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Interacting handbook Document Transcript

  • 1. Interacting WithInteractive Whiteboards: A Language Arts Handbook By Brandy Shelton
  • 2. Table of ContentsIntroduction............................................................................................................................. 3How to Use This Handbook ................................................................................................ 4Why Integration of Technology Can Be Challenging ................................................. 6 TPACK ................................................................................................................................ 7 Activity Types ..................................................................................................................... 9 Engaging Students.......................................................................................................... 10What is an Interactive Whiteboard? .......................................................................... 14 Integrating Your Resources.......................................................................................... 19 Creating an Image Link……………………………………………….…………………………………..20Reading Vocabulary Lesson ............................................................................................ 21Reading Comprehension Lesson ..................................................................................... 23Brainstorming Lesson ......................................................................................................... 25Editing Lesson ..................................................................................................................... 28Punctuation Lesson ............................................................................................................ 30Subject and Predicate Lesson......................................................................................... 32IWB Observation Form ................................................................................................... 34Additional Resources ......................................................................................................... 38Activity Type Tables…………………………………………….……………………………………………..……………………..38 Pre-Reading Activity Types ........................................................................................ 39 During –Reading Activity Types .................................................................................. 40 Post-Reading Activity Types ....................................................................................... 42 Comprehension Activity Types .................................................................................... 44 Page 1© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 3. Pre-Writing Activity Types ......................................................................................... 47 During Writing Activity Types..................................................................................... 48 Post-Writing Activity Types ....................................................................................... 49 Writing Conventions Activity Types .......................................................................... 50References .......................................................................................................................... 51 Page 2© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 4. Introduction At the beginning of the 21st century the typical classroom was equippedwith desks, books, and dry erase boards. Since then technology has beendeveloping and evolving at such a rapid speed that the “old-fashioned” dryerase boards are now being replaced by an interactive model that has limitlessresources and uses. School districts are placing these interactive whiteboards, orIWBs, into classrooms about as fast as budgets can approve them leavingteachers wondering how to integrate them into their lessons and curriculum. Theproblem became a real one for me when my own school began to install IWBsinto classrooms after the start of the school year. We were ecstatic to getthem, but even after a full day of training on the basics, my team and I were stillat a loss on how to use the powerful tool right away. It was this feeling ofexcitement and frustration that made me want to create something for new IWBusers so that they would be able to hit the ground running with their new techtool. This handbook is meant to help a brand-new, or still learning, IWB userengage their students with interactive lessons geared towards language arts. Thegoal is to present strategies and lesson types that will help any teacher use theircurrent lessons and curriculum along with their IWB, creating a more tech-savvyand engaging lesson. The IWB should never take the place of a skilled and Page 3© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 5. talented teacher, but act as a supportive tool to help students grasp thematerial and concepts more easily. How to Use This Handbook The purpose of this handbook is to give a beginner IWB user a place torefer to when they are unsure of how to develop or put together a languagearts lesson while integrating their IWB. An interactive whiteboard is a touch-sensitive display that connects to a computer and a digital projector. Throughthis connection, a person can control computer applications, write notes in digitalink, present lessons, and save all work to be shared later. This is not the placeto look for content standards or lesson ideas organized by grade level.Figure 1: Components of an IWB as depicted by Faith Saltan and Kursat Arslan, 2009. Page 4© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 6. There is information regarding why it can be challenging to integratetechnology into a set curriculum or unit of study, and reasons teacher’s strugglewith technology even though they may want to use it. Keep in mind the researchregarding technology is always being updated and evolving, just like thetechnology itself, so at the time this handbook was put together this was some ofthe most current research available. It’s a good idea to do some of your ownresearch on the topic as well, in case there are updates in the resourcesavailable or more information on technology support. The lesson plans provided are examples of ones that you can use in yourown classroom, change to fit your area of study or level of difficulty, and sharewith colleagues. The aim was to provide strategies that have proven to engagestudents and increase student achievement. At the end of the handbook there is an observation form that can beused to help indicate the level of student engagement during a lesson thatutilizes the IWB. There is also a list of helpful IWB resources that offer goodexamples or ready-to-go lessons that can be downloaded. The handbook is designed to be a resource tool that helps novice IWBusers get a handle on integrating the