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Consultree

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  • 1. Consultree_demo2i.indd 1 1/31/2011 3:55:56 PM
  • 2. LanguEDGE THE SOUND SPEECH OF “To speak and to speak well are two different things.” ~ Ben Johnson Exercise & Workbook. Listen, Learn & Apply consultree TM transforming ideas into capabilities Consultree India Private Limited 10th Floor, ‘Kanchana’. 7/1, Russel Street, Kolkata - 700071 Ph: 033 22177670 - 72 Fax: 033 22177673 Web: www.consultree.in Email: learning@consultree.inConsultree_demo2i.indd 2-3 1/31/2011 3:55:57 PM
  • 3. Table of Contents Introduction to Sound of Speech 7 How to use this book 9 Exercises A. Speech Organs 12 B. Phonetics 14 C. Sound a. Sound Sub 1 16 b. Sound Sub 2 18 c. Sound Sub 3 20 d. Sound Sub 4 22 e. Sound Sub 5 24 f. Sound Sub 6 26 D. Syllables & Word Stress 28 E. Linked Speech & Sentense Stress 30 F. Intonation 32 Answer Keys 34 CD ROM Attached & Usage Manual 36 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 4 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 5Consultree_demo2i.indd 4-5 1/31/2011 3:55:57 PM
  • 4. Introduction to Sound of Speech This workbook is a guide and a series of practice exercises which is to be used along with the course on (The Sound of Speech). The course has been designed to help students overcome a very com- mon problem, that of minimizing their own native accents as well as become speakers of Global English where not only are they easily understood by all but their English is pleasant to listen to as well. Keep in mind that your accent is hard- wired in your brain and it takes a lot of practice to modify it. However, the effort is worth the raise in confidence and esteem that it brings. English is unlike many Indian languages in that words are often pro- nounced differently from the way they are spelt. This can cause a lot of confusion for a non-native speaker of English. However, if you think of the sounds of the language instead of the spelling, you would find it much easier. Remember, English has 26 letters in the alphabet when you write, but 44 sounds when you speak! The course will take you through all these as well as cover chapters on phonetics, word and sentence stress and how to modulate your voice. Use this book to reinforce and practice what you have learnt. Make English an everyday part of your life: read, watch English pro- grams and movies, listen to English music, improve your vocabulary – all this will make you a better and more confident speaker. Your voice creates a valuable first impression for others – learn to control and make it a positive one! LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 6 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 7Consultree_demo2i.indd 6-7 1/31/2011 3:55:57 PM
  • 5. This is a demo text to be replaced with the original content. The four How to use this book defensible network components are ordered by ease of implementa- tion. Begin with monitoring. At the very heart of any defensible net- The book follows the course in the order of the chapters covered. work is the idea of guring out what is happening in the enterprise. Certain sections of the course which are longer have been covered If you have no idea how your network is being used, by authorized by more than one chapter to make sure you get full practice. and unauthorized parties, it is difficult to know how to move forward. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of network use and abuse does not Each chapter has an explanation on the left side of the page. These stop many organizations from implementing the security silver bullet include charts, diagrams and tables where needed. Practice exer- du jour. cises are on the right-hand side. Assume the administrator has no spare equipment to begin monitor- ing. With $10,000, the administrator could buy one or more decent What do i need? server-class systems to host an open source NSM suite like Sguil. She may need to buy one or more taps or perhaps an enterprise-class You need audio equipment to play the CD which is included with the switch. I would also recommend buying one or more books from my book. It also helps if you keep a small mirror to see whether you are recommended reading lists (http://www.bejtlich.net/reading.html) pronouncing certain sounds correctly. You can also compare yourself to guide her analysis process. There’s no point deploying equipment with the mouth diagrams given. Recording your own voice can be and inspecting traffc if it cannot be deciphered! very helpful. I suggest conducting a traffc threat assessment, as described in Chapter 6, to get an idea of exactly what sort of activity is entering and leaving the enterprise. Based on her monitoring fndings—and How do i practice? there will be fndings of some unpleasant sort—she may find it easi- er to justify additional expenditures. From there, continue with con- Each chapter has some audio exercises. The track to be played will trol. Open source solutions like the Pf firewall on BSD and the Squid be displayed with the ___ symbol. These and other exercises may ask proxy can begin to limit inbound and outbound traffic. Minimizing you to tick, underline or circle answers or fill in blanks. Repeat the and updating software will be costly in terms of time, but hopefully audio exercises that you find difficult or where you have a problem. not in fnancial The audio exercises are important not only for your speaking but I suggest conducting a traffc threat assessment, as described in your listening skills too. Chapter 6, to get an idea of exactly what sort of activity is entering and leaving the enterprise. I suggest conducting a traffc threat as- sessment, as described in Chapter 6, to get an idea of exactly what How do I check my answers? sort of activity is entering and leaving the enterprise. Answer keys are at the back of the book. There are also more exer- cises for you to practice. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 8 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 9Consultree_demo2i.indd 8-9 1/31/2011 3:55:57 PM
