on canvas
Girl Arranging Her Hair,     Berthe Morisot,1885-86, oil on canvas      broken color - a   technique where the  painting i...
La Contesse d’Hauusonville, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres,    1885-86,  oil on canvas
La Grande Odalisque, Ingres,     1814, oil on canvas
Grisaille – painting technique where amonochromatic underpainting utilizing the desired value changes is produced before a...
Linda Nochlin – art historian (p. 173)• Throughout this semester I have shown you many artworks by women artists.• There a...
Watercolor• Pigment using gum arabic as a binder• The most common support is paper• Considered to be the most intimate of ...
Mountain Stream, John Singer Sargent,watercolor and graphite on paper, 1912-14,        tradition watercolor style
Self-portrait, Cezanne, 1895
The Blue Boat, WinslowHomer, watercolor on paper,1892
A Good Shot, Adirondacks,  Winslow Homer, 1892
Four Boys on a Beach, Winslow Homer,c. 1873, graphite with watercolor and gouache                on wove paper
Awakening, Sarah Capps, watercolorphoto-realistic style of watercolor painting
Gouache• Watercolor with an inert white pigment added• Gouache is opaque (watercolor is transparent)• Pronounced     go – ...
The Jungle, WilfredoLam, 1943, gouache on paper    mounted on canvas
Acrylic• Paint made from synthetic plastic resin• The vehicle is an acrylic resin, polymerized by emulsion in  water• A mo...
Mount Fuji, David Hockney, 1972, acrylic on     canvasthe artist uses washes for  the background and a   thick impasto for...
The Castle of Tin Tin, 1998, Takashi Murakami,          airbrushed acrylic on canvas on boardit has been influenced by ani...
Collage• An innovation of Picasso and Braque, after  Cubism; they called it “synthetic cubism”• Collage is a french word m...
Still Life with Chair-Caning, Picasso, 1912, oil and oilcloth on         canvas with rope frame
Compotier avec fruits, violon et verre,       Pablo Picasso, 1912
Woman with a Guitar,      Georges   Braque, 1913,   an example of  Synthetic Cubism
Mysteries, RomareBearden, 1964, collage, polymer   paint, and pencil on board
The Calabash, Romare Bearden, 1970, collage (photomontage)
Birds and Trees, Fred        Tomaselli, 1996, photocollage, acrylic, gouache, leaves and resin            on wood, 48” x 48”
Birds and Trees, detail
Airborne Event, Fred Tomaselli,2003, mixed media on wood panel
Red Iris, Fred Tomaselli, 2008, 24” x 24”photo-collage, acrylic, resin on wood panel
End of chapter 7
Watercolor techniques• 5 techniques required for the in-class project:   1.   A graded wash   2.   Wet on wet   3.   Wet o...
Art app ch7
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Transcript of "Art app ch7"

  1. 1. Art Appreciation Chapter 7 Painting
  2. 2. painting terms• Pigment – powdered color• Vehicle – a liquid that holds pigment together• Binder – helps the paint to stick to the surface• Support – the painting surface• Primer – a preliminary coating to prepare the surface for painting• Gesso – mixture of white pigment and glue used to seal a surface to prepare for painting• Medium – has multiple meanings in art – 1. the material used to make art (oil, charcoal, clay, glass) – 2. standard category of art (sculpture, painting, ceramics) – 3. a liquid used to make paint, also used to thin paint (linseed oil)
  3. 3. Painting media• Encaustic• Fresco• Tempera• Oil• Watercolor• Gouache• Acrylic• Mixed media
  4. 4. Encaustic• Sometimes called hot wax painting• Pigment is mixed with wax and resin, usually applied to wood panels• The paint is heated to melt it and make it easy to brush• Once the painting is complete, the artist brings the heat source close to the surface to fuse the colors (burning in)• A very long-lasting painting method, colors do not fade over time• Used in ancient Greece and in Roman-Egyptian portraiture• Jasper Johns used encaustic to build up a rich texture
  5. 5. Fayum mummy portrait,Young Woman with a Gold Pectoral, Roman Egypt, 2nd century
  6. 6. Fayum mummy portrait
  7. 7. Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-55,encaustic on fabric mounted on plywood with other materials
  8. 8. Flag, detail