technology into their current lessons. Page 5© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 7. Why Integration of Technology Can Be Challenging There it is, your brand new interactive whiteboard. You’re able to turn iton, you’re able to project images from your computer or laptop, and you’reeven able to write on it like you would a traditional dry erase board. Why is itthen, that you’re not sure how to make your lessons more interesting withoutspending two hours working on a thirty minute Notebook presentation? How doyou use the materials and content you’ve always used within the new IWBformat? The truth is, integrating all of the resources and tools a powerful pieceof technology like the IWB has to offer is one of the hardest parts of using iteffectively. Teachers want their lessons to be engaging and impressive for eventhe most doubtful pupils, but they also don’t want to spend hours and hours oftheir own time trying to figure out how to do it. So where’s the balance? School districts often offer some sort of training or one-day workshopafter they install an expensive piece of technology, like an IWB. The trainingoften involves learning how to do the basics, such as turning it on and off,adjusting the screen or volume, and navigating through the basic buttons andtools. Many teachers leave these workshops realizing that the equipment theynow have access to has many possibilities, and gives a teacher amazing resourcesat the push of a button. What teachers also realize is that they’re not sure howincorporate their new knowledge into their pre-existing curriculum, units, andactivities. Page 6© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 8. TPACK All teachers have a base of knowledge in pedagogy and content. Theyhave beliefs of what good teaching strategies look like and produce and theyhave background and a certain level of depth regarding the content materialthey teach. Without always realizing it, most teachers also have a level ofknowledge and understanding regarding technology, either within or outside ofthe classroom. Sometimes this looks like using a word processor, uploading musicto an MP3 player, or even operating an overhead projector. TPACK (Mishra& Koehler, 2009), or technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge, is aframework that supports the balance of these three areas teachers generallyintertwine every day. Their model is often shown as a Venn diagram, making itobvious that these three elements often overlap and mix with one anotherthroughout a teacher’s lesson plans and activities. Figure 2: TPACK model as noted by Mishra and Koehler (2009). Source: www.tpck.org Page 7© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 9. The knowledge that teachers bring with them to the classroom is essentialbecause it is how teachers decide how to present information or have studentswork with it. When teachers receive a new piece of technology in theirclassroom their knowledge of how to use that piece may not always extend toknowing how to incorporate it into the curriculum. Using TPACK teachers mustmake a conscious decision how content or technology-heavy their lesson or unitof study will be. The key to TPACK is how the three components (technology, pedagogy,and content) are connected to one another. Pedagogy is always the base thatcontent and technology is built upon. Depending on the teacher’s decision tomake a lesson or unit more focused on the content of a topic, technologybecomes less of a focus and more of a supportive tool. For example, a unit’sgoal might be to cover community history and the key figures that helped anarea grow and flourish, internet resources or multimedia video would becomesupplementary to the unit. On the other hand, a lesson or unit could be morefocused on technology by having students create a project with the content topresent what they have learned about the subject. For example, studentspresent the information they have learned about their community history via aPowerPoint presentation or digital story. In the latter example students alreadyhave most of the content they would need to go forward with a presentation,but may need more instruction on how to put together a clear and interestingpresentation, or how to use the equipment, which is why it would be a moretechnology-based lesson. In this way the TPACK model really helps teachers Page 8© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 10. understand how technology and content work with one another to developengaging and interactive lessons.Activity Types The idea of integrating technology is a useful and necessary place for newIWB users to start, but what does it look like when you’re first starting off? Thebest starting point is the same place most teachers begin their lessons anyway-with lesson planning. At some level almost every teacher does a form of lessonplanning. It can look like specific days and times with activities and reminders, adigital copy of what should take place within the week, or even a list ofreferences that apply to each standard being taught. Many teachers referback to what they have done in the past in order to put together a content unitor lesson, and some even research new material to add or supplement their pre-existing lessons. A teacher who is new to the tech world, or is a novice IWBuser, should work with the same lesson planning techniques they have used in thepast and then add to them, rather than starting from scratch. This allowsteachers to take their current units and lessons and supplement technology tobetter engage and expand on their students’ understanding. With this in mind Schmidt, Harris, and Hoefer (2009), who are educatorsand researchers, developed a list of technological tools that complementdifferent types of activities depending on the content area. Their theory behindactivity types was that teachers begin lesson planning with their content and Page 9© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 11. curricular goals in mind, therefore the technology should support the contentgoals. Teachers shouldn’t feel they have to look for technology that wouldengage their students and then build a lesson around it. The technology thatsupports the curriculum should be easy to incorporate and engaging without theteacher having to find creative ways to link them to one another. Schmidt et al.not only developed a list of activity types that are organized by content area(they offer tables for language arts, math, social sciences, and science), but thetables are also divided up into the type of activity a teacher is leading (i.e., pre-reading, post-reading, vocabulary, and comprehension). Included in thishandbook is an activity table for each of the areas in language arts and a link tothe research and website dedicated to TPACK and activity types. Schmidt et al.offer great supportive tools and valuable insight into helpful ways to incorporatetechnology into all classrooms.Engaging Students One perk of using technology is that it adds a new level of engagement