  • 6. A. ORGANS OF SPEECH EXERCISE A.1 What is the function of the following organs of speech? 1) Vocal Cords 2) Teeth 3) Lips 4) Hard palate 5) Tongue A.2 Pronounce the following sounds and tick the organ(s) of speech used: Sound Tongue Teeth Lips Nose i b AIR FROM LUNGS g ii ↓ iii f LARYNX iv e ↓ v m VOCAL CORDS vi s ↓ vii k VOICED/UNVOICED SOUNDS (/s/ and /z/) viii w ↓ ix v THE PALATE (soft and hard and the alveolar ridge) h x ↓ TONGUE (back, front, blade, tip) ↓ A.3 Listen to the sounds on the audio CD and repeat TEETH (important in forming /s/and /z/ sounds and sounds such as /θ/ /ð/ and /l/) ↓ 1) r 2) b 3) s 4) y 5) k LIPS (/p/ /b/ /m/ /f/ /v/ /w/) 6) t 7) i 8) ch 9) v 10) w ↓ LIPS (/p/ /b/ /m/ /f/ /v/ /w/) LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 10 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 11Consultree_demo2i.indd 10-11 1/31/2011 3:55:57 PM
  • 7. B. PHONETICS EXERCISE A.1 In each of the following group of words, one word is exactly the same as in nor- mal letters. Underline it. Then write the others in normal letters. Example - /teibl/ /t∫eə/ /bed/ /saufə/ Table Chair Sofa 1) peIpə/ /pen/ /buk/ /steIplə 2) hed/ /fIŋə/ /t∫In/ /leg 3) ten/ /tU:/ /naIn/ /θri: 4) blaek/ /blU:/ /red/ /pInk 5) hen/ /dDg/ /∫i:p/ /cau 6) kəmpju:tə/ /faIl/ /desk/ /teləfəun A.2 Some phonetic spellings are very different from their normal spellings. Tran- scribe the following words using the phonetic symbols given below. Example - quick /kwik/ t∫ eə m i k s t e ʤ u: s ∫ u: ə ð eʊ Ѳ s k i s n ∫ i l g ŋ i k w e s t∫ ə b z u: j n k w k ∫ s f r i: j k ∫ w i k ai ə u: u: ð z t∫ l n t ʤ 1) Breathes 2) Chair 3) Edge 4) English 5) Future 6) Juice 7) Mixed 8) News 9) Ocean 10) Question 11) Quite 12) School 13) Shoe 11) Sixth 12) Though A.3 Underline the word with a different vowel sound. Example - hot hold gone swan 1) What hot most salt 2) Good book blood push 3) Case day fame care 4) Leaf beach bread scene 5) Back want bad hand A.4 Underline the word if one of the consonant letters is not pronounced. Example - camp crisp climb cost 1) Lamb label cable cab 2) Recipe repeat receipt rope 3) Listen winter eaten after 4) Hour hate home hill 5) Cold calm color film LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 12 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 13Consultree_demo2i.indd 12-13 1/31/2011 3:55:59 PM
  • 8. C. SOUND EXERCISE Exercise 1 VOWEL SOUNDS (Audio exercise) Listen to the following sentences. Which vowel sound is Vowel sounds are those sounds produced when there is no obstruction used in the underlined words? to the passage of air. Put the words in the correct columns below depending on the vowel We all know that a, e, I, o and u are vowels. But do you know how many sound you hear. vowel sounds there are? Twenty! 1) They walked to the pool in the morning. 2) Could you get a good book on fruits for me? We confuse vowel sounds while talking. Do some people say 3) The wild corn grew in the woods. 4) Did you put the ball on the floor? ‘heppy’ instead of ‘happy’? What about ‘sleep’ instead of ‘slip’? ‘I sleeped on the road.’. Does ‘live’ sometimes become ‘leave’? 5) The walls and floor were a bright blue. 6) We took the horse for a jaunt at noon. ‘ Where do you leave?’ (maybe put in cartoons here to illustrate) 7) Look at Luke standing on the lawn. Why do we do this? Because the five vowel alphabets have 20 vowel sounds – some are short, some are long and some are combined (what /u:/ sound Short ‘oo’ sound ‘AW’ sound we call dipthongs). It’s not difficult for us to sometimes get confused! Chapter 1 ‘oo’ /u:/ (long vowel sound) Mechanism: Round your lips with your tongue midway in the mouth. It is a long vowel sound because we can st-re-tch the vowel! ( give a dia- gram). Practice by saying these words aloud: boot, shoot, choose, truth, blue, group, crew Exercise 2 ‘oo’ (short vowel sound) (Audio exercise)Tick the sentence that you hear: Mechanism: The lips are not as rounded as in long ‘oo’. The jaw is not as high as in long ‘oo’. 1) A) We will pull in together. B) We will pool in together. We can’t stretch this sound so we call it a short vowel sound. (give dia- 2) A) He could drive the car. B) He cooed, “Drive the car.” gram) Practice by saying these words: book, cook, shook, wool, wood 3) A) The wall is a pretty pink! B) The wool is a pretty pink! AW’ (long vowel sound) 4) A) Ganguly caught the ball neatly. B) Ganguly cut the ball neatly. Mechanism: : The front of the tongue is down, the lips are rounded a 5) A) ‘Would’ is often pronounced incorrectly. B) ‘Wooed’ is often pronounced incorrectly. little and the lower jaw drops. Practice by saying these words aloud: war, caught, court, bought, morning, floor, born. (give mouth diagram) LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 14 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 15Consultree_demo2i.indd 14-15 1/31/2011 3:55:59 PM