  9. 9. Fresco• Pigment is mixed with water and applied to plaster, usually a wall• True fresco is applied to wet lime plaster – as it dries the lime has a chemical reaction and acts a binder, fusing the pigment and plaster• Dry fresco is applied to dry plaster• Used for large scale murals since ancient times• Requires very careful planning and hard physical labor• Time-consuming; Michelangelo covered 1 sq yard a day – The pigment can only be applied at the exact proper dampness• Artists used a cartoon with perforations as a guideline• Every brushstroke in a fresco painting is a commitment, it cant be painted over or reworked in any way, to redo it the dry plaster must be chipped out of the wall and replastered
  10. 10. Fresco of a Roman woman from Pompeii, c. 50 CE
  11. 11. Detroit Industry, North Wall, 1932-33 Diego Rivera, Fresco
  12. 12. Creation ofAdam, Michelangelo, 1508-12
  13. 13. The School of Athens, Raphael, 1510-11, fresco
  14. 14. Tempera• Sometimes called egg tempera• The vehicle for it is an emulsion; can be oil, fat, wax, resin, casein, but most famously egg yolk• Has qualities similar to both oil and watercolor• Retains the brilliance of its colors for centuries• Dries quickly, hard to blend once brushed on• Artists often apply it in a cross-hatching style• Traditionally used on wood prepped with gesso
  15. 15. Christina’s World, 1948, Andrew Wyeth, tempera on a gessoed panel
  16. 16. Long Limb, 1999, Andrew Wyeth, tempera
  17. 17. Turkey Pond, 1944, Andrew Wyeth, tempera on panel
  18. 18. War Series: Beachhead, 1947, JacobLawrence, egg tempera on composition board
  19. 19. oil• Pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil• Jan Van Eyck was one of the first artists to understand the possibilities of oil, – since he began using it, oil became THE most popular type of painting• Allowed artists to switch from painting on wood panels to canvas• Paint can be used in various thicknesses – Glazes - thin, translucent veils of color – Impasto – very thick paint, often strait from the tube• Dries VERY slowly – Advantages: • colors can be blended and the surface can be reworked for a VERY long time • allowed for no cracking problems when layering paint – Disadvantage: • it can take weeks or months for a painting to fully set
  20. 20. Portrait of a Man in a Turban, Jan VanEyck, 1433, tempera and oil on panel
  21. 21. Arnolfini Double Portrait, Jan Van Eyck, 1434, oil on oak panel
  22. 22. Starry Night, Vincent VanGogh, 1889, oil on canvas
  23. 23. StarryNight, detailImpasto –A techniquewhere paint isapplied so thickthat it looks likefrosting on acake
  24. 24. StarryNight, detail
  25. 25. Mona Lisa, Leonardo Da Vinci,1503-05, oil on cottonwood panel
  26. 26. Sfumato – a way of layering glazes of oilpaints to produce a translucent, smoky effect
  27. 27. Mona Lisa, detail
  28. 28. Mona Lisa, detail, atmospheric perspective
  29. 29. Lady at her Toilette, BertheMorisot, 1875, oil on canvas
  30. 30. Girl Arranging Her Hair, Berthe Morisot,1885-86, oil on canvas broken color - a technique where the painting is made up ofindividual strokes rather than a smooth blended field of color
  31. 31. La Contesse d’Hauusonville, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1885-86, oil on canvas
  32. 32. La Grande Odalisque, Ingres, 1814, oil on canvas
  33. 33. Grisaille – painting technique where amonochromatic underpainting utilizing the desired value changes is produced before adding colored glazes in layers to float over it This is a computerized grisaille version of the Ingres masterpiece
  34. 34. Linda Nochlin – art historian (p. 173)• Throughout this semester I have shown you many artworks by women artists.• There are many women artists used as examples throughout your textbook.• This is possible because of the work of Linda Nochlin. She wrote various papers in the early 1970s pointing out the absence of women artists in art history books all over the world. – “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” 1971, ArtNews• Prior to her research and writing, it was presumed in the art world not only that most artists were men, but that men were better artists.• Her work is thought to be the impetus for the Feminist Art movement in the 1970s.• Her work explains the many reasons why women artists were nearly absent until the 20th century.