tolessons. Students in the 21st century have grown up with technology as a normalpart of everyday life, unlike students of the 20th century. Technology such aslaptop computers, smart phones, and LCD projectors are a mainstay in their livesand something they expect to interact with on a daily basis. The IWB meetsstudents’ expectations on a technological level and offers great resources forteachers to keep their lessons interactive and engaging. Page 10© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 12. Researchers such as Marzano and Haystead (2010) have beeninterested in the effectiveness of IWB’s and their ability to engage students.The two developed a study that focused on what conditions and strategies mostsuccessfully engage students and increase student achievement. Their researchworked with the Promethean ActiveClassroom brand of IWB, but their findingscan be helpful in the implementation of all IWBs within a classroom setting.Marzano and Haystead completed their study in two phases, the first focusingon what conditions can effect a student’s achievement levels when a teacheruses the IWB during instruction. In the first phase Marzano and his team foundthat there are specific conditions that affect students’ achievement levels whenusing the IWB: • A teacher is experienced. • A teacher has used the IWB for an extended period of time. • A teacher uses the IWB extensively in their classroom, but no more than 80% of the time. • A teacher has high confidence in their ability to use the IWB (Marzano & Haystead, 2010, p. viii).The second phase of Marzano and Haystead’s evaluation focused on whatstrategies teachers employ that prove effective for student achievement. Thestrategies that Marzano and his team found in the second phase that aided inpositive student achievement were: Page 11© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 13. • The teacher organizes content into small, digestible bites that are designed with the students’ background knowledge in mind (i.e., the teacher chunks new content). • The chunks of new content logically lead one to the other (i.e., understanding the first chunk helps students understand the second chunk and so on). • While addressing chunks, the teacher continually determines whether the pace must be slowed or increased to maintain high engagement and understanding (pacing). • The teacher monitors the extent to which students understand the new content (monitoring). • When it is evident students do not understand portions of the content, the teacher reviews the content with the class or re- teaches it. • During each chunk, the teacher asks questions and addresses them in such a way that all students have an opportunity to respond and answers are continually examined as to their correctness and depth of understanding (Marzano & Haystead, 2010, p. x). According to Marzano and Haystead’s findings, specific conditions andstrategies markedly affect student achievement. Many of these strategies areones teachers apply to traditional lessons without realizing it. These same Page 12© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 14. strategies can be applied to lessons that incorporate an IWB, making studentsmore likely to remain engaged and increase their understanding of the materialbeing taught. Page 13© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 15. Whiteboard? What is an Interactive Whiteboard? So what is an interactive whiteboard, or IWB, anyway? What makes it sodifferent than a dry erase board or traditional chalk board? An interactivewhiteboard is a touch-sensitive display that connects to a computer and a digitalprojector. Through this connection, a person can control computer applications,write notes in digital ink, present lessons, and save all work to be shared later.There are many types of interactive whiteboards that are put out by variousbrands and the industry is constantly evolving. This handbook is geared towardshelping teachers using the SMART Board products and the Notebook softwarethat comes with it. There are key tools that will be referred to throughout thelessons in the handbook. You will want to become familiar with these tools andteach your students how to use them as well. Page 14© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 16. Basic Functions of the SMART Board An IWB is meant to support a teacher’s lesson or unit in a way thatengages and enriches the content being taught. This can be done in a variety ofways, each depending on the purpose of the lesson or the product desired.Take a look at the following examples of how a SMART Board can be utilized toenhance a lesson. SMART Board Function ExampleNotetaking and Brainstorming:Help students brainstorm on agiven topic. Record these sharedideas on the IWB. Oncerecorded, these ideas can bedragged and dropped to otherareas for grouping. With theSMART Notebook software youcan also extend the page to addmore notes to the same page, orinsert blank pages. Written textcan be converted into type-which is helpful if you decide toprint these notes for yourstudents to use as a study guideor hand out for students whowere absent.Games:There are great websites thatoffer educational games for allsubjects and content areas. Trya game of Jeopardy using theSMARTboard! The students canchoose their topic and the dollaramount by touching theSMARTboard. Page 15© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 17. Interactive Flannel Board:Many primary teachers use aflannel board quite often to tellfairy tales, fables and nurseryrhymes. The SMARTboard makesa wonderful, easy-to-manipulateflannel board for the youngerstudents.Click-and-Click-and-Drag Activities:Many of the activities teachersuse involve click-and-dragactivities. These are sometimescalled electronic worksheets, andare a great way to reviewconcepts the students havealready learned. Worksheets:Interactive Worksheets:Some websites allow users tocreate their own worksheets whichcan then be printed out. Whynot create the worksheet for useon the SMARTBoard? It couldbe used as a guided practicelesson or independent activity atthe “SMARTBoard Center” inyour classroom. Students couldwork in pairs and check eachother’s work or you could provideanswer sheets for self-checking. Page 16© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 18. Graphic Organizers:It is common for teachers to usesome kind of concept map orgraphic organizer to support theirteaching. The SMART Notebooksoftware includes some templatesof graphic organizers such asVenn Diagrams which are greatfor comparing and contrastingtwo, or even three concepts.Interactive Websites:The Internet is full of interactivewebsites for students to use.Many of these sites can beexplored in whole group lessons aswell as with individual students atthe computer center.PowerPoint Presentations:PowerPoint is a great visual andauditory tool for teaching andbringing to life unfamiliarconcepts. It is a great way to addsound, animation, movies andpictures for teaching. Page 17© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 