Vegetarian presentation 8 16


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Nutrition for the Vegetarian

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Vegetarian presentation 8 16

  1. 1. Optimizing theVegetarian Diet Information for: Registered Dietitians &Vegetarians The Healthy Vegetarian Presented by Brandy Ogg
  2. 2. What are the proven health benefits? According to the American Dietetic Association: Decreased Body Mass Index Lower Rates of Ischemic Heart Disease Lower Blood Cholesterol Lower Blood Pressure Lower Rates of Hypertension, Type II Diabetes, Prostate, and Colon Cancer
  3. 3. Dietary Modifications Low Cholesterol Low Saturated Fat Intake Increased Complex CHO Consumption Increased Fiber Intake Increased Folate in the Diet Numerous Phytochemicals
  4. 4. What type of vegetarians exist? Lacto Lacto-ovo
  5. 5. Vegetarian Types Semi-vegetarian Vegan No meat, fish or fowl
  6. 6. Nutrient-related Concerns Stereotypical Situation Macronutrients, Trace Minerals & Vitamins Protein Iron Calcium Vitamin B-12 N-3 Fatty Acids
  7. 7. Protein Quality and Quantity Q. Do plant foods provide the indispensable amino acids? A.Diets that combine protein sources from a variety of plant foods will provide the indispensable amino acids.
  8. 8. Protein Quality and Quantity Non-Vegetarian- Average Protein Needs: (10-15% of our diet) body weight(lbs)/2.2kg x .8gram Lacto-ovo or Lacto-Vegetarian- Average Protein Needs:  body weight/2.2 x .8-1grams (slight increase) *Vegan- Average Protein Needs: body weight/2.2 x 1.3-1.8grams (10% increase) *Plant proteins are not digested as well as animal proteins. • Infants > 6 yrs old should increase by 15 to 20%
  9. 9. Top rated plant protein sources 1. Soy products 2. Legumes 3. Grains 4. Meat Analogs* 5. Nuts 6. Nut Butters 7. Vegetables
  10. 10. Enhance Iron Absorption Non-heme Iron Sources Pair with………..Vitamin C Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (DLGV’s): Whole Grains Legumes Nuts
  11. 11. Enhance Iron Absorption Other Enhancers Inhibitors Organic Acids (Fruits and Vegetables) Iron fortified foods Fermented Foods Cast Iron Cookware Tannins: • Wine Phytate: • Beans (soaking) •Breads: (leavening) •Calcium: Competes for absorption
  12. 12. Calcium Sources for Vegetarians Broccoli Fortified Fruit Juices
  13. 13. Calcium Sources Fortified Cereals Almonds
  14. 14. Bone health is the main concern. Enhances Absorption Increases Calcium Loss Protein Vitamin D Oxalate: Spinach Phytate Excessive sodium intake Use of diuretics: Caffeine Excessive animal protein intake (sulfur containing AA’s) Soft drinks due to phosphoric acid
  15. 15. Other Factors Promote Bone Health Vitamins and minerals Exercise Essential Fatty Acids-may be protective Fat soluble vitamins: A,D & K Water Soluble B Vitamins Minerals: Mg,Mn,Ca,Zn,K,B,&Cu Must be weight-bearing!
  16. 16. The B-12 Challenge Doesn’t naturally occur in plant foods Must seek out fortified products that contain active B-12 Symptoms of B-12 deficiency are masked due to high folate levels in vegetarians. If > 50 yrs, B-12 supplementation is recommended regardless of diet. *More B-12 is absorbed when taken in frequent, smaller amounts compared to one large dose. 5ug of crystalline B- 12= 60% absorption vs. one dose of 500ug = ≤ 1%
  17. 17. B-12 Sources for Vegetarians Nutritional Yeast Other Alternatives *Requires cold storage and must be kept away from light.
  18. 18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Adequate Intakes (AI’s): Women- 1.1g Men- 1.6g/day Vegan- lacks DHA/EPA: No fish is consumed: AI = 2.2 - 4.4grams/day N-6: Alpha Linoleic Acid: found abundantly in plants decreased CD risk; lowers LDL cholesterol. N-3: Alpha Linolenic Acid: found in fish as a preformed source of DHA/EPA and is more effective in reducing TAG’s than n-6.
  19. 19. Sources of Omega-3’s in Plants Ground Flaxseeds Hempseeds Canola oil Walnuts Soy Beans DGLV’s Wheat Germ *Not direct sources of DHA/EPA but the body can convert them.
  20. 20. Current Recommendations In Agreement Semi-Vegetarians American Heart Association American Dietetic Association Consume “2 servings per week, preferably of fatty fish.” Mackerel & Salmon Low fat fish are much lower in Omega-3’s: Tilapia, Catfish, Tuna
  21. 21. 1. Follow the Vegetarian Food Guide
  22. 22. 2. Ensure Caloric Intake is Adequate Too many calories:  Fat & Sugar  Dairy vs. Meat  Potato Chips vs. Veg.  Excess Junk Too little calories:  Anorexia Nervosa  Iron-deficient anemia  Fatigue  Excess Fiber
  23. 23. 3. Eat whole grains > whole grain product. Intact Whole Grains Quinoa Barley Millet Rye Brown Rice *Listed as the only ingredient. Whole Grain Products * Listed amongst other ingredients
  24. 24. 4. Choose protein sources wisely Consume 2-3 servings of beans or meat alternatives daily & include variety. Lentil Soup Veggie burgers Soymilk Amy’s Bean Burrito
  25. 25. 5. Be on the Lookout for:  Iron FYI: - malt-o-meal has 60% iron  Calcium: Soymilk is fortified=calcium %milk Omega 3’s - Eat nuts and seeds. B-12 – Choose the best option for you. Plant Mineral Sources
  26. 26. 6.Choose a variety of different colors. Cancer Preventing Phytochemicals DGLV’s Cruciferous Red Fruits-anthocyanins Yellow-white- anthoxanthins
  27. 27. The Trend is Your Friend! The National Restaurant Association Reports: FYI: 8/10 restaurants with table service offer vegetarian entrees. FYI: 2.8 billion was profited by US Food companies marketing vegetarian food items. The Vegetarian Lifestyle is gaining popularity!!!
  28. 28. Famous Quote "Nothing will benefit health or increase chances of survival on earth as the evolution to a vegetarian diet."
  29. 29. Numerous Resources for Vegetarians  Guide to Vegetarian Restaurants The Vegetarian Resource Group ( Dietitian Reviewed USDA’s Evidence Analysis Library(EAL)- for ADA Members  Vegetarian Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group 