  35. 35. Watercolor• Pigment using gum arabic as a binder• The most common support is paper• Considered to be the most intimate of painting media• They are transparent, the white of the paper is meant to show through the color• The white of the paper is reserved as the white in the painting
  36. 36. Mountain Stream, John Singer Sargent,watercolor and graphite on paper, 1912-14, tradition watercolor style
  37. 37. Self-portrait, Cezanne, 1895
  38. 38. The Blue Boat, WinslowHomer, watercolor on paper,1892
  39. 39. A Good Shot, Adirondacks, Winslow Homer, 1892
  40. 40. Four Boys on a Beach, Winslow Homer,c. 1873, graphite with watercolor and gouache on wove paper
  41. 41. Awakening, Sarah Capps, watercolorphoto-realistic style of watercolor painting
  42. 42. Gouache• Watercolor with an inert white pigment added• Gouache is opaque (watercolor is transparent)• Pronounced go – osh
  43. 43. The Jungle, WilfredoLam, 1943, gouache on paper mounted on canvas
  44. 44. Acrylic• Paint made from synthetic plastic resin• The vehicle is an acrylic resin, polymerized by emulsion in water• A more proper name would be polymer paints• Inexpensive• Readily available in many many colors• Dry quickly and form a tough but flexible waterproof surface• Acrylics can mimic oil, watercolor, gouache and tempera• They can be used on most any surface• The can be applied very thick (impasto style) or they can be thinned with water and applied in a translucent wash
  45. 45. Mount Fuji, David Hockney, 1972, acrylic on canvasthe artist uses washes for the background and a thick impasto for the foreground
  46. 46. The Castle of Tin Tin, 1998, Takashi Murakami, airbrushed acrylic on canvas on boardit has been influenced by anime, the artist says traditional Japanese work has a flatness as compared to Western work which uses modeling and depth
  47. 47. Collage• An innovation of Picasso and Braque, after Cubism; they called it “synthetic cubism”• Collage is a french word meaning “pasting” or “gluing”• The artists attaches actual objects such as paper or cloth to the canvas or other support• A form of assemblage art• Inspired off-shoots such as decoupage (multiples) and photomontage (photo images)
  48. 48. Still Life with Chair-Caning, Picasso, 1912, oil and oilcloth on canvas with rope frame
  49. 49. Compotier avec fruits, violon et verre, Pablo Picasso, 1912
  50. 50. Woman with a Guitar, Georges Braque, 1913, an example of Synthetic Cubism
  51. 51. Mysteries, RomareBearden, 1964, collage, polymer paint, and pencil on board
  52. 52. The Calabash, Romare Bearden, 1970, collage (photomontage)
  53. 53. Birds and Trees, Fred Tomaselli, 1996, photocollage, acrylic, gouache, leaves and resin on wood, 48” x 48”
  54. 54. Birds and Trees, detail
  55. 55. Airborne Event, Fred Tomaselli,2003, mixed media on wood panel
  56. 56. Red Iris, Fred Tomaselli, 2008, 24” x 24”photo-collage, acrylic, resin on wood panel
  57. 57. End of chapter 7
  58. 58. Watercolor techniques• 5 techniques required for the in-class project: 1. A graded wash 2. Wet on wet 3. Wet on dry (also called a controlled wash) 4. Dry brush 5. Lifting (use a paper towel or a clean dry brush to lift paint off of the paper) • It is possible to get all 5 of these techniques into a single painting. A landscape or a still life (such as a flower) will work nicely for these.• Bonus point opportunity: – Everyone can do one or two extra watercolor paintings worth 10 bonus points each
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