19. Basic Tools of the SMART Board SMART Pens: These are the black, red, green, and blue pens that came with your SMART Board. Use them to write directly on the screen in digitalink. Creative Pens: A student favorite, this tool allows you to draw fun lines made of smiley faces, stars, rainbow stripes, and more. Magic Pen: When students circle text or art with the Magic Pen, a spotlight focuses on the circled portion of the page. Everything else onthe page goes dark temporarily. It’s a dramatic way to focus on one element ona page! The Magic Pen also allows you to zoom in on a section of the pagewhen a square or rectangle is drawn around a section in a picture or text. Eraser: Like it’s old fashioned counterparts, this eraser removes unwanted writing. It will work on text and lines created with the SMART pens. It willnot work on typed text or art objects. On- On-Screen Keyboard: If your students are adding text to a small field orsimply prefer typing to writing freehand, use the on-screen keyboard. You canaccess it by touching the keyboard icon on the front tray of your SMARTBoard. Properties Tool: In several of the activities in the lesson plans, you will be guided to use this feature to change the color of a SMART pen or to addcolor to a box. Screen Shade: A teacher favorite, this tool allows you to cover part of the page while focusing attention on another part. Activate the shade byclicking on the Screen Shade icon on your toolbar. Deactivate by clicking again.To gradually open a shade that covers your screen, use of the circular buttonson the shade itself to drag the shade open. Page 18© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 20. Integrating Your Resources IWBs act as a supportive tool to enhance lessons and engage students.The beauty of working with an IWB is the great number of resources a teacherhas access to, compared to the traditional dry erase board. The key to makingthem work for you, is understanding what is available and how to seamlesslyintegrate those resources into your lessons. SMART Board products use a software called Notebook that provides itsuser with a platform to write with digital ink, display and manipulate pictures, andlink to external sites and videos. Notebook also offers a gallery of pictures,interactive games, and graphic organizers that can be integrated into any lessonwith just a few touches. The SMART website (http://exchange.smarttech.com)also offers a wide variety of free, ready-to-download lessons and games inevery content area. Integrating resources from the internet is a great way to support a lessonwith an external site dedicated to the content material, an audio link, a video link,an interactive game, or even something you might have created on the web.There are so many resources from all around the world available to anyone withan internet connection can access with just a few clicks. Remember to abide byany guidelines or rules set by the school district, and always preview a site forappropriate content before showing it to a class or student. The best way tofind out what’s available is to do some browsing of your own. The activity tablesoffer some suggestions for helpful sites as well. Page 19© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 21. Creating an Image Link Many times there is a great educational resource or website that ateacher finds and would like to incorporate into the lesson. One easy trick willhelp a teacher link to a site without having to leave the Notebook lesson. Simplyright-click a picture, and click on “Link” in the drop-down menu. This will open atext box prompting the insertion of the URL link to the site or game. Copy andpaste the URL into the appropriate space and click “Okay.” A small globe willappear at the bottom of the picture and act as a quick link to the supportivesite. Page 20© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 22. Reading Vocabulary Lesson Match- Lesson Title: Vocabulary Match-Up Activity Type: Pre- Pre-Reading Subject Area: During-Reading During-Reading Reading Post-Reading Post- o Comprehension o Writing Pre- o Pre-Writing o Conventions o During Writing o Post Writing o Writing Conventions Objective: Introduce or review vocabulary words and definitions regarding a specific text. Time: 10 -20 minutes for each session (The introduction of vocabulary will take longer than review sessions.). Getting Ready: Create a lesson in Notebook that has the definitions of vocabulary words on one side and the corresponding words on the other side. Tech Tip: Highlight all text that you don’t want students to move during the click-and-drag activity, then right-click it and lock it in place. This will make it so that students only move the words you want them to, not the frame of your activity. Page 21© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 23. Lesson: Begin by reviewing the text the vocabulary is taken from or referring to. Ask students about the context of the vocabulary words from the lesson to activate prior learning and knowledge. Open the vocabulary match-up page in your Notebook software. Read the definitions aloud with students, reminding them to think about what words might match without saying the word aloud. Call students to come up to the board to move a word from the Word Bank next its corresponding definition. After a word is moved ask the class if they agree and why. If a word is moved next to the wrong definition, move it back to the word bank for another student to place. Continue in this fashion until all words are properly placed next to their matching definitions. This is a great activity to supplement vocabulary in any content area, not just language arts. It can be modified by adding pictures for younger students, or more complex definitions for intermediate grades. Assessment: Informal assessment could be completed by having students pair-share where they think words should be placed and why. A formal assessment could be a written vocabulary quiz which asks students to write words from a Word Bank next the corresponding definition. Page 22© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 24. Reading Comprehension Lesson Piece- Lesson Title: Piece-It Together Activity Type: Pre- o Pre-Reading Subject Area: During- o During-Reading Reading o Post-Reading Post- Comprehension o Writing Writing Pre- o Pre-Writing o Conventions o During Writing o Post Writing o Writing Conventions Objective: Students will be able to summarize a reading passage (either fiction or non-fiction) with the main ideas of either the beginning, middle, and end, or what each sub-section was about. Time: 30-40 minutes Getting Ready: Create a Notebook page that divides up the text. For example, primary students work well with beginning, middle, and end, while intermediate students may be reading longer texts with sub-sections or headings. Page 23© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 25. Lesson: This lesson can be adapted for primary or intermediate students and used with