View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
“ Schools have traditionally operated from the premise that educators have a responsibility to provide students with the opportunity to learn.
Whether or not students actually learn depends on factors educators cannot influence, such as innate ability, student motivation, a home environment that supports and encourages learning, student work habits, and so on.”
“ A professional learning community is an ethos that influences every single aspect of a school’s operation. When a school becomes a professional learning community, everything in the school looks different than it did before.” —Andy Hargreaves
Team norms: Protocols or commitments developed by each team to guide members in working together. Norms help team members clarify expectations regarding how they will work together to achieve their shared goals.
1) To establish that the most powerful strategy for helping a school move forward as a PLC is to engage teachers in writing common assessments and using the data to respond to students, inform teaching practice, and fuel continuous improvement;
2) To stress the significance of SMART goals in helping a group become a team and creating a results orientation; and
3) To establish the significance of celebration in sustaining momentum.
Common assessment: An assessment created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or course and administered to all students in that grade level or course.
Formative assessment: An assessment used to advance and not merely grade learning. A formative assessment is an assessment FOR learning (that is, used as part of the teaching and learning process) as opposed to a summative assessment, an assessment OF learning (used to determine if the student achieved the intended outcome by the deadline).
Common formative assessments are used frequently throughout the year to identify:
Individual students who need additional time and support for learning
The teaching strategies most effective in helping students acquire the intended knowledge and skills
Program concerns—areas in which students generally are having difficulty in achieving the intended standard
Improvement goals for individual teachers and the team
(adapted from Learning by Doing , DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, & Many, 2006, pp. 214-215)
To determine if an assessment is formative, ask:
Is one of the reasons we give the assessment to identify students who are having difficulty in their learning?
Do we require those students to devote additional time and utilize additional support to help them acquire the intended knowledge or skill?
Do we then give those students an additional opportunity to demonstrate that they have learned?
“ Collecting data is only the first step toward wisdom. Sharing data is the first step toward community.”
The goal of a learning community is ultimately to make data easily accessible and openly shared among members of a team so that team members can use it to inform and improve their practice and better meet the needs of their students.
The 3Rs advocate that every teacher should have the benefit of:
1. Regular and timely feedback on his or her student’s progress . . .
2. . . . in achieving an agreed-upon essential standard
3. . . . as measured on a valid, team-developed common assessment
4. . . . in comparison to the other students in the school who are attempting to achieve that same standard.
Tips for Incorporating Celebration Into Your School Culture
1. Explicitly state the purpose of celebration.
2. Make celebration everyone’s responsibility.
3. Establish a clear link between the recognition and the behavior or commitment you are attempting to encourage or reinforce.
4. Create opportunities for many winners.
( Learning by Doing, DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, & Many, 2006, p. 31)