  • 9. EXERCISE Chapter 2 Exercise 1 ‘ee’ /i:/ (long vowel sound) Change the vowel sounds in the following words from a long /i:/ to a Mechanism: Raise the middle of your tongue high in the mouth and say short ‘I’ sound: the sound as you smile. It is a voiced sound. Give mouth diagram. Prac- 1) Least 2) Beat 3) Heat tice by saying the words sheet, heat, meet, keep 4) Leap 5) Cheap 6) Sleep 7) Bean 8) Wheat 9) Sheep ‘ee’ /e/ (short vowel sound) 10) Meal Mechanism: The jaw is further down than in /i:/ and the smile is smaller. Exercise 2 The back of the tongue is down. Give mouth diagram. Practice by saying the words shed, bed, men, when. (Audio exercise) Listen to the recording. Circle the words having a long /i:/ sound, underline the words having a short ‘ee’ sound and tick the words having the short ‘I’ sound. ‘i’ /I/ (short vowel sound) I wish to meet Dhoni. It is one of my dreams. I think a ship would be the Mechanism: The tongue is up when you say this sound. Give mouth best place to win him over. We could eat sweet curried beans and chips diagram. Practice with the words win, pit, bit, linger, him. with eggs and gaze at the sea and the fish in it. The setting would make me feel like a queen. I would wear a green dress with pink beads and a net slip. I would live for this to be. But alas! It is only in my sleep! Exercise 3 (Audio Exercise) Listen and tick the word that you hear. Then read the sentence aloud. Are you pronouncing the word correctly? 1) The hills/heels were quite high. 2) Be sure that you do not slip/sleep on the floor. 3) The bins/beans were very unclean. 4) Don’t live/leave this way! 5) The set/seat was decorated well LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 16 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 17Consultree_demo2i.indd 16-17 1/31/2011 3:55:59 PM
  • 10. EXERCISE Chapter 3 Exercise 1 aa’ /a/ (long vowel sound) (Audio exercise) Listen to the sentences, If they are both the same, put a Mechanism: The tongue is relaxed, flat and low behind the lower teeth. tick next to them and if they are different, then put a cross. Write down It is a voiced sound. It’s the sound you might make if you were very satis- what you heard. ( These sentences will not be written here, only in the fied after a good meal, got hurt or were scared of something –aah! Give solutions) diagram. Practice with words like star, graph, laugh, party 1) His hurt was showing. His heart was showing. ‘er’ З: (long vowel sound) 2) Put the card on the table. Put the curd on the table. Mechanism: The lips, tongue and jaw are all in a very relaxed position. 3) The bard arose early everyday. The bird arose early everyday. Give mouth diagram. Practice with curd, hurt, bird, turtle, worse, worst. 4) The shards were on the floor. The shards were on the floor. Be careful! A lot of us get the /a/ sound and the ‘er’ sound mixed up! Do you sometimes say “ My head is hearting”? Give cartoon here. Practice Exercise 2 the contrast exercises given carefully. (Audio exercise)Listen and repeat these words. Can you hear and re- peat the difference in the short /ae/ and the short /e/ sound? ‘ae’ æ (short vowel sound) 1) Had head 2) Bland blend 3) Van when Mechanism: The tongue is low and pushed forward a bit. Lips are spread slightly and jaws are opened and then closed. Give mouth diagram. 4) Sad said 5) Bad bed 6) Than then Practice words with this sound: mad, sad, matter, ragging, ladder. 7) Marry merry 8) Lap leapt 9) And end 10) Tan ten 11) Flack fleck LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 18 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 19Consultree_demo2i.indd 18-19 1/31/2011 3:55:59 PM
  • 11. EXERCISE Chapter 4 Exercise 1 ‘u’ /Λ/ (short vowel sound): as in ‘but’ (Audio exercise) Which sound can you hear? Is it the short ‘aw’ sound Mechanism: Curve your tongue halfway up to the center with jaws open. or the long ‘AW’ sound? Tick the word that you have heard. Give mouth diagram. Practice words with the sound like but, blunt, shunt, 1) The stork/stock was very small. 2) They had a new cot/court put in. hunt, stump 3) This fork/frock was made in Sweden. 4) We found the cork/clock in the room. ‘aw’ (short vowel sound) Exercise 2 Mechanism: Tongue is lower than ‘u’ /Λ/, and it is also flatter. Give mouth Say these words aloud contrasting the sounds. diagram. 1) But blot bought Say these words aloud to practice the sound: plot, block, golf, stock, clock and rock. 2) Cut cot caught 3) Shut shot short / / the schwa sound 4) Putt pot port This is the most common sound in the English language! 5) Tut tot taught Mechanism: It is a weak vowel sound that is made with your tongue in a relaxed position in the center of your mouth. It sounds like “uh” or an “er” Exercise 3 or the sound when you are hit in the stomach. We will learn more about (Audio exercise) Listen to the following words. Tick the words where you this sound when we do word stress. can hear the weak schwa sound. Put a cross where you cannot hear the Any vowel can sound like a schwa. schwa sound. Say the words father, mother, carrot, water. Do you find the second part of each of these words to have a weak vowel sound? This is the schwa Doctor mother blue sound. Sugar pool carrot Clap picture shoot LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 20 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 21Consultree_demo2i.indd 20-21 1/31/2011 3:55:59 PM