fiction or expository text. Review the story or text that students have read. Group students in pairs or small groups of 4 or 5. Assign each pair or group one section to summarize. Students can use small dry erase boards or pencil and paper to record their summaries before sharing. Give pairs or groups 10-15 minutes to come up with a strong summary of their assigned section and encourage groups to go back to the text for help. Start with “Beginning” or “Sub-Heading 1” and have each pair or group share their summary. As a class decide what key words and / or phrases should be included in the summary for that section. Call on a student to write the summary in the appropriate section on the SMART Board. Continue in this manner until all sections have been summarized. Assessment: Informal assessment could include observing pair or group participation and equal input from all group members, as well as answers offered before putting them on the board. Formal assessment could include students taking the shortened summaries from the IWB and putting it into a short paragraph. Page 24© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 26. Brainstorming Brainstorming Lesson Lesson Title: Organizing Ideas Activity Type: o Pre- Pre-Reading Subject Area: o During- During-Reading o Reading o Post-Reading Post- o Comprehension Writing Pre- Pre-Writing o Conventions o During Writing o Post Writing o Writing Conventions Objective: Brainstorm a list of writing ideas and organize them using the SMART Board’s interactive features. Time: 20-30 minutes Getting Ready: Create a Notebook page that allows students room to write down ideas they have on a topic such as “seasonal activities.” Draw a T-chart at the bottom of the page which will help students organize their ideas later in the lesson. Page 25© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 27. Lesson: Each student will need a small dry erase board or paper and pencil to begin the activity. Give students a topic to write about such as “seasonal activities.” The broader the topic the more sections the ideas can be organized into. Call on students to come up to the board to write their activity idea on the SMART Board. Students should write their ideas toward the top of the page so that they can be moved to the bottom of the page to be sorted later on. Discuss with students different ways the ideas can be organized so that all ideas can be sorted. In the case of seasonal activities, four columns in a T- chart can each represent one of the seasons. Write the sorting suggestions above each column in the T-chart. Next, have students write each activity in the correct column of the T-chart on their dry erase board. When students have finished call on students to come up to the board and move each activity to its proper column. Page 26© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 28. Tech Tip: If an activity or idea can be used under multiple columns highlight the activity, right-click and select “Clone.” This will give you another copy of the activity to place in another column. Assessment: An informal assessment would include observing students sort the words provided by classmates on their own dry erase board. For a formal assessment give students a list of different ideas on the board or a piece of paper and have them organize them in two or three separate columns. Page 27© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 29. Editing Lesson Lesson Title: Story Tuning Activity Type: Pre- o Pre-Reading Subject Area: During- o During-Reading o Reading o Post-Reading Post- o Comprehension Writing Pre- o Pre-Writing o Conventions During Writing o Post Writing o Writing Conventions Objective: Edit and revise a paragraph either produced by the teacher or from student work. Practice correcting conventions such as punctuation and capitalization, and grammar like present and past tense. Time: 30-45 minutes Getting Ready: Copy and paste a paragraph that needs to be edited from a word processor into a Notebook page. The paragraph could be teacher created or taken from a student’s paper. Make sure the lines are double spaced so that there is enough room to make changes or adjustments. Page 28© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 30. Lesson: Review with students what they should do before editing with a peer or teacher. What should they look for? Should they reread it more than once? Open the Notebook page with the unedited paragraph. Ask students to share with a partner or group at least three things they think should be changed or fixed. Students can use a dry erase board or pencil and paper to keep track of the mistakes they find. Next, call on students to come up to the board and edit the paragraph using the digital ink pens. Make sure students are explaining why they are changing editing pieces of the writing. For example, “I’m adding a comma because this is a series or list of words.” You can also ask students to highlight specific parts of speech, strong descriptive words, or sentences that could be rewritten more clearly. The highlight tool is in the pen pull-down menu. Assessment: Informal assessment would include students pair-sharing suggestions for changes, editing ideas from the dry erase board, and changes made on the SMART Board. A formal assessment could include students editing a teacher prepared paragraph as a quiz on paper. Page 29© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 31. Punctuation Lesson Lesson Title: Punctuate It! Activity Type: Pre- o Pre-Reading Subject Area: During- o During-Reading o Reading o Post-Reading Post- st o Comprehension o Writing Pre- o Pre-Writing Conventions o During Writing o Post Writing Writing Conventions Objective: Correctly place punctuation in a sentence using periods, exclamation points, and question marks. Time: 15-20 minutes Getting Ready: Create a Notebook page that has sentences without ending punctuation at the top of the page, and a period, exclamation point, and question mark in a “Punctuation Bank” at the bottom. Tech Tip: Highlight each punctuation mark in the “Punctuation Bank,” right- click and select “Infinite Cloner.” This will make it possible for students to select a punctuation mark and simply drag it up to its desired position without having to copy or clone each time. Page 30© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 32. Lesson: Review with students when writers use periods (for statements), exclamation points (to show excitement or exaggerated emotion), and question marks (when asking a question). Call students up to the board to place the correct punctuation marks in each sentence. Make sure students explain why the correct punctuation mark goes in the sentence. Some sentences may work with more than one type of punctuation. Explain to students why some sentences can use more than one type of punctuation while others can’t. Assessment: Informal assessment would include instructing students when they come up to the board to place a punctuation mark. A formal assessment