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Vegetarian presentation 8 16

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Nutrition for the Vegetarian

Nutrition for the Vegetarian

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    Vegetarian presentation 8 16 Vegetarian presentation 8 16 Presentation Transcript

    • Optimizing the Vegetarian Diet Information for: Registered Dietitians &Vegetarians The Healthy Vegetarian Presented by Brandy Ogg
    • What are the proven health benefits?
      • According to the American Dietetic Association:
      • Decreased Body Mass Index
      • Lower Rates of Ischemic Heart Disease
      • Lower Blood Cholesterol
      • Lower Blood Pressure
      • Lower Rates of Hypertension, Type II Diabetes, Prostate, and Colon Cancer
    • Dietary Modifications
      • Low Cholesterol
      • Low Saturated Fat Intake
      • Increased Complex CHO Consumption
      • Increased Fiber Intake
      • Increased Folate in the Diet
      • Numerous Phytochemicals
    • What type of vegetarians exist?
      • Lacto
      • Lacto-ovo
    • Vegetarian Types
      • Semi-vegetarian
      • Vegan
      • No meat, fish or fowl
    • Nutrient-related Concerns
      • Stereotypical Situation
      • Macronutrients, Trace Minerals & Vitamins
      • Protein
      • Iron
      • Calcium
      • Vitamin B-12
      • N-3 Fatty Acids
    • Protein Quality and Quantity
      • Q. Do plant foods provide the indispensable amino acids?
      • Diets that combine protein sources from a variety of plant foods will provide the indispensable amino acids.
    • Protein Quality and Quantity
      • Non-Vegetarian - Average Protein Needs: (10-15% of our diet)
      • body weight(lbs)/2.2kg x .8gram
      • Lacto-ovo or Lacto-Vegetarian - Average Protein Needs:
      • body weight/2.2 x .8-1grams (slight increase)
      • * Vegan - Average Protein Needs:
      • body weight/2.2 x 1.3-1.8grams (10% increase)
      • *Plant proteins are not digested as well as animal proteins.
      • Infants > 6 yrs old should increase by 15 to 20%
    • Top rated plant protein sources
      • Soy products
      • Legumes
      • Grains
      • Meat Analogs*
      • Nuts
      • Nut Butters
      • Vegetables
    • Enhance Iron Absorption
      • Non-heme Iron Sources
      • Pair with………..Vitamin C
      • Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (DLGV’s):
      • Whole Grains
      • Legumes
      • Nuts
    • Enhance Iron Absorption
      • Other Enhancers
      • Inhibitors
      • Organic Acids (Fruits and Vegetables)
      • Iron fortified foods
      • Fermented Foods
      • Cast Iron Cookware
      • Tannins :
      • Wine
      • Phytate :
      • Beans (soaking)
      • Breads : (leavening)
      • Calcium : Competes for absorption
    • Calcium Sources for Vegetarians
      • Broccoli
      • Fortified Fruit Juices
    • Calcium Sources
      • Fortified Cereals
      • Almonds
    • Bone health is the main concern.
      • Enhances Absorption
      • Increases Calcium Loss
      • Protein
      • Vitamin D
      • Oxalate: Spinach
      • Phytate
      • Excessive sodium intake
      • Use of diuretics: Caffeine
      • Excessive animal protein intake (sulfur containing AA’s)
      • Soft drinks due to phosphoric acid
    • Other Factors Promote Bone Health
      • Vitamins and minerals
      • Exercise
      • Essential Fatty Acids-may be protective
      • Fat soluble vitamins: A,D & K
      • Water Soluble B Vitamins
      • Minerals: Mg,Mn,Ca,Zn,K,B,&Cu
      • Must be weight-bearing!
    • The B-12 Challenge
      • Doesn’t naturally occur in plant foods
      • Must seek out fortified products that contain active B-12
      • Symptoms of B-12 deficiency are masked due to high folate levels in vegetarians.
      • If > 50 yrs, B-12 supplementation is recommended regardless of diet.
      • *More B-12 is absorbed when taken in frequent, smaller amounts compared to one large dose. 5ug of crystalline B-12= 60% absorption vs. one dose of 500ug = ≤ 1%
    • B-12 Sources for Vegetarians
      • Nutritional Yeast
      • Other Alternatives
      *Requires cold storage and must be kept away from light.
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
      • Adequate Intakes (AI’s):
      • Women - 1.1g
      • Men - 1.6g/day
      • Vegan - lacks DHA/EPA: No fish is consumed:
      • AI = 2.2 - 4.4grams/day
      • N-6 : Alpha Linoleic Acid : found abundantly in plants
      • decreased CD risk; lowers LDL cholesterol.
      • N-3 : Alpha Linolenic Acid : found in fish as a preformed source of DHA/EPA and is more effective in reducing TAG’s than n-6.
    • Sources of Omega-3’s in Plants
      • Ground Flaxseeds
      • Hempseeds
      • Canola oil
      • Walnuts
      • Soy Beans
      • DGLV’s
      • Wheat Germ
      • *Not direct sources of DHA/EPA but the body can convert them.
    • Current Recommendations
      • In Agreement
      • Semi-Vegetarians
      • American Heart Association
      • American Dietetic Association
      • Consume “2 servings per week, preferably of fatty fish.” Mackerel & Salmon
      • Low fat fish are much lower in Omega-3’s: Tilapia, Catfish, Tuna
      • Follow the Vegetarian Food Guide
    • 2. Ensure Caloric Intake is Adequate
      • Too many calories:
      • Fat & Sugar
      • Dairy vs. Meat
      • Potato Chips vs. Veg.
      • Excess Junk
      • Too little calories:
      • Anorexia Nervosa
      • Iron-deficient anemia
      • Fatigue
      • Excess Fiber
    • 3. Eat whole grains > whole grain product.
      • Intact Whole Grains
      • Quinoa
      • Barley
      • Millet
      • Rye
      • Brown Rice
      • *Listed as the only ingredient.
      • Whole Grain Products
      • * Listed amongst other ingredients
    • 4. Choose protein sources wisely
      • Consume 2-3 servings of beans or meat alternatives daily & include variety.
      • Lentil Soup
      • Veggie burgers
      • Soymilk
      • Amy’s Bean Burrito
    • 5. Be on the Lookout for:
      • Iron FYI: - malt-o-meal has 60% iron
      • Calcium: Soymilk is fortified=calcium %milk
      • Omega 3’s - Eat nuts and seeds.
      • B-12 – Choose the best option for you.
      Plant Mineral Sources
    • 6.Choose a variety of different colors.
      • Cancer Preventing
      • Phytochemicals
      • DGLV’s
      • Cruciferous
      • Red Fruits-anthocyanins
      • Yellow-white-anthoxanthins
    • The Trend is Your Friend!
      • The National Restaurant Association Reports:
      • FYI: 8/10 restaurants with table service offer vegetarian entrees.
      • FYI: 2.8 billion was profited by US Food companies marketing vegetarian food items.
      • The Vegetarian Lifestyle is gaining popularity!!!
    • Famous Quote
      • "Nothing will benefit health or increase chances of survival on earth as the evolution to a vegetarian diet."
    • Numerous Resources for Vegetarians
      • Happycow.net- Guide to Vegetarian Restaurants
      • The Vegetarian Resource Group (vrg.org)- Dietitian Reviewed
      • USDA’s MyPyramid.gov
      • Evidence Analysis Library(EAL)- for ADA Members
      • Vegetariannutrition.net: Vegetarian Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group
      • Themeatrix.com