  • 12. EXERCISE Chapter 5 Exercise 1 DIPTHONGS (Audio exercise) Listen to the following sentences. Tick the sentence you When there are two vowel sounds together, the word is called a ‘dip- hear. Listen again and repeat the sentence you have heard. thong’. The two vowels combine in a word and the sound glides from 1) A: Is this the air? 2) A: It was a nice pier. one vowel to another. Be careful not to use pure vowels, but glide into the second vowel. Don’t pronounce each vowel equally clearly. B: Is this the ear? B: It was a nice pear. Remember that the first part of a dipthong is stronger and longer than 3) A: Give us a cheer. 4) A: Don’t say ‘dare’ to me! the second part. B: Give us a chair. B: Don’t say ‘dear’ to me. /e / as in ‘chair’ Exercise 2 Mechanism: First make an /e/ sound as in the word ‘ten’ and then end in the schwa sound / /. (put mouth diagram) Listen to these words. Repeat and practice Practice with these words : chair, hair, air, bear, care, pair. 1) Ear/air 2) We’re/where 3) Hear/hair 4) Tear/tear /I / as in ‘chair’ 5) Cheer/chair 6) Gear/glare Mechanism: First make an /i:/ sound as in the word ‘please’. Then end in the schwa sound / /. Exercise 3 Practice the sound with the words hear, near, cheer, fear, ear and dear. Read these sentences aloud. There is a difference in sound between the words in italics. Are you pronouncing the words correctly? ‘ow’ sound (put in phonetic symbol) as in ‘house’ 1) Did he bowl the ball well? Mechanism: Open the mouth wide and say the sound /ae/ as in ‘man’. Then move into the sound found in the word /book/. (give phonetic sym- 2) I caught the coat before it fell on the floor. bol) Practice with the words: house, mouse, blouse, foul, drought, how, shout, brown. 3) There are few ports in the North Pole. 4) All the older people in the village were shifted to a safer place. ‘oh’ sound (put in phonetic symbol) as in ‘home’ 5) Please call the shop to send us some more coal. Mechanism: The mouth is relaxed. The lips are moved to a round shape. The back of the tongue now moves up from the relaxed position with the jaw moving up a little. Make the schwa sound ( ) like ‘er’ and then move onto the sound as in ‘book’. (give phonetic symbol) Practice words like: slow, coat, dough, show, ocean, most, go, row, over, hold, home, code, phone. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 22 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 23Consultree_demo2i.indd 22-23 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 13. EXERCISE Chapter 6 Exercise 1 MORE DIPTHONGS Look at the pictures. Answer the questions below each and then repeat the sentence to practice the contrast between the short /e/ and the dip- ‘I’ (aa + ay) as in ‘five’ (give phonetic symbol) thong /ei/. Mechanism: The tongue is low in the mouth. Lower the jaw, open the 1) The first picture has a boy falling and so he doesn’t win a race. lips wide and raise the jaw. Start with the sound /α:/ as in the word ‘cart’ and move into the sound found in the word ‘pit’. Caption underneath – Why did he fail to win the race? Practice these words: five, eye, sky, island, dye, file, sight, invite, wine Ans He failed to win the race because he 2) The second picture shows some pepper fallen on a sheet of paper. /eI/ ‘ay’ sound as in ‘pain’ Caption underneath: Where has the pepper fallen? Mechanism: Start with an ‘e’ as in ‘get’, than make the mouth smaller and say the /i/ sound as in ‘pit’. Ans The pepper has fallen on the Practice the words: late, vein, pray, play, May, day, fail, stay, pain, pay, 3) Third picture: A girl is stopping another girl from sitting on a wet paper chair. A bubble says ‘Wait!’ ‘oi’ sound (put in phonetic symbol)as in ‘toy’ Caption underneath: Why is the girl saying “Wait”? Mechanism: First you say the sound as in ‘call’. Then you glide into the Ans She is telling her to wait as the paint is sound as in ‘pit’. 4) Fourth picture: A sale at a shop. The items look a little old Practice with words boil, voice, ointment, toy, boy, joy, oil. Caption underneath: Why do shops have a sale? ‘oo+u’ sound as in ‘poor’ (give phonetic symbol) Ans Shops try to their older items in a sale. Mechanism: Start with the long ‘oo’ sound as in ‘shoot’ and then move 5) Fifth picture: A child is not studying and instead playing with a pen. into the ‘er’ sound of the schwa. Practice with poor, tour, moor, truer. Caption underneath: Why is Sara not studying? Ans He failed to win the race because he LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 24 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 25Consultree_demo2i.indd 24-25 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 14. WORKBOOK: CONSONANT SOUNDS Exercise 2 (Audio exercise)Listen to the following pairs of words. Repeat after you hear each pair. Chapter 1 1) Pool/poor /b/ and /p/ sounds 2) Soot/Sewer Mechanism: The mechanism for producing both the sounds is similar: 3) Tool/ tour the lips are initially closed and air is stopped. Then the lips open to re- lease air (show mouth diagram) 4) Blue/bluer However, /b/ is a voiced sound with sound coming from the throat. The 5) Do/doer /p/ sound is unvoiced, there is a small gush of air when you make the sound. You can feel this if you put your hand in front of your mouth and Exercise 3 say ‘pull’. Contrast this with when you say ‘bull’. No air hits your hand when you say ‘bull’. This is the difference in the mechanism between the Read this conversation aloud. Underline the words in which you hear two. the sound as in ‘five’. Remember! The letters ‘ph’ when in a word take a /f/ sound as in ‘tele- A) Hi Minni, do you wish to fly a kite? phone’ (diagram - write phonetically) B) No, I wanted to ride the white pony I saw last night at the mall. /t/ and /d/ sounds C) Did you know that horse bites? It nearly bit off someone’s eye Mechanism: The tongue first touches the tooth ridge (air is stopped). D) Surely you lie - but why? Then it moves away from the tooth ridge (air is released). However, /t/ is unvoiced whereas /d/ is voiced. There is no gush of air E) It was a guide – he tried to climb the horse from the wrong side! on your hand if you hold it in front of your mouth and say ‘dream’. You can feel the air if you say the word ‘team’. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 26 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 27Consultree_demo2i.indd 26-27 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 15. EXERCISE Exercise 1 Exercise 4 Listen to the recording and tick the correct sentence below. Listen to these sentences. Tick what you hear. A) That’s a nice picture of a beach. That’s a nice picture of a peach. 1) Did you know that this is the biggest train/drain in the country? B) She kept it in her lap. She kept it in her lab. 2) The wider/whiter the building the more attractive it looks. C) The bear fell from the tree. The pear fell from the tree. 3) She’s written/ridden it earlier. D) That’s a nice pair of cubs! That’s a nice pair of cups! 4) Did you dry/try the new shirt? E) There are only a few peas in the jar. There are only a few bees in the jar. 5) He’s taught/thought about it earlier. Exercise 2 Now listen again and repeat the sentences loudly. Check your pronunciation. Say these words aloud. Put a tick where you hear a /b/ or /p/ sound. 1) Lamp 2) Lamb 3) Elephant 4) Recipe 5) Photo 6) Special 7) Comb 8) Apart 9) Climb 10) Hopeful 11) Christopher 12) Headphone Exercise 3 Read the following words. Circle the word where you do not say the /t/ sound: 1) Argument 2) Listen 3) Obtain 4) Castle 5) Wished 6) Whiten 7) Temper 8) Soften LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 28 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 29Consultree_demo2i.indd 28-29 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 16. EXERCISE Chapter 2 Exercise 1 Read the passage aloud. Circle the /f/ sounds. /f/ and /v/ sounds My wife’s very scared of elephants. Whenever she sees one walking on Mechanism: Put your top teeth on your lower lip and push air through the road, she flees from the footpath and uses her phone to call other the gap (show diagram). However, /f/ is unvoiced and /v/ comes from wives and asks them to take photos. We’ve tried various ways to help her the throat and is unvoiced. It is a deeper sound. Put your hand in front overcome this fear but she laughs them off saying people who are not of your mouth and repeat the sounds. Can you feel the air on your hand fearful of these animals ought to go and see vets themselves! when you make the /f/ sound? It is absent with the /v/ sound. (show mouth diagrams for both /f/ and /v/ sounds. Exercise 2 Remember: Words with ’ph’ will have a /f/ sound. Say the words photo- Practice reading graph, elephant, phone, laugh Pork fork pork The /v/ sound and /b/ sounds have different mechanisms. Say the words: Feel peel feel vase, Vinny, vest, five, seven. Vat bat vat Are you making the sound /b/ instead of /v/? Look at the mechanism of /b/ again. Practice the words above again. Vest best vest Chief cheap chief The /w/ sound Vote boat vote Wife’s wives wife’s Mechanism: Push lips forward as when you make the /u/ sound. Then Very berry very let your tongue and lower lip drop. The /u/ glides into the /w/ sound. (show mouth diagram ) Exercise 3 Both the /v/ sound and the /w/ sound are voiced: but the mechanisms are different. Listen to the exercises on the opposite page so that you are Listen to these sentences and tick what you hear. able to hear the difference in the sounds. 1) I feel warmer in the west/vest! 2) The wiper/viper moved across the windscreen. 3) We could see the veil/whale in the distance. 4) The vine/wine was stored in that room. 5) The veal/wheel fell off the truck! LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 30 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 31Consultree_demo2i.indd 30-31 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 17. Exercise 4 Chapter 3 Listen to these words. They all have the /w/ sound. Repeat. The /s/ and /z/ sounds 1) Quick 2) Were Mechanism: In both these sounds, put your tongue near the mouth ridge 3) Where and release air through the gap. ( show mouth diagrams for both the /s/ and /z/ sound) 4) Language However, the /s/ sound is unvoiced and sounds like the hissing of a 5) Question snake. The /z/ sound is voiced and sounds like the buzzing of a bee. 6) Won 7) Windy The /sh/ sound 8) Whatever 9) Qualify Mechanism 10) Worry To make the /sh/ sound different from the /s/ sound, curve your tongue 11) Square behind the tooth ridge and push air the gap. Pull the tip of your tongue 12) Would slightly back and up. (It’s the same sound you make when you want someone to be silent : ‘shh’). See the mouth diagram. The /sh/ sound , like the /s/ sound, is unvoiced. There is no vibration from the throat. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 30 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 31Consultree_demo2i.indd 32-33 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 18. EXERCISE Exercise 1 Exercise 4 Practice reading this passage aloud. Practice the tongue twisters 1) I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop. A lazy Thursday at the zoo found the zebras grazing on zinnias, posing for pictures and teasing the zookeeper, whose nose was bronzed by the Where she sits she shines, and where she shines she sits. sun. The biggest zebra’s name was Zachary, but his friends called him 2) I see a sea down by the seashore. Zack. Zack was a confusing zebra whose zeal for reasons caused his But which sea do you see down by the seashore? cousins, who were naturally unreasoning, to pause in their conversa- 3) Sarah saw a shot-silk sash shop full of shot-silk sashes as the sunshine tions. While they browsed, he philosophized. As they grazed, he prac- shone on the side of the shot-silk sash shop. ticed Zen. They were Zack’s cousins, so the zebras did nothing, but they wished he would muzzle. 4) How many sheets could a sheet slitter slit if a sheet slitter could slit sheets? Exercise 2 Listen and then practice this tongue-twister. Denise sees the fleece, Denise sees the fleas. At least Denise could sneeze and feed and freeze the fleas. Exercise 3 Listen to the sentences. Circle what you hear. Check your answers. Maria: Did you clean the sheet/seat today? Actor: My suit/shoot was all wrong today. Ravi: I couldn’t find my cell/shell in the house. Rita: Are you sure it wasn’t in the sack/shack? Anil: I wish I had saved/shaved yesterday. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 32 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 33Consultree_demo2i.indd 34-35 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 19. EXERCISE Exercise 1 Chapter 4 Practice: The /j/ sound 1) The breeze is blowing over Howrah bridge. Mechanism: In /j/ the tongue touches the upper tooth ridge, After mov- ing the tongue behind it, release air. This sound is voiced, like /z/. How- 2) The poor Jap chap was zapped by the expensive badge. ever, in /j/ the tip of the tongue touches the tooth ridge whereas in /z/ it does not. Exercise 2 Practice these tongue twisters: The /j/ and /ch/ sounds 1) Chinese chickens choose cheap cherries. Mechanism : The mechanism of both the /ch/ sound and the /j/ is the same. However, /ch/ is unvoiced while /j/ is voiced. Put your hand in 2) Chester Cheetah chews a chunk of cheep cheddar cheese. front of your mouth and feel the air on your hand when you say /ch/. It Exercise 3 is not there when you say /j/. Practice this tongue twister. The /zh/ sound Casual clothes are provisional for leisurely trips across Asia. Mechanism: to make this sound add voice from your throat when you say /sh/ . ( /sh/ + voice = /zh/). This sound comes from the throat and is Exercise 4 voiced. Put the following words in the column depending on the sound : Thousand, usually , Cheetah, orange, explosion, Dutch, German, rich, ridge, casual, beige, museum, , version, jeep, cherry, cabbage, chicken, watching, garage, pleasure Thousand, usually , Cheetah, orange, explosion, Dutch, German, rich, ridge, casual, beige, museum, , version, jeep, cherry, cabbage, chicken, watching, garage, pleasure /j/ sound /ch/ sound /zh/ sound LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 34 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 35Consultree_demo2i.indd 36-37 1/31/2011 3:56:00 PM
  • 20. EXERCISE Exercise 1 Chapter 5 Circle the voiced /th/ sound and tick the unvoiced /th/ sounds. Unvoiced /th/ and voiced /th/ 1) I am feeling really thirsty. Unvoiced /th/ 2) We went home though the party wasn’t over. ( as in ‘Thursday’) 3) Yoga teaches us to breathe right. Mechanism: Put tip of tongue between upper and lower teeth. Don’t put 4) You can call from that booth. between lips. Force air through gap. Do not make a voiced sound. You can feel air on your hand if you hold it in front of the face. 5) I would rather forget about the experience. Exceptions: sometimes unvoiced /th/ takes on a /t/ sound. This hap- 6) Throw your old clothes away! pens mostly when the sound comes in a Proper Noun. Example : Thom- as, Thompson, Theresa, Thames, apartheid Exercise 2 Voiced /th/ (as in ‘than’) Oral reading. Mechanism: Put tip of tongue between upper and lower teeth. Don’t put The thieves seem to strike in bad weather. I remember the time when the tongue between the lips. Force air through opening between teeth my father had gone for a gathering on Thursday, the sixth of December. and tongue. The weatherman had said the weather would be fine but it rained. They entered the house when my brother was sleeping and stole thousands of rupees and many valuable things. It seemed to be over in a tenth of a second. Then my mother returned in the thick rain and thought that they should rather stay in an apartment than a house which is so easy to thieve from. By the seventh month of the next year, they had shifted from there. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 36 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 37Consultree_demo2i.indd 38-39 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 21. WORKBOOK: SYLLABLES Exercise 3 English has a rhythm like music. The basis for this rhythm is the syllable. Contrast the voiced /th/ and voiced /d/ sounds A syllable is a group of one or more sounds- the essential part of it is a 1) Bathe bade vowel sound. Some syllables consist of just one vowel sound like eye and owe. 2) Then den Remember: All syllables must have a vowel. 3) Father fodder Your mouth shape changes with each syllable. (Drawings here of mouth 4) Breathe breed shape changes with the word ‘funniest’, i.e. three drawings). Clap as you say each syllable, its good practice! 5) They day Remember too that past ending of regular verbs take an extra syllable: e.g. fainted, started, mended, shouted, waited Sometimes, syllables are ‘dropped’ when speaking: Exercise 4 history, evening, vegetable, temperature, general Contrast the unvoiced /th/ sound with the unvoiced /t/ sound. 