would include giving students a quiz with sentences without punctuation. Students would need to place correct punctuation marks. Page 31© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 33. Subject and Predicate Lesson Title: Lesson Title: Picture That Activity Type: Pre- o Pre-Reading Subject Area: During- o During-Reading o Reading o Post-Reading Post- o Comprehension o Writing Pre- o Pre-Writing Conventions o During Writing o Post Writing Writing Conventions Objective: Identify subject and predicate parts of a sentence. Time: 15-20 minutes Getting Ready: Create a Notebook page that combines a picture of a subject and an action that subject may be doing. Primary classrooms will also need sentences below to match to the pictures, while intermediate classes should be expected to come up with their own sentences to describe each subject / predicate picture. Page 32© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 34. Lesson: Review what a subject and predicate is with students. Remind them that subjects tell who or what a sentence is about, and a predicate explains what the subject does. Show students how the first part of the picture puzzles explain what the subject is and the second part of the picture puzzle explains what the subject does or what happens to the subject. Have students discuss in pairs or within small groups what they think predict the subject and predicate of the first picture puzzle is. If you have provided sentences for students to move next to the correct picture puzzle, call students up to the board to move a sentence next to its corresponding picture puzzle. If students are able to come up with their own sentences for each puzzle, have them first write their sentence on a dry erase board or paper and pencil before coming up to the board to share. Challenge students to draw their own picture puzzles that express subject and predicate and have a partner try to guess a corresponding sentence. Assessment: Informal assessment would include observing if students are able to match descriptive sentences to the correct picture, or if they are able to write their own sentence to match a picture puzzle. A formal assessment for this activity would be whether or not students can successfully write a descriptive sentence on their own and identify a picture that would match the subject and the predicate. Page 33© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 35. IWB IWB Observation FormObserver:Observer _____________________ Teacher: Teacher ________________________Date:Date _________________________ Grade & Subject ________________ Subject:Position:Position _______________________ # of Students ___________________ Students:Observation Start Time __________ Time: IWB User for ___________________ for:Observation End Time ___________ Time:Technology Available in the Classroom _________________________________ Classroom:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Student Groupings (check all observed during the period): o Individual Student Work o Pairs o Small Groups o Whole ClassLearning Activities (check all observed during the period): o Introduction of a Topic o Practicing a New Concept o Review o AssessmentSubject Area (check all observed during the period): o Reading o Writing Conventions o Math o Social Sciences o Science o Music o Art o Physical Education Page 34© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 36. teachingHow essential was the IWB to the teaching and learning activities? o Not needed; other approaches would be better. o Somewhat useful; other approaches would be as effective. o Useful; other approaches would not be as effective. o Essential; the lesson could not be done without it. Comment: _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ byWays the IWB Was Used by the o PodcastTeacher (check all observed during the o Presentation (PowerPoint)lesson): o Science Probe o Audio o Shared Editor (wiki) o CD-ROM o Simulation o Drill / Practice o Spreadsheet (Excel) o E-mail o Videoconferencing o Graphics o Web Browsing o Movies o Web Games o Notebook o Word Processing o Photo or Video Editing o Other: ____________________ __________________________ __________________________Ways the IWB Was Used by the o PodcastStudents (check all observed during the o Presentation (PowerPoint)lesson): o Science Probe o Audio o Shared Editor (wiki) o CD-ROM o Simulation o Drill / Practice o Spreadsheet (Excel) o E-mail o Videoconferencing o Graphics o Web Browsing o Movies o Web Games o Notebook o Word Processing o Photo or Video Editing o Other: ____________________ __________________________ __________________________ Page 35© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 37. Teaching Techniques Used During Lesson (check all observed during theperiod): o Chunking Information (i.e. using a graphic organizer) o Monitoring (checking for understanding) o Pacing (slowing down or speeding up the lesson dependent on student understanding) o Other: _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Page 36© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 38. Three-Three-Minute ChartDuring each 3-minute period, was technology in use by students and/orteachers, and was the time spent with technology used for teaching and learning(as opposed to recreation or routine tasks such as boot-up and log-on)?Technology :00- :03- :06- :09- :12- :15- :18- :21- :24-Is: :03 :06 :09 :12 :15 :18 :21 :24 :27in use bystudentsused forlearningin use byteacherused forlearningTechnology :27- :30- :33- :36- :39- :42- :45- :48- :51-Is: :30 :33 :36 :39 :42 :45 :48 :51 :54in use bystudentsused forlearningin use byteacherused forlearningEstimated time technology used (if 3 minute chart is not used)Total minutes technology used by students ____________________Minutes students used for learning ____________________Total minutes technology used by teachers ____________________Minutes teachers used for learning ____________________ Page 37© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 39. Additional Resourceso Smarttech.com – The official SMART Board site.o Gamequarium.com- A great site that offers educational games in many content areas.o Edheads.com- Stimulating science simulations that students will love.o ReadWriteThink.org- A site dedicated to language arts lessons with helpful interactive organizers and diagrams.o Storylineonline.net- Streaming video featuring famous people reading children’s books aloud.o Schooltube.com- A site similar to YouTube except that it offers educational videos and tutorials. Page 38© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 40. Activity Type TablesPre-ReadingPre-Reading Activity Types Activity Brief Description Example Technologies Type Develop Students name the letters Educational software (e.g. Bailey’s Alphabetic of the alphabet and Bookhouse), Read•Write•Think, Digital Knowledge recognize the letter Alphabet Books, LeapFrog Tag Books, symbols in print. Gamequarium (online) Develop Students hear, identify Educational software (e.g. JumpStart Phonemic and manipulate sounds in Phonics), Living Books, podcasting, Awareness words. Gamequarium (online), Read•Write•Think Develop Students learn the Educational software (e.g., Reader Decoding connections between Rabbit Series), Reading Pen, Interactive Skills letter patterns and the whiteboard, Gamequarium (online), sounds they represent. Read•Write•Think Introduce Students are introduced Educational software (e.g., Clifford the Vocabulary to and learn unfamiliar Big Red Dog Series, I Spy), key words before they Read•Write•Think, Reading Pen, read. interactive whiteboard Activate Students think about what Multimedia software, word processing, Prior they already know about concept mapping software, Web-based Knowledge the topic prior to reading. video streaming, student response systems (“clickers”) Make Students make predictions Multimedia software, word processing, Predictions about text that will be Web-based video streaming, student read. response (“clickers”) K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 39© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 41. During –Reading Activity TypesActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesRead Aloud Students actively listen to Storyline Online, BookFlix, an oral reading of a book. e-books, educational software (e.g., WiggleWorks), podcast, LeapFrog Tag BooksThink Aloud Students say out loud what Storyline Online, BookFlix, they are thinking while e-books, video creation reading. softwareGuided Reading Students learn how to think e-books, BookFlix, about text by reading in WiggleWorks small groups, engaging in discussion, and completing a mini-lesson / learning activity.Directed Listening / Students predict and Storyline Online, BookFlix,Thinking Activity (DL-TA) respond to a story while the e-books, WiggleWorks, teacher reads. podcast, Student response systems (“clickers”)Discussion Students discuss text being Blogs, wikis, online discussion read with the teacher, groups other students or another individual.Whole Class Literature Students participate in a e-books, Storyline Online,Study literature study that BookFlix, WiggleWorks, includes reading aloud / podcast along, whole-class / small – group discussions, and whole-class mini-lessons.Literature Circles Students choose their own Storyline Online, BookFlix, books, form small-groups e-books, blogs, wikis, online and meet regularly to read discussion groups, podcast and discuss the books. Page 40© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 42. Reader’s Workshop Students participate in Storyline Online, BookFlix, mini-lessons to teach e-books, blogs, wikis, online reading strategies, spend discussion groups, podcast time reading independently, and then meet to share, discuss and reflect.Book Clubs Students read books, take Storyline Online, BookFlix, part in peer-led e-books, blogs, wikis, online discussions, and participate discussion groups, podcast in a community sharing session.Sustained Silent Reading Students read silently for a e-books, podcast, Storyline(SSR) designated period of time Online, BookFlix (10-30 minutes).Independent Reading Students make their own e-books, podcast, Storyline book choices, set Online, BookFlix independent reading goals and read for extended period of time. K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 41© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 43. Post-Reading Activity TypesPost-Activity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesSummarizing Students summarize or Timeliner XE, paraphrase the major Read•Write•Think, video points of a story after creation software, podcast, reading it. comic creation software, video sharing sitesRetelling Students tell what they Timeliner XE, drawing remember about a story. software, video creation software, podcast, comic creation softwareSharing Students share information Video creation software, with others about books podcast, video sharing sites. they have read or heard.Visualizing Students use images and Drawing software, word visual imagery to recall processing, image editor, what they remember about digital photography, a story. Read•Write•Think, comic creation software, interactive whiteboardDiscussing Students discuss favorite Blogs, wikis, online discussion parts or elements of a groups story.Drawing Conclusions Students use written or Word processing, visual clues to figure out educational simulation something that is not software (e.g., Decisions, directly stated in the Decisions), video creation reading. software, multimedia software, comic creation software, interactive whiteboardEvaluating Students form opinions, Read•Write•Think, word make judgments, and processing, multimedia develop ideas after software, student response Page 42© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 44. reading. systems (“clickers”)Quizzing / Testing Students take a quiz or test Integrated learning system about a story or a selection (e.g., Accelerated of text they read. Reader), online quiz software, student response systems (“clickers”)Creating Projects / Students create a project Comic and / or videoArtifacts or artifact as a culminating creation software, drawing activity that illustrates what software, multimedia they have learned. software, iPhoto, podcast, Read•Write•Think, video sharing sites K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 43© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 45. Comprehension Activity TypesActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesCloze Technique Students insert words that Cloze software, online have been omitted as they “Mad Libs,” word read to complete and processing, interactive construct meaning from whiteboard text.Semantic Feature Analysis Students use a grid to Concept mapping software, explore the similarities and interactive whiteboard differences among events, people, objects, or ideas.Cause and Effect Students identify how an e-books, concept mapping action or event will produce software, educational a certain response to the software, interactive action in the form of whiteboard another event.Compare and Contrast Students identify how things e-books, concept mapping are alike and different. software, educational software, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboardInferences Students use clues to learn e-books, educational more about the story and software, interactive make a conclusion or whiteboard judgment based on that information.Story Pyramid Students summarize a story e-books, concept mapping by building a pyramid of software, word processor information (e.g., describe main character, setting, state the problem).Picture Walk Teacher guides students Multimedia software, through text by looking at iPhoto, interactive and discussing the pictures whiteboard before reading. Page 44© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 46. SQ3R Students use a 5-step e-books, word processor reading strategy (i.e., survey, question, read, recite, review) to formulate a purpose for