1) Three tree 2) Thanks tanks 3) Thick tick 4) Booth boot 5) Though toe LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 38 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 39Consultree_demo2i.indd 40-41 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 22. EXERCISE Exercise 1 6) You’re deliberately provoking me! Do the past endings of these verbs take an extra syllable with the ‘ed’ 7) Vegetables are an important part of our diet. ending? Put them in the correct boxes. 8) Are you comfortable? Ask, mix, count, seem, wait, float, wash, land, slam, rest, hope, wait 9) I was so surprised! One syllable O Extra syllable Oo 10) There used to be a general store beside the book shop. 11) The average age of everyone here is thirty. Exercise 2 Circle the words which have four syllables. elephant philosophy embarrassing wondering ordinary impossible nowadays forgettable seminar Exercise 3 Read the sentences below and count the syllables. Have you counted correctly? Check your answers. 1) My favourite time of year is winter. 2) I have terrible business sense 1) My favourite time of year is winter. 3) Have you changed the temperature setting on the oven? 4) I love mystery books! 5) Everybody likes chocolate. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 40 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 41Consultree_demo2i.indd 42-43 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 23. WORKBOOK: SYLLABLES Some guidelines you can use: Type Guideline Examples Exceptions Rhythm is the way a language sounds because of the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in speech. These rhythms are not the same for Most two Stress on the first syllable Student: Oo Nouns with a long vowel all languages and is the reason why different languages have distinct syllable (Oo) sound – hotel, monsoon, Doctor: Oo sounds. English is a stress-timed language with unequal stress on differ- Nouns and machine ent syllables and words. Most Indian languages are syllable-timed: all adjectives syllables are stressed equally. Most two Stress on the second Forget: oO Verbs which end in two Stress on wrong syllables is a common cause of poor communication as syllable verbs syllable (oO) consonants and verbs it can be difficult to hear and understand the word. Moreover, stressing Enjoy: oO that don’t have a long the word differently can cause a change in the meaning or type of word vowel sound – cancel, (whether it is a noun or verb}. promise (Put in a cartoon here of a man telling another man, ”But I thought you Two-syllable Nouns are stressed on ‘My present Words like answer, re- said it’s her 19th birthday!”. In his hand is an open gift of a super-short words which the first syllable (Oo); (Oo) is a watch’; ply, travel, visit are both nouns verbs are stressed on the dress and high stilettos. On the bed lies a bemused old woman. On the and verbs ‘I present (oO) second (oO) wall is a banner with ‘Happy 90th Birthday’ written on it.) him a watch.’ Remember, one word has only one stress. If you hear two stresses then you are hearing two words. We stress the vowels not the consonants. So how do we stress a syllable? We need to make the syllable: - Longer (insert picture maybe of a boy making a long sound) - Higher (insert picture) - Louder (insert picture) The opposite is true for the unstressed syllables too! With multi-syllabic words, there is always a primary stressed syllable, one/some syllables which are the secondary stress (the vowel sound is clear but not loud) and an unstressed syllable which has the ‘schwa’ sound. This is the most common sound in the English language. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 42 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 43Consultree_demo2i.indd 44-45 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 24. EXERCISE Compound words are formed from two smaller words. Which part do we stress? Most compound words have their stress on the first part e.g. Exercise 1 sunglasses (Ooo), footpath (Oo), photocopy (Oooo). However, if the first part of the compound word is an adjective, the second part gets Say these words aloud and circle the one which has a different stress stressed too! Examples are double room (OoO), bad-tempered (OOo). pattern from the rest’ Most prefixes and suffixes do not change the stress in a word e.g. for- get, forgetful, forgetfulness, forgettable, unforgettable. However, the 1) Table petrol guitar speaker following word endings will change the syllables usually stressed in a word: 2) Forget believe compare answer Words ending in… Rule Examples 3) Simple correct careful hopeless ‘-ic’ Main stress is always economic, electric, 4) Cancel receive depart arrive on the second-last photographic syllable ‘-tion’ education, tuition, sug- Exercise 2 gestion Put the following in the correct boxes depending on the stress pattern. ‘-sion’ collision, confusion, tele- pronunciation, economic, bottle, attend, boring, admission, clinic, vision situation, expensive, telecommunication, identification, ‘-cian’ musician, politician, electrician Oo oO ‘-sive’ expensive, extensive, oOo ooOo oooOo Note how the stress shifts because of the above: ooooOo Photograph →photographic →photography oooooOo National →nationalize → nationalization → nationality Civil →civilize →civilization → civility Electric →electrician →electricity Atom →atomic LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 44 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 45Consultree_demo2i.indd 46-47 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 25. Unit 5: Linked Speech • When the sounds /t/ and /d/ appear between two consonant sounds, they often disappear completely. Eg. I can’(t) swim. Exercise 3 I’m going nex(t) week. Listen to the passage and put the underlined words in the correct col- Jus (t) one person left! umns depending on the word stress patterns. • Another form of assimilation is when the last sound of the first word Note: In speech, we often contract and link sounds for better fluency. We and the first sound of the following word change to a third sound. do not enunciate each word individually. Eg. Good girl (googgirl) White paper (whipepaper) Contractions Hand bag (hambag) Contractions of more than one set of words can be the same. Ex A: Write the full forms of the contracted sentences below.. For example: He had = He’d She is = she’s 1. I’ll call you. He would = He’d She has = she’s 2. We did not finish the work. Linking 3. You’re late! 4. I hadn’t thought of that! • Vowel to vowel: When one word ends in a vowel sound and the next one starts with a vowel sound, we insert a /w/ or /j/ sound to link the 5. I’m not sure I’d agree with you. words. Eg. Why are you always late? 6. You should know better at your age! /wai//yar//ju:/ /wɔlweiz//leit/ 7. Do I owe you anything? • Consonant to vowel: when a word ends in a consonant and the next 8. It’s quarter to eight already. word begins with a vowel, the consonant will link to the vowel in the next word. 9. Her eyes are a strange colour. Eg. I’d like a glass of water, please. /aid//laikə//gla:səf//wɔtə//pli:z/ (audio symbol)Ex B: Listen to the audio carefully. Circle the phrase be- ing said. • In words where the alphabet R comes after a vowel sound, the /r/ 1. a) pet centre b) pets enter sound is not produced. 2. a)ice-cream b) I scream Eg. Doctor /dɔktə/ Car /ka:/ 3. a)called Annie b)call Danny December /disembə/ 4. a)clocks tops b)clock stops 5. a)Mr. Knight b)missed a night LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 46 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 47Consultree_demo2i.indd 48-49 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 26. Unit 5: Sentence Stress Ex C: The word ‘rise’ is ‘hidden’ in this sentence ‘Her eyes are open’. The words in the box are hidden in the sentences below. Find and underline them and write the hidden word beside the sentence. • We stress the words that are important to a sentence. Eg. Anita is a doctor. (audio symbol) Listen to the audio and check again. Wait rage winter yours reach years why rise ride wake • There are some common expressions with fixed pronunciation (arrange the following into columns side by side to save space. You 1. Are you into golf? 2. She has a shower each morning. oOo 3. Has hair over the ears. Good morning 4. It’s starting to ache. Excuse me! 5. I’m not sure I’d agree with you. How are you? 6. You should know better at your age! OoO 7. Do I owe you anything? What’s your 8. It’s quarter to eight already. name? 9. Her eyes are a strange colour. Thanks a lot. Close the door. (audio symbol) Ex D: Think of a computer which people speak into and it writes what they say. This computer wrote these sentences incorrectly. oOoO Guess from the context which word is wrong, circle it, and write the correct word. Its time to go. Eg. Watch your name? (circle ‘watch’) ___What’s___ I spoke to John. 1. I hate going to museums and arc galleries. A cup of tea. 2. Have you ever tribe Belgian beer? OoOo 3. I got ache questions correct out of ten. See you later! 4. She’s a good player and can wing games against most people. Just a moment. Pleased to meet you. 5. He copied the text lime by line. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 48 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 49Consultree_demo2i.indd 50-51 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 27. OOo Ex A: Denote the stress patterns of the following sentences using O for No problem! stress and o for no stress. Don’t worry. 1. The bus was late. Keep quiet! 2. What did she say? OOoo 3. It’s cold and wet. How much is it? 4. Nice to see you. What time is it? 5. Good evening! What day was it? 6. What do you want? OooO 7. Just a moment. What do you do? 8. Is it time to go? How do you do? 9. Close the door. What do you want? 10. How much is it? ooOo Ex B: Underline the words that should be emphasized in the following Can you help me? conversations. Was it raining? 1. A: I’ll win. There’s a problem. B: No, I’ll win. A: You won’t win. ooOoO B: Well, you’ll lose! Would you like a drink? 2. A: You’re stupid. Do you want to come? B: I’m not. A: Yes you are. Is it time to go? B: You’re stupid. A: No, I’m intelligent. • We stress certain words for the sake of emphasis. 3. A: The exam was easy. • Eg. I AM driving slowly! B: It was very difficult! You WILL pass. A: But not too hard. B: Too hard for me. Switch off your phone NOW! A: But you’re so clever. B: You’re the clever one. LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 50 LanguEDGE Voice&Accent Exercise & Workbook. Learn, Practice & Apply. 51Consultree_demo2i.indd 52-53 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM
  • 28. consultree TM transforming ideas into capabilities Consultree India Private Limited 10th Floor, ‘Kanchana’. 7/1, Russel Street, Kolkata - 700071 Ph: 033 22177670 - 72 Fax: 033 22177673 Web: www.consultree.in Email: learning@consultree.inConsultree_demo2i.indd 54 1/31/2011 3:56:01 PM

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