reading.Reciprocal Teaching Students and teacher e-books, voice recording, participate in dialogue video creation software structured by summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting to bring meaning to text.Reciprocal Questioning Students analyze their e-books, voice recording,(ReQuest) comprehension while word processing reading by developing questions to ask the teacher after reading a selection.Point-of-View Students identify the e-books, educational author’s point of view and software, digital purpose. photographyQuestion-Answer Students search for answers e-books, online newspapersRelationships (QAR) based upon the type of / magazines question that was asked (i.e., Right there, Think and search, Author and you, On my own).Think-Pair-Share Students talk about the e-books, online newspapers content they are reading / magazines, Websites by thinking about a question or prompt, pairing up with a student to discuss and sharing their thinking with the rest of the class. Page 45© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 47. Story Map Students identify and map Concept mapping software, the basic elements of a Read•Write•Think, story (i.e., setting, interactive whiteboard characters, problem / conflict, point of view, resolution).3-2-1 Chart Students summarize and Word processing software, rethink key ideas by listing: spreadsheet software, 3 things they found out, 2 concept mapping software interesting things, and 1 question they still have. K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 46© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 48. Pre-Pre-Writing Activity TypesActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesBrainstorming Students list as many topics Word processing, Timeliner as possible to write about. XE, Read•Write•Think, interactive whiteboard, concept mapping softwareConcept Mapping Students develop a visual Concept mapping software, or diagram that illustrates Timeliner XE, interactive the relationships among whiteboard concepts.Storyboarding Students develop a series Concept mapping software, of panels that outline the Timeliner XE, multimedia sequence of what pictures software, interactive will be seen and what audio whiteboard and/or voice will accompany the pictures.Visualizing Students create mental Drawing software, iPhoto, images before they write. Read•Write•ThinkFreewriting Students start writing and Word processing, drawing just keep going, not software worrying about style or mistakes.Journaling Students write journal Word processing, blogs, entries to brainstorm topics wikis of personal interest, to note observations and to reflect upon their thinking.Listing Students generate a list of Word processing, concept topics, phrases, and/or mapping software, sentences before they interactive whiteboard begin to write. K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 47© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 49. During Writing Activity TypesActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesDrafting / Composing Students write a draft of a Word processing, story, putting ideas into SubEthaEdit, Storybook sentences and paragraphs. Weaver Deluxe, drawing software, video creation software, multimedia softwareRevising Students improve their Word processing, drawing writing by adding details, software, video creation rearranging information, software, multimedia deleting information, software, collaborative and/or replacing word processor information.Editing Students correct Word processing, drawing mechanics, grammar and software, video creation spelling software, multimedia software, collaborative word processorResponding Students offer suggestions Word processing, podcast, to peers for improving videoconference, content, organization and educational software, clarify of writing piece. collaborative word processorConferencing Students meet with Collaborative word teachers and/or peers to processor, podcast, discuss and evaluate a videoconference piece of writing K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 48© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 50. Post-Post-Writing Activity Types ActivityActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesSharing Students orally share their Drawing software, writing with peers / others. multimedia software, podcast, collaborative word processorPublishing Students publish their Word processing, drawing writing for peers / others. software, video creation software, multimedia software, podcasting, digital storytelling, online publishing sites, Read•Write•ThinkEvaluating Students evaluate writing of Word processing, blogs, peers and provide online discussion groups. feedback.Presentation Students combine textual Drawing software, and visual elements to multimedia software, digital present their writing for storytelling peers / others. K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 49© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 51. Writing Conventions Activity TypesActivity Type Brief Description Example TechnologiesLetter / Word Formation Students write / type Word processing, drawing lowercase and uppercase software, letter; Students write / type Read•Write•Think, words (i.e., root, prefix, interactive whiteboard suffix).Writing Sentences / Students construct Word processing, drawingParagraphs complete sentences and software, interactive combine sentences to whiteboard compose a paragraph (topic sentence, supportive details, closing sentence).Spelling Students use correct Word processing, spelling when writing. educational software, Gamequarium (online), interactive whiteboardMechanics Students use correct Word processing, punctuation and Gamequarium (online), capitalization when writing. interactive whiteboardGrammar Students use formal rules Word processing, about language usage Gamequarium (online), including parts of speech Read•Write•Think, when writing. interactive whiteboard K-6 Literacy Learning Activity Types by Denise Schmidt, Judi Harris, and Mark Hofer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Based on a work at activitytypes.wmwikis.net Page 50© Brandy Shelton, 2010
  • 52. ReferencesMarzano, R. J., & Haystead, M. (2009). Final report on the evaluation of the Promethean technology. Englewood, CO: Marzano Research Laboratory.Mishra, P., Koehler, M. (2009). Too cool for school? No way! Using the TPACK framework: You can have your hot tools and teach with them, too. Learning and Leading with Technology, 36(7), 14-18.Saltan, F., & Arslan, K. (2009). A new teacher tool, interactive white boards: A meta analysis. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2009 , 2115-2120. Charleston, SC: AACE.Schmidt, D., Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009, February). K-6 literacy learning activity types. Retrieved from College of William and Mary, School of Education, Learning Activity Types Wiki: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/file/view/K-6LiteracyLearningATs- Feb09.pdf Page 51© Brandy